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  1. Yee A
    Expert Rev Neurother, 2016;16(2):109-22.
    PMID: 26650624 DOI: 10.1586/14737175.2016.1129901
    Brexpiprazole (OPC-34712) is a novel serotonin-dopamine activity modulator, which has recently been approved by the U.S Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of schizophrenia. The aim of this paper is to systematically synthesize all data of the efficacy, safety and tolerability of Brexpiprazole in treating schizophrenia. The terms 'Brexpiprazole', 'OPC-34712' and 'schizophrenia' were searched. A total of 12 clinical trials with 7 available data records were found. The pooled effect size of Brexpiprazole 1 mg, 2 mg and 4 mg were all superior to placebo in terms of the change from baseline in positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) total score at week 6 (weighted mean difference = -3.74, p = 0.044; weighted mean difference = -5.76, p 
  2. Prakash A, Kalra J, Mani V, Ramasamy K, Majeed AB
    Expert Rev Neurother, 2015 Jan;15(1):53-71.
    PMID: 25495260 DOI: 10.1586/14737175.2015.988709
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common CNS disorder occurring worldwide. There is neither proven effective prevention for AD nor a cure for patients with this disorder. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop safer and more efficacious drugs to help combat the tremendous increase in disease progression. The present review is an attempt at discussing the treatment strategies and drugs under clinical trials governing the modulation of neurotransmitter. Therefore, looking at neurotransmitter abnormalities, there is an urge for developing the pharmacological approaches aimed at correcting those abnormalities and dysfunctioning. In addition, this review also discusses the drugs that are in Phase III trials for the treatment of AD. Despite advances in treatment strategies aimed at correcting neurotransmitter abnormalities, there exists a need for the development of drug therapies focusing on the attempts to remove the pathogenomic protein deposits, thus combating the disease progression.
  3. Shahrizaila N, Yuki N
    Expert Rev Neurother, 2011 Sep;11(9):1305-13.
    PMID: 21864076 DOI: 10.1586/ern.11.114
    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is typically classified into two major subtypes: acute inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy and acute motor axonal neuropathy. Its most recognizable variant is Fisher syndrome. The last two decades have seen considerable advances in our understanding of GBS. Of note, various autoantibodies against ganglioside antigens have been identified and found to have significant associations with the axonal forms of GBS and Fisher syndrome. In this article, we discuss the different clinical presentations in GBS and the role of antiganglioside antibodies in their underlying pathogenesis. We also discuss the impact that antiganglioside antibodies have had in the development of experimental models and treatment modalities in GBS.
  4. Bhidayasiri R, Hattori N, Jeon B, Chen RS, Lee MK, Bajwa JA, et al.
    Expert Rev Neurother, 2015;15(11):1285-97.
    PMID: 26390066 DOI: 10.1586/14737175.2015.1088783
    Most Parkinson's disease patients will receive levodopa therapy, and of these, the majority will develop some levodopa-induced complications. For many patients, the first complication to develop is the decline in the duration of therapeutic benefit of each levodopa dose, a phenomenon commonly termed 'wearing-off'. There is already extensive literature documenting the epidemiology and management of wearing-off in Parkinson's disease patients of western descent. However, data derived from these studies might not always apply to patients of Asian descent due to genetic variations, differences in co-morbidities or non-availability of certain drugs. This review summarizes the current literature regarding the epidemiology of wearing-off in Asian (including Arab) patients and discusses the management issues in the context of drug availability in Asia.
  5. Chaudhuri KR, Rukavina K, McConvey V, Antonini A, Lorenzl S, Bhidayasiri R, et al.
    Expert Rev Neurother, 2021 06;21(6):615-623.
    PMID: 33905283 DOI: 10.1080/14737175.2021.1923480
    Introduction: Although in some countries, palliative care (PC) still remains poorly implemented, its importance throughout the course of Parkinson's disease (PD) is increasingly being acknowledged. With an emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, growing emphasis has been placed on the palliative needs of people with Parkinson's (PwP), particularly elderly, frail, and with comorbidities.Areas covered: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic poses an enormous challenge on aspects of daily living in PwP and might interact negatively with a range of motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS), both directly and indirectly - as a consequence of pandemic-related social and health care restrictions. Here, the authors outline some of the motor and NMS relevant to PC, and propose a pragmatic and rapidly deployable, consensus-based PC approach for PwP during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, potentially relevant also for future pandemics.Expert opinion: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic poses a considerable impact on PwP and their caregivers, ranging from mental health issues to worsening of physical symptoms - both in the short- and long-term, (Long-COVID) and calls for specific, personalized PC strategies relevant in a lockdown setting globally. Validated assessment tools should be applied remotely to flag up particular motor or NMS that require special attention, both in short- and long-term.
  6. Dutta S, Rahman S, Ahmad R, Kumar T, Dutta G, Banerjee S, et al.
    Expert Rev Neurother, 2021 12;21(12):1455-1472.
    PMID: 34756134 DOI: 10.1080/14737175.2021.2003705
    INTRODUCTION: Dementia is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder impairing memory and cognition. Alzheimer's Disease, followed by vascular dementia - the most typical form. Risk factors for vascular dementia include diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia. Lipids' levels are significantly associated with vascular changes in the brain.

    AREAS COVERED: The present article reviews the cholesterol metabolism in the brain, which includes: the synthesis, transport, storage, and elimination process. Additionally, it reviews the role of cholesterol in the pathogenesis of dementia and statin as a therapeutic intervention in dementia. In addition to the above, it further reviews evidence in support of as well as against statin therapy in dementia, recent updates of statin pharmacology, and demerits of use of statin pharmacotherapy.

    EXPERT OPINION: Amyloid-β peptides and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles are markers of Alzheimer's disease. Evidence shows cholesterol modulates the functioning of enzymes associated with Amyloid-β peptide processing and synthesis. Lowering cholesterol using statin may help prevent or delay the progression of dementia. This paper reviews the role of statin in dementia and recommends extensive future studies, including genetic research, to obtain a precise medication approach for patients with dementia.

  7. Javed B, Javed A, Kow CS, Hasan SS
    Expert Rev Neurother, 2023 Jun;23(6):501-514.
    PMID: 37267149 DOI: 10.1080/14737175.2023.2214316
    INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders among the older population. Sleep disruption and circadian rhythm disorders often develop in AD patients, and many experience sleeping difficulties requiring pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions.

    AREAS COVERED: This review appraised the evidence from clinical studies on various pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies for sleep disturbances in AD patients and proposed an algorithm to manage sleep disturbances in this population of patients.

    EXPERT OPINION: Non-pharmacological interventions are generally preferred as the first-line approach to improve sleep-related symptoms in AD due to their favorable safety profile. However, when non-pharmacological interventions alone are insufficient, a range of pharmacological agents can be considered. Trazodone and melatonin are commonly used as adjunctive therapies, while Z-drugs including zopiclone and zolpidem are specifically employed to treat insomnia in patients with late-onset AD. Furthermore, a newer class of agents known as dual orexin receptor antagonists has emerged and gained approval for improving sleep onset and maintenance in AD patients.

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