Silicon (Si) plays an important role in reducing plant susceptibility against a variety of different biotic and abiotic stresses; and also has an important regulatory role in soil to avoid heavy metal toxicity and providing suitable growing conditions for plants. A full-length cDNAs of 696bp of serine-rich protein was cloned from mangrove plant (Rhizophora apiculata) by amplification of cDNA ends from an expressed sequence tag homologous to groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), submitted to NCBI (KF211374). This serine-rich protein gene encodes a deduced protein of 223 amino acids. The transcript titre of the serine-rich protein was found to be strongly enriched in roots compared with the leaves of two month old mangrove plants and expression level of this serine-rich protein was found to be strongly induced when the mangrove seedlings were exposed to SiO2. Expression of the serine-rich protein transgenic was detected in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana, where the amount of serine increased from 1.02 to 37.8mg/g. The same trend was also seen in Si content in the roots (14.3%) and leaves (7.4%) of the transgenic A. thaliana compared to the wild-type plants under Si treatment. The biological results demonstrated that the accumulation of the serine amino acid in the vegetative tissues of the transgenic plants enhanced their ability to absorb and accumulate more Si in the roots and leaves and suggests that the serine-rich protein gene has potential for use in genetic engineering of different stress tolerance characteristics.
MRQ74, a popular aromatic Malaysian landrace, allows for charging considerably higher prices than non-aromatic landraces. Thus, breeding this profitable trait has become a priority for Malaysian rice breeding. Despite many studies on aroma genetics, ambiguities considering its genetic basis remain. It has been observed that identifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs) based on anchor markers, particularly candidate genes controlling a trait of interest, can increase the power of QTL detection. Hence, this study aimed to locate QTLs that influence natural variations in rice scent using microsatellites and candidate gene-based sequence polymorphisms. For this purpose, an F2 mapping population including 189 individual plants was developed by MRQ74 crosses with 'MR84', a non-scented Malaysian accession. Additionally, qualitative and quantitative approaches were applied to obtain a phenotype data framework. Consequently, we identified two QTLs on chromosomes 4 and 8. These QTLs explained from 3.2% to 39.3% of the total fragrance phenotypic variance. In addition, we could resolve linkage group 8 by adding six gene-based primers in the interval harboring the most robust QTL. Hence, we could locate a putative fgr allele in the QTL found on chromosome 8 in the interval RM223-SCU015RM (1.63cM). The identified QTLs represent an important step toward recognition of the rice flavor genetic control mechanism. In addition, this identification will likely accelerate the progress of the use of molecular markers for gene isolation, gene-based cloning, and marker-assisted selection breeding programs aimed at improving rice cultivars.
Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), encoded by the BTK gene, is a cytoplasmic protein critical in B cell development. Mutations in the BTK gene cause X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), a primary immunodeficiency with characteristically low or absent B cells and antibodies. This report describes a five year-old boy who presented with otitis externa, arthritis, reduced immunoglobulins and no B cells. Flow cytometry showed undetectable monocyte BTK expression. Sequencing revealed a novel mutation at exon 13 of the BTK gene which created a de novo splice site with a proximal 5 nucleotide loss resulting in a truncated BTK protein. The patient still suffered from ear infection despite intravenous immunoglobulin replacement therapy. In this study, mosaicism was seen only in the mother's genomic DNA. These results suggest that a combination of flow cytometry and BTK gene analysis is important for XLA diagnosis and carrier screening.
This is the first documentation of the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Malaysian Mahseer, Tor tambroides. The 16,690 bp mitogenome with GenBank accession number JX444718 contains 13 protein genes, 22 tRNAs, two rRNAs, and a noncoding control region (D-loop) as is typical of most vertebrates. The phylogenomic reconstruction of this newly generated data with 21 Cypriniformes GenBank accession ID concurs with the recognized status of T. tambroides within the subfamily Cyprininae. This is in agreement with previous hypotheses based on morphological and partial mitochondrial analyses.
The Kelantanese Malays who resided in the remote northeastern regions of the Malay Peninsula in the Kelantan state are believed to have a unique genetic signature. The objective of this review is to analyze the populational sub-structure of the Kelantanese Malays from historical, genetic and linguistic perspectives. Historical data suggest that the Semang were composed of the Jahai, Bateq and Kensiu sub-tribes, whereas the Senoi were composed of only the Temiar sub-tribe. The Mendriq sub-tribe is believed to be the first group of aborigines to land in Kelantan. Subsequently, genetic analysis showed that the Kelantanese Malays are an independent clade at the base of the phylogenetic tree and contain genetic material similar to that of the Semang, specifically the Jahai and the Kensiu sub-tribes. The genetic data are supported by the fact that the Aslian language, a branch of the Austroasiatic languages that is widely spoken by the Semang, was potentially transmitted through agricultural activities. However, the potential limitation of this mini-review is the lack of primary reliable sources covering the historical, linguistic and genetic features of the Kelantanese Malays.
Bacillus lehensis G1 is a Gram-positive, moderately alkalitolerant bacterium isolated from soil samples. B. lehensis produces cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase), an enzyme that has enabled the extensive use of cyclodextrin in foodstuffs, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The genome sequence of B. lehensis G1 consists of a single circular 3.99 Mb chromosome containing 4017 protein-coding sequences (CDSs), of which 2818 (70.15%) have assigned biological roles, 936 (23.30%) have conserved domains with unknown functions, and 263 (6.55%) have no match with any protein database. Bacillus clausii KSM-K16 was established as the closest relative to B. lehensis G1 based on gene content similarity and 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis. A total of 2820 proteins from B. lehensis G1 were found to have orthologues in B. clausii, including sodium-proton antiporters, transport proteins, and proteins involved in ATP synthesis. A comparative analysis of these proteins and those in B. clausii and other alkaliphilic Bacillus species was carried out to investigate their contributions towards the alkalitolerance of the microorganism. The similarities and differences in alkalitolerance-related genes among alkalitolerant/alkaliphilic Bacillus species highlight the complex mechanism of pH homeostasis. The B. lehensis G1 genome was also mined for proteins and enzymes with potential viability for industrial and commercial purposes.
Andrographis paniculata Nees. (AP) is a self-pollinated medicinal herb with a wide range of pharmaceutical properties, facing a low diversity in Malaysia. Cross-pollination of AP accessions leads to considerable rates of heterosis in the agro-morphological characteristics and anticancer phytochemicals of this eminent medicinal herb. However, the poor crossability of the plant at the interpopulation or intraspecific levels is an obstacle from the evolutionary and breeding points of view as an average of 4.56% crossability was recorded for AP in this study. Hence, this research aimed to elicit the impact of parental genetic distances (GDs) on the rate of crossability of AP using seven accessions in 21 possible cross combinations. To this end, a set of 55 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers and a total of 13 agro-morphological markers were employed to test the hypothesis. Twenty-two out of the 55 RAPD primers amplified a total of 257 bands of which 107 bands were found to be polymorphic. The principal component analysis (PCA) based on the RAPD markers revealed that the studied AP accessions were distributed to three distinct groups. Furthermore, it was noticed that even a minor increase in GD between two parents can cause a decline in their crossability. Unlike, the morphological-based GDs acted neutrally to crossability. This finding suggests that, despite the low genetic diversity among the Malaysian APs, a population prescreening using RAPD markers would be useful to enhance the rate of fruit set through selecting the genetically adjacent parents.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major health problem worldwide and it will rapidly increase. This disease is characterized by hyperglycemia caused by defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. DM has three types: T1DM, T2M and gestational DM (GDM), of them T2DM is more frequent. Multiple genes and their interactions are involved in insulin secretion pathway. Sulfonylurea receptor encoded by ABCC8 gene, together with inward-rectifier potassium ion channel (Kir6.2) regulates insulin secretion by ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channel located in the plasma membranes. Disruption of these molecules by different mutations is responsible for risk of DM. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ABCC8 gene and their interaction are involved in pathogenicity of DM. This review summarizes the current evidence of contribution of ABC8 genetic variants to the development of DM.
A preliminary linkage map was constructed by applying backcross and testcross strategy using microsatellite (SSR) markers developed for Xiphophorus and Poecilia reticulata in ornamental fish, molly Poecilia sp. The linkage map having 18 SSR loci consisted of four linkage groups that spanned a map size of 516.1cM. Association between genotypes and phenotypes was tested in a random fashion and QTL for dorsal fin length was found to be linked to locus Msb069 on linkage group 2. Coincidentally, locus Msb069 was also reported as putative homologue primer pairs containing SSRs repeat motif which encoded hSMP-1, a sex determining locus. Dorsal fin length particularly in males of Poecilia latipinna is an important feature during courtship display. Therefore, we speculate that both dorsal fin length and putative hSMP-1 gene formed a close proximity to male sexual characteristics.
Current viral gene delivery vectors for gene therapy are inefficient due to short-lived transgene expression attributed to the cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) motifs in the transgene. Here we assessed the effects of CpG motif reduction in lentiviral (LV) gene delivery context on the level and duration of reporter gene expression in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, Human Immortalized Myelogenous Leukemia (K562) cells and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The cells were transduced with LV carrying Zero-CpG green fluorescent protein (ZGFP) reporter gene, LV/CMV/ZGFP. The GFP expression was compared to its non CpG-depleted GFP reporter gene LV (LV/CMV/GFP) counterpart. The LV/CMV/ZGFP exhibited prolonged transgene expression in CHO cells and HSCs up to 10 days and 14 days, in the respective cells. This effect was not seen in the transduced K562 cells, which may be due to the DNA hypomethylation status of the cancer cell line. Transgene copy number analysis verified that the GFP expression was not from pseudo-transduction and the transgene remained in the genome of the cells throughout the period of the study. The modest positive effects from the LV/CMV/ZGFP suggest that the reduction of CpG in the LV construct was not substantial to generate higher and more prolonged transgene expression.
Hyperargininemia is a very rare progressive neurometabolic disorder caused by deficiency of hepatic cytosolic arginase I, resulting from mutations in the ARG1 gene. Until now, some mutations were reported worldwide and none of them were of Southeast Asian origins. Furthermore, most reported mutations were point mutations and a few others deletions or insertions.
Receptor for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE) gene polymorphism 2245G/A is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR). However, the mechanism on how it affects the disease development is still unclear.
One of the primary unanswered questions regarding the dispersal of Romani populations concerns the geographical region and/or the Indian caste/tribe that gave rise to the proto-Romani group. To shed light on this matter, 161 Y-chromosomes from Roma, residing in two different provinces of Serbia, were analyzed. Our results indicate that the paternal gene pool of both groups is shaped by several strata, the most prominent of which, H1-M52, comprises almost half of each collection's patrilineages. The high frequency of M52 chromosomes in the two Roma populations examined may suggest that they descend from a single founder that has its origins in the Indian subcontinent. Moreover, when the Y-STR profiles of haplogroup H derived individuals in our Roma populations were compared to those typed in the South Indian emigrants from Malaysia and groups from Madras, Karnataka (Lingayat and Vokkaliga castes) and tribal Soligas, sharing of the two most common haplotypes was observed. These similarities suggest that South India may have been one of the contributors to the proto-Romanis. European genetic signatures (i.e., haplogroups E1b1b1a1b-V13, G2a-P15, I-M258, J2-M172 and R1-M173), on the other hand, were also detected in both groups, but at varying frequencies. The divergent European genetic signals in each collection are likely the result of differential gene flow and/or admixture with the European host populations but may also be attributed to dissimilar endogamous practices following the initial founder effect. Our data also support the notion that a number of haplogroups including G2a-P15, J2a3b-M67(xM92), I-M258 and E1b1b1-M35 were incorporated into the proto-Romani paternal lineages as migrants moved from northern India through Southwestern Asia, the Middle East and/or Anatolia into the Balkans.
Lentivirus (LV) encoding woodchuck posttranscriptional regulatory element (WPRE) and central polypurine tract (cPPT) driven by CMV promoter have been proven to act synergistically to increase both transduction efficiency and gene expression. However, the inclusion of WPRE and cPPT in a lentiviral construct may pose safety risks when administered to human. A simple lentiviral construct driven by an alternative promoter with proven extended duration of gene expression without the two regulatory elements would be free from the risks. In a non-viral gene delivery context, gene expression driven by human polybiquitin C (UbC) promoter resulted in higher and more persistent expression in mouse as compared to cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. In this study, we measured the efficiency and persistency of green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene expression in cells transduced with LV driven by UbC (LV/UbC/GFP) devoid of the WPRE and cPPT in comparison to the established LV construct encoding WPRE and cPPT, driven by CMV promoter (LV/CMV/GFP). However, we found that LV/UbC/GFP was inferior to LV/CMV/GFP in many aspects: (i) the titer of virus produced; (ii) the levels of reporter gene expression when MOI value was standardized; and (iii) the transduction efficiency in different cell types. The duration of reporter gene expression in selected cell lines was also determined. While the GFP expression in cells transduced with LV/CMV/GFP persisted throughout the experimental period of 14 days, expression in cells transduced with LV/UbC/GFP declined by day 2 post-transduction. In summary, the LV driven by the UbC promoter without the WPRE and cPPT does not exhibit enhanced or durable transgene expression.
Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression; Gene Transfer Techniques
Andrographis paniculata (AP) has been stated as a low-diverse, endangered and red-listed plant species. Self-pollinated mating system, being an introduced species and experiencing a bottleneck as well as over exploitation cause such a consequence. Inter and intra-specific hybridizations have been suggested as essential techniques for generating genetic diversity. To test the effect of intra-specific hybridization on diversification and heterosis of AP, seven accessions were outcrossed manually in all 21 possible combinations. Three types of markers including morphological, phytochemical and RAPD markers were employed to evaluate the mentioned hypothesis. The results revealed that hybridization acted as a powerful engine for diversification of AP as it caused heterotic expression of the studied traits, simultaneously. Initially, it seems that additive and non-additive gene effects both can be considered as the genetic basis of heterosis in AP for the investigated traits. Agronomic and morphological traits were differentiated from each other, while positive heterosis was recorded mainly for agronomic traits but not for the morphological traits. Intra-specific hybridization increased the genetic diversity in AP population. Nevertheless, a part of this variation could also be attributed to the negative heterosis. The current exploration demonstrated the first ever conducted manual intra-specific hybridization among AP accessions in a mass scale. However, the 17 RAPD primers produced a monomorph pattern, but perhaps increasing the number of markers can feature a new genetic profile in this plant.
Morphological identification of fish taxa can sometimes prove difficult because phenotypic variation is either being affected by environmental factors, phenotypic characters are highly conserved or marker selection has been inappropriate. DNA based markers especially neutral mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been used widely in recent times to provide better resolution of systematic relationships among vertebrate taxa. The Asian Arowana (Scleropages formosus) is a high value ornamental fish belonging to the family Osteoglossidae with a number of different colour variants distributed geographically across different locations around Southeast Asia. Systematic relationships among colour variants still remain unresolved. Partial sequences of the Cytochrome B (Cyt B) and DNA barcoding gene, Cytochrome C Oxidase I (COI) were used here to assess genetic relationships among colour variants and as a tool for molecular identification for differentiating among colour variants in this species. Results of the study show that in general, colour pattern shows no relationship with extent of COI or Cyt B mtDNA differentiation and so cannot be used to identify taxa. Partial sequences of the mtDNA genes were sufficient however, to identify S. formosus from a closely related species within the order Osteoglossidae.
Haruan (Channa striatus) is in great demand in the Malaysian domestic fish market. In the present study, mtDNA cyt b was used to investigate genetic variation of C. striatus among populations in Peninsular Malaysia. The overall population of C. striatus demonstrated a high level of haplotype diversity (h) and a low-to-moderate level of nucleotide diversity (π). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) results showed a significantly different genetic differentiation among 6 populations (F(ST)=0.37566, P=0.01). Gene flow (Nm) was high and ranged from 0.32469 to infinity (∞). No significant relationship between genetic distance and geographic distance was detected. A UPGMA tree based on the distance matrix of net interpopulation nucleotide divergence (d(A)) and haplotype network of mtDNA cyt b revealed that C. striatus is divided into 2 major clades. The neutrality and mismatch distribution tests for all populations suggested that C. striatus in the study areas had undergone population expansion. The estimated time of population expansion in the mtDNA cyt b of C. striatus populations occurred 0.72-6.19 million years ago. Genetic diversity of mtDNA cyt b and population structure among Haruan populations in Peninsular Malaysia will be useful in fisheries management for standardization for Good Agriculture Practices (GAP) in fish-farming technology, as well as providing the basis for Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP).
The development of fast, reliable and inexpensive phenol protocol is described for the isolation of RNA from bacterial biofilm producers. The method was tested on Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and other biofilm-producing gram-negative microorganisms and provided the highest integrity of RNA recovery in comparison to other methods reported here. In parallel experiments, bacterial lysis with Qiagen, NucleoSpin RNAII, InnuREP RNA Mini, Trizol and MasterPure RNA extraction Kits using standard protocols consistently gave low RNA yields with an absence of integrity. The boiling method presented here yielded high concentration of RNA that was free from 16S and 23S rRNA, contained 5S RNA. Higher yields due to improved biofilm bacterial cell lysis were achieved with an added hot phenol incubation step without the need for a bead mill or the enzyme. This method when used in conjunction with the Qiagen RNeasy Mini kit, RNA isolation was a success with greater integrity and contained undegraded 16S and 23S rRNA and did not require further purification. Contaminating DNA was a problem with the RNA processing samples; we used quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) to measure the recovery of RNA from bacterial biofilm cells using the method described here.
Using a novel library of 5637 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the brain tissue of the Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer), we first characterized the brain transcriptome for this economically important species. The ESTs generated from the brain of L. calcarifer yielded 2410 unique transcripts (UTs) which comprise of 982 consensi and 1428 singletons. Based on database similarity, 1005 UTs (41.7%) can be assigned putative functions and were grouped into 12 functional categories related to the brain function. Amongst others, we have identified genes that are putatively involved in energy metabolism, ion pumps and channels, synapse related genes, neurotransmitter and its receptors, stress induced genes and hormone related genes. Subsequently we selected a putative preprocGnRH-II precursor for further characterization. The complete cDNA sequence of the gene obtained was found to code for an 85-amino acid polypeptide that significantly matched preprocGnRH-II precursor sequences from other vertebrates, and possesses structural characteristics that are similar to that of other species, consisting of a signal peptide (23 residues), a GnRH decapeptide (10 residues), an amidation/proteolytic-processing signal (glycine-lysine-argine) and a GnRH associated peptide (GAP) (49 residues). Phylogenetic analysis showed that this putative L. calcarifer preprocGnRH-II sequence is a member of the subcohort Euteleostei and divergent from the sequences of the subcohort Otocephalan. These findings provide compelling evidence that the putative L. calcarifer preprocGnRH-II precursor obtained in this study is orthologous to that of other vertebrates. The functional prediction of this preprocGnRH-II precursor sequence through in silico analyses emphasizes the effectiveness of the EST approach in gene identification in L. calcarifer.
Termites from the genus Odontotermes are known to contain numerous species complexes that are difficult to tell apart morphologically or with mitochondrial DNA sequences. We developed markers for one such cryptic species complex, that is, Odontotermes srinakarinensis sp. nov. from Maxwell Hill Forest Reserve (Perak, Malaysia), and characterised them using a sample of 41 termite workers from three voucher samples from the same area. We then genotyped 150 termite individuals from 23 voucher samples/colonies of this species complex from several sites in Peninsular Malaysia. We analysed their population by constructing dendograms from the proportion of shared-alleles between individuals and genetic distances between colonies; additionally, we examined the Bayesian clustering pattern of their genotype data. All methods of analysis indicated that there were two distinct clusters within our data set. After the morphologies of specimens from each cluster were reexamined, we were able to separate the two species morphologically and found that a single diagnostic character found on the mandibles of its soldiers could be used to separate the two species quite accurately. The additional species in the clade was identified as Odontotermes denticulatus after it was matched to type specimens at the NHM London and Cambridge Museum of Zoology.