AREAS COVERED: The present article reviews the cholesterol metabolism in the brain, which includes: the synthesis, transport, storage, and elimination process. Additionally, it reviews the role of cholesterol in the pathogenesis of dementia and statin as a therapeutic intervention in dementia. In addition to the above, it further reviews evidence in support of as well as against statin therapy in dementia, recent updates of statin pharmacology, and demerits of use of statin pharmacotherapy.
EXPERT OPINION: Amyloid-β peptides and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles are markers of Alzheimer's disease. Evidence shows cholesterol modulates the functioning of enzymes associated with Amyloid-β peptide processing and synthesis. Lowering cholesterol using statin may help prevent or delay the progression of dementia. This paper reviews the role of statin in dementia and recommends extensive future studies, including genetic research, to obtain a precise medication approach for patients with dementia.
AREAS COVERED: This review appraised the evidence from clinical studies on various pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies for sleep disturbances in AD patients and proposed an algorithm to manage sleep disturbances in this population of patients.
EXPERT OPINION: Non-pharmacological interventions are generally preferred as the first-line approach to improve sleep-related symptoms in AD due to their favorable safety profile. However, when non-pharmacological interventions alone are insufficient, a range of pharmacological agents can be considered. Trazodone and melatonin are commonly used as adjunctive therapies, while Z-drugs including zopiclone and zolpidem are specifically employed to treat insomnia in patients with late-onset AD. Furthermore, a newer class of agents known as dual orexin receptor antagonists has emerged and gained approval for improving sleep onset and maintenance in AD patients.