Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 27 in total

  1. Pailoor J, Rajandram R, Yap NY, Ng KL, Wang Z, Iyengar KR
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2013 Apr-Jun;56(2):98-102.
    PMID: 24056643 DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.118688
    Chromosome 7 aberrations in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have been reported in papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) and clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). However, the implication of these anomalies on prognosis and survival is still unclear. RCC Chromosome 7 aberrations have commonly been detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization and chromogenic in situ hybridization but not silver in situ hybridization (SISH).
  2. Zabidi MA, Yusoff NM, Kader ZS
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2012 Jan-Mar;55(1):47-51.
    PMID: 22499300 DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.94855
    Platelets release more than 30 cytokines to provide primary hemostatic function. In addition, platelets are also known to release antimicrobial peptides upon activation by thrombin.
  3. Maraei AA, Hatta AZ, Shiran MS, Tan GC
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2012 Apr-Jun;55(2):187-91.
    PMID: 22771641 DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.97865
    Ovarian cancer is the 6 th most common cancer among women. In ovarian tumors, the borderline category is not well defined due to the difficulty in assessing stromal invasion. The World Health Organization (WHO) defined it as tumor that lacks obvious invasion of the stroma with mitotic activity and nuclear abnormalities intermediate between clearly benign and unquestionably malignant. Telomerase is expressed in many human cancers and is hence a potential biomarker for cancer. Immunohistochemical study of anti-human telomerase enzyme reverse transcriptase (hTERT) antibody allows direct visualization of its expression. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of hTERT and serum CA-125 level in ovarian epithelial tumors, and their ability to distinguish borderline tumor from malignancy.
  4. Kumar DH, Kutty MK
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2012 Apr-Jun;55(2):147-53.
    PMID: 22771633 DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.97842
    Cancer is fundamentally a cellular genetic disease capable of transferring the "disease" to the next generation of mutated cells. Similar proliferative and information transferring capacity exists in the stem cells of various organ systems in the human body. Understanding the bio-mechanism of stem cell metabolism and its regulation by signaling molecules and extracellular micro-environment is an important step toward successful prevention and treatment of cancer. According to the cancer stem cell hypothesis, both hereditary and sporadic cancers can arise from deregulation of these cancer stem cells (CSCs), triggered by genetic and environmental factors. It is shown that deregulation of normal self-renewal pathways in undifferentiated breast stem cells or progenitor cells had altered mammary system or progenitor cells, resulting in abnormally differentiated cells in human and rodent breast cancer cell lines. Breakthroughs in molecular pathways have important therapeutic implications. Hence, significant stress is laid on targeting signaling molecules and their micromilieu in breast cancer therapy.
  5. Al-Joudi FS, Kaid FA, Ishak I, Mohamed N, Osman K, Alias IZ
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2011 Apr-Jun;54(2):284-9.
    PMID: 21623075 DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.81596
    Human mammaglobin (hMAG) is a secreted protein which has been detected in breast epithelial cells of mammary glands and has been used as a specific marker for breast cancer.
  6. Ciraj AM, Vinod P, Ramnarayan K
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2010 Oct-Dec;53(4):729-33.
    PMID: 21045402 DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.72058
    Case-based learning (CBL) is an interactive student-centered exploration of real life situations. This paper describes the use of CBL as an educational strategy for promoting active learning in microbiology.
  7. Gupta A, Srilatha PS, Suvarna N, Rao L
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2011 Jan-Mar;54(1):156-7.
    PMID: 21393904 DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.77384
    Deep penetrating nevus (DPN) is a variant of melanocytic nevus which goes unrecognized due to its relative rarity and may be misinterpreted as malignant melanoma. It commonly presents in young adults as a dark pigmented lesion on the face, neck, or shoulder. A 60-year-old lady presented with a mole over the left arm of 8 years duration. A biopsy of the lesion was performed under the clinical impression of a compound nevus with suspicion of malignancy. Based on the histologic features, a diagnosis of DPN was put forward.
  8. Naik VR, Jaafar H, Seng CE
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2010 Jan-Mar;53(1):12-4.
    PMID: 20090214 DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.59175
    The purpose of this study was to count the number of lymphatic channels present in colorectal adenocarcinoma and correlate it with site, size, and stage of tumor, lymph node metastasis.
  9. Tan GC, Norlatiffah S, Sharifah NA, Razmin G, Shiran MS, Hatta AZ, et al.
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2010 Jan-Mar;53(1):1-6.
    PMID: 20090212 DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.59173
    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer affecting Malaysian women. Despite the implementation of pap smear screening, many women are still diagnosed only in the advanced stage of cervical cancer. This could partly be due to failure of detection of its precursor lesions; hence the need to search for novel biomarkers to assist in the screening and diagnosis of cervical neoplasia. This study aims to determine the expression of p16INK4A and survivin as possible predictive biomarkers in cervical squamous neoplasm.
  10. Gokulshankar S, Ranjitsingh A, Venkatesan G, Ranjith MS, Vijayalakshmi GS, Prabhamanju M, et al.
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2010 Jan-Mar;53(1):87-92.
    PMID: 20090230 DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.59191
    The protease activity of different isolates of dermatophytes representing different ecological groups namely geophilic, zoopahilic and anthropophilic, in their vegetative and sporulation growth phases were compared. Unlike their geophilic and zoophilic counterparts, all the isolates of anthropophilic dermatophytes viz. Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans, T. violaceum and Epidermophyton floccosum recorded reduced protease activity during artificially induced sporulation phase in comparison to their vegetative growth phase. Even among the anthropophilic group, a classical moderation of protease activity was recorded in Trichyphyton rubrum which also correlates to its clinical manifestation. This enzyme moderation could also be an evolutionary adaptation of the anthropization of these species.
  11. Naik VR, Wan Faiziah WA, Musa MY
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2009 1 13;52(1):86-7.
    PMID: 19136792
    Choristoma is a benign tumor where new bone formation occurs. It occurs exclusively in the flat bones of the skull and face. These are slow growing lesions that are usually completely asymptomatic and only present when there is a disruption in the function of the organ due to its large size as it grows. These choristomas can rarely occur in soft tissues especially in the head, eye, tongue, or extremities. Choristomas of the soft tissues are very rare. Only 61 cases of choristomas of the tongue have been reported in literature. Here we report a case of choristoma in the base of the tongue in a 25-year-old Malay female.
  12. Srilatha PS, Roy A
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2007 Oct;50(4):819-21.
    PMID: 18306568
    Well differentiated villoglandular adenocarcinoma of uterine cervix is a rare tumour which usually occurs in young women. It is considered to be an indolent tumour with favorable prognosis and most of them were treated by conservative procedures. We report a 35 year old lady who came with complaints of 3 months amenorrhoea and an episode of spontaneous bleeding. Urine pregnancy test was negative. Physical examination revealed a cervical polyp. Histopathological findings were consistent with villoglandular papillary adenocarcinoma associated with high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN-3). Left parametrial and left ureteral involvement, proved by biopsy, causing left hydroureteronephrosis was detected. The patient was thus found to be in an advanced stage, stage- III b (FIGO). The patient is currently undergoing radiotherapy. A review of literature showed that only occasional cases showing disease spread have been reported, suggesting caution in the management and regular follow up of the patient.
  13. Aznal SS, Meng FG, Nalliah S, Tay A, Chinniah K, Jamli MF
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2012 Oct-Dec;55(4):450-5.
    PMID: 23455778 DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.107778
    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is associated with menopause and changes in the proteins of the pelvic supporting system, but there is scant data on the precise alterations in Malaysian women.
  14. Baig MA, Swamy KB
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2021 1 13;64(1):123-127.
    PMID: 33433421 DOI: 10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_900_19
    Background: In the laboratory, factor VIII can be measured by three different methodologies, such as one-stage clotting assay, two-stage clotting assay, and chromogenic assay. These assays differ in ease of use, variety of reagents available, sensitivity to mild hemophilia A, and interference from lupus anticoagulants (LACs). Certain factor VIII gene mutations can cause discrepancy in results between one-stage activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and chromogenic assays.

    Materials and Methods: The coagulometer for factor VIII assay is Sysmex CS-5100. All data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD).

    Results: A total of 135 cases were studied. Of these, 100 cases were of mild hemophilia A diagnosed by molecular genetics and, 15 cases were positive for LAC, which were confirmed by dilute Russell Viper venom test. Clot-based one-stage APTT assay showed 65% sensitivity and 80% specificity in diagnosing mild hemophilia A cases and out of 15 LAC cases, it showed false positivity in five cases. Chromogenic assay showed 85% sensitivity and 90% specificity in diagnosing mild hemophilia cases and was 100% specific in excluding LAC cases.

    Conclusions: One-stage APTT assay is the most commonly used test for determining factor VIII levels but chromogenic assay are considered as the gold standard and recommended as the reference method by European Pharmacopoeia and ISTH subcommittee. Mild hemophilia A patients with missense mutations show discrepancy between the one-stage clot-based APTT assay and chromogenic assays for determination of factor VIII level and this can lead to misdiagnosis or misclassification of mild hemophilia A. Therefore, it is recommended that both the assays should be used in the evaluation of mild hemophilia cases.

  15. Tan GC, Chandramaya SF, Noordin A, S Tay PY
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2021 1 13;64(1):171-173.
    PMID: 33433434 DOI: 10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_670_19
    Collision tumor consists of two tumors occurring in the same organ without intermixture of the two cell types. The most common type of collision tumor in ovary is between teratoma and surface epithelial tumor. A 38-year-old woman presented with complained of lower abdominal pain and tightness, and a solid partially cystic left ovarian mass with minimal ascites was detected. Left salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. The ovarian mass measured 15 × 12 × 7 cm with a pedunculated mass on its surface which measured 6 × 2.5 × 2.5 cm. Histologically, it was a collision tumor of fibroma and mature cystic teratoma. Fibroma becomes more edematous as their size increases, which is frequently accompanied by the escape of increasing quantities of fluid from the tumor surfaces. Ascites is often detected when the fibroma is more than a diameter of 10 cm. It is important to identify the different components of a collision tumor for proper management.
  16. Haragannavar VC, Tegginamani AS, Raju S, Kudva S, Peter CD, Shruthi DK
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2019 2 2;62(1):3-6.
    PMID: 30706851 DOI: 10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_403_18
    Background: FHIT (Fragile histidine triad) a member of tumor suppressor family, has been extensively studied in many solid tumors including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Among all head and neck cyst and tumors odontogenic lesions account approximately 3%-9%. The molecular pathogenesis of these lesions is less explored. Defects in cell cycle regulators and tumor suppressor genes could result in the development of odontogenic cyst and tumors. Hence, we aimed to determine the significant role of a tumor suppressor gene FHIT in most commonly occurring odontogenic lesions mainly ameloblastoma, odontogenic keratocyst and dentigerous cyst.

    Subjects and Methods: Immunohistochemical analysis of FHIT was done in ameloblastoma, odontogenic keratocyst, dentigerous cyst and dental follicle. Interpretation of the stained slides were done using standard scoring criteria by two pathologist. The results were subjected for statistical analysis.

    Results: Expression of FHIT varied among the groups, with highest negative expression in ameloblastoma 44.4% followed by odontogenic keratocyst 14% and 100%positive expression was seen in dentigerous cyst. The expression levels between the groups were statistically insignificant.

    Conclusion: The varied expression or negative expression of FHIT could be considered as an indicator for aggressive behavior and transformation of preneoplastic/cystic epithelium.

  17. Muhammad Sakri MS, Abdul Rahman WFW, Tengku Din TADA, Idris FM, Jaafar H
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2020 4 23;63(2):205-209.
    PMID: 32317516 DOI: 10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_496_19
    Background: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) are major endothelial growth factor receptors that influence the growth of a tumor. Microvessel density.

    (: MVD) is the quantification method of various aspects of tumor vasculature that indicates angiogenic activity. This study aims to analyze the correlation between MVD to the expression of VEGFRs on breast cancer tissue.

    Materials and Method: A total of 60 N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced breast carcinomas in rats were suppressed by using antiangiogenic drugs. The rats were then sacrificed, and the tumor was fixed in 10% formalin, paraffin embedded, and immunohistochemistry stained using VEGFRs and CD34.

    Result: One-way ANOVA test showed a significant difference in all markers that have been used (P < 0.05) on MNU-breast tumor treated with rapamycin (M= 90.1664, SD= 7.4487), PF4 (M= 93.7946, SD= 7.1303) and rapamycin + PF4 (M= 93.6990, SD= 1.8432). We obtained a significant reduction of MVD count on breast carcinoma for rapamycin group (M= 25.6786, SD= 9.7075) and rapamycin + PF4 group (M= 30.5250, SD= 13.6928) while PF4 group (M=47.7985, SD=4.8892) showed slightly increase compared to control (M= 45.1875, SD= 4.4786). There was a moderately strong, positive correlation between angiogenic markers; Flt-1 (r= 0.544, n=60, P < 0.005) and Flt-4 (r= 0.555, n= 60, P < 0.005) while Flk-1 (r= 0.797, n= 60, P < 0.005) showed a strong, positive correlation with MVD.

    Conclusion: MVD was strongly correlated to the VEGFRs expression on breast carcinoma.

  18. Win TT, Othman NH, Mohamad I
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2017 Apr-Jun;60(2):167-171.
    PMID: 28631629 DOI: 10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_457_16
    INTRODUCTION: Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) is a rare aggressive malignancy of thyroid follicular cells and has unique features in morphology and behavior. This study was aimed to describe the experience of a tertiary medical center with PDTC within a 10-year period.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a descriptive retrospective study of eight cases of PDTC among 418 various thyroid carcinomas. All cases of PDTC were retrieved along with the clinicopathological information.

    RESULTS: Only eight cases (1.9%) of PDTC were diagnosed among 418 thyroid carcinomas. Mean age was 48.12 with 3:5 (male:female) and tumor size ranged 3-12 cm. PDTC were diagnosed coexisting with one or more other pathologies; nodular hyperplasia (four cases), papillary carcinoma (one case), follicular carcinoma (three cases), and Hashimoto thyroiditis (two cases); with ≥60% PDTC component. Six cases associated with high-grade features died within 3 years after diagnosis.

    DISCUSSION: Mean age in this study was younger including a 20-year-old girl. Younger age was associated with better prognosis. Most of the cases had underlying benign thyroid lesions and differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Most of the PDTC had poor prognosis associated with PDTC component ≥60%, tumor necrosis, high mitotic count, lymph node involvement, vascular invasion and distant metastasis; and these cases died within 3 years after diagnosis.

    CONCLUSION: Although treatment of PDTC remains surgery followed by radioiodine therapy, correct histopathological diagnosis is important for clinicians and oncologists to predict the prognosis. All thyroid carcinoma should be sampled thoroughly not to miss small foci of PDTC component.
  19. Ciraj AM, Vinod P, Sreejith G, Rajani K
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2009 1 13;52(1):49-51.
    PMID: 19136780
    INTRODUCTION: Clinical failure of clindamycin therapy has been reported due to multiple mechanisms that confer resistance to macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin antibiotics. This study was undertaken to detect the presence of inducible clindamycin resistance among clinical isolates of staphylococci.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The detection of inducible clindamycin resistance was performed by D-test using erythromycin and clindamycin discs as per CDC guidelines.

    RESULTS: Among the 244 clinical isolates of staphylococci studied, 32 (13.1%) showed inducible clindamycin resistance and belonged to the MLSBi phenotype. Among the MLS B i phenotypes, 10 isolates were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (38.4% of the total MRSA), 16 were methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (12.9% of the total MSSA) and 6 were coagulase-negative staphylococci (6.3% of the total CONS).

    CONCLUSION: The test for inducible resistance to clindamycin should be included in the routine antibiotic susceptibility testing, as it will help in guiding therapy.

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