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  1. Sarker MM, Zhong M
    Indian J Pharmacol, 2014 Jan-Feb;46(1):40-5.
    PMID: 24550583 DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.125164
    Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) is a popular tumor vaccine carrier protein and an immunostimulant. The present study aimed to investigate the immunoregulatory activity of KLH on cytotoxicity, cytokines production, and proliferation of natural killer (NK) cells. Moreover, antiproliferative activity of KLH on Meth A sarcoma cells was studied.
  2. Shaik MM, Gan SH
    Indian J Pharmacol, 2013 Mar-Apr;45(2):159-67.
    PMID: 23716893 DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.108303
    Hyperhomocysteinemia and vitamins B(6), B(9), and B(12) deficiencies usually result in various neurological, vascular, ocular, renal, and pulmonary abnormalities. However, to date, there are no simultaneous detection methods available for determining homocysteine, vitamins B(6), B(9), and B(12) levels in various biological fluids. In this study, we aim to develop a new validated simultaneous detection method for all four compounds to save both cost and time of analysis.
  3. Lim CT
    Indian J Pharmacol, 2016 May-Jun;48(3):327-8.
    PMID: 27298508 DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.182875
    Oral sodium phosphate (OSP), an effective bowel purgative, is available over the counter (OTC) and requires a substantially lower volume than polyethylene glycol-based preparative agents. Rarely, OSP consumption has been associated with acute hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. We describe a case of chronic kidney disease patient developing symptomatic hypocalcemia following OTC OSP.
  4. Ahmad A, Sattar MA, Rathore HA, Khan SA, Lazhari MI, Afzal S, et al.
    Indian J Pharmacol, 2015 May-Jun;47(3):243-7.
    PMID: 26069359 DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.157106
    In the family of gas transmitters, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is yet not adequately researched. Known for its rotten egg smell and adverse effects on the brain, lungs, and kidneys for more than 300 years, the vasorelaxant effects of H2S on blood vessel was first observed in 1997. Since then, research continued to explore the possible therapeutic effects of H2S in hypertension, inflammation, pancreatitis, different types of shock, diabetes, and heart failure. However, a considerable amount of efforts are yet needed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the therapeutic effects of H2S, such as nitric oxide-dependent or independent vasodilation in hypertension and regression of left ventricular hypertrophy. More than a decade of good repute among researchers, H2S research has certain results that need to be clarified or reevaluated. H2S produces its response by multiple modes of action, such as opening the ATP-sensitive potassium channel, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, and calcium channel blockade. H2S is endogenously produced from two sulfur-containing amino acids L-cysteine and L-methionine by the two enzymes cystathionine γ lyase and cystathionine β synthase. Recently, the third enzyme, 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfur transferase, along with cysteine aminotransferase, which is similar to aspartate aminotransferase, has been found to produce H2S in the brain. The H2S has interested researchers, and a great deal of information is being generated every year. This review aims to provide an update on the developments in the research of H2S in hypertension amid the ambiguity in defining the exact role of H2S in hypertension because of insufficient number of research results on this area. This critical review on the role of H2S in hypertension will clarify the gray areas and highlight its future prospects.
  5. Patel I, Rarus R, Tan X, Lee EK, Guy J, Ahmad A, et al.
    Indian J Pharmacol, 2015;47(6):585-93.
    PMID: 26729947 DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.169592
    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is an important branch of pharmacoeconomics that systematically studies and evaluates the cost-effectiveness of medical interventions. CER plays instrumental roles in guiding government public health policy programs and insurance. Countries throughout the world use different methods of CER to help make medical decisions based on providing optimal therapy at a reduced cost. Expenses to the healthcare system continue to rise, and CER is one-way in which expenses could be curbed in the future by applying cost-effectiveness evidence to clinical decisions. China, India, South Korea, and the United Kingdom are of essential focus because these country's economies and health care expenses continue to expand. The structures and use of CER are diverse throughout these countries, and each is of prime importance. By conducting this thorough comparison of CER in different nations, strategies and organizational setups from different countries can be applied to help guide public health and medical decision-making in order to continue to expand the establishment and role of CER programs. The patient-centered medical home has been created to help reduce costs in the primary care sector and to help improve the effectiveness of therapy. Barriers to CER are also important as many stakeholders need to be able to work together to provide the best CER evidence. The advancement of CER in multiple countries throughout the world provides a possible way of reducing costs to the healthcare system in an age of expanding expenses.
  6. Ahmad A, Patel I, Asani H, Jagadeesan M, Parimalakrishnan S, Selvamuthukumaran S
    Indian J Pharmacol, 2015 Jan-Feb;47(1):90-4.
    PMID: 25821318 DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.150360
    Antithrombotic therapy with heparin plus antiplatelets reduces the rate of ischemic events in patients with coronary heart disease. Low molecular weight heparin has a more predictable anticoagulant effect than standard unfractionated heparin, is easier to administer, does not require monitoring and is associated with less ADRs. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare the clinical and cost outcomes of Enoxaparin with a standard unfractionated heparin in patients with coronary heart disease.
  7. Kamilla L, Ramanathan S, Sasidharan S, Mansor SM
    Indian J Pharmacol, 2014 Sep-Oct;46(5):515-20.
    PMID: 25298581 DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.140583
    Clitoria ternatea Linn. (C. ternatea) is an Ayurvedic herb traditionally used as medicine to relieve inflammatory, rheumatism, ear diseases, fever, arthritis, eye ailments, sore throat and body ache. This study aims to evaluate and elucidate the possible mechanism underlying the antinociceptive action of methanolic extracts of C. ternatea leaf and root using several antinociception models.
  8. Kadir FA, Othman F, Abdulla MA, Hussan F, Hassandarvish P
    Indian J Pharmacol, 2011 Feb;43(1):64-8.
    PMID: 21455425 DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.75673
    This study was conducted to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of the dried stems of Tinospora crispa in a male rat model of hepatic fibrosis caused by the hepatotoxin, thioacetamide.
  9. Nassar I, Pasupati T, Judson JP, Segarra I
    Indian J Pharmacol, 2009 Aug;41(4):167-72.
    PMID: 20523867 DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.56071
    PURPOSE: Imatinib is an efficacious drug against chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) due to selective inhibition of c-KIT and BCR-ABL kinases. It presents almost complete bioavailability, is eliminated via P450-mediated metabolism and is well tolerated. However, a few severe drug-drug interactions have been reported in cancer patients taking acetaminophen.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male ICR mice were given 100 mg/kg single dose of imatinib orally or imatinib 100 mg/kg (orally) coadministered with acetaminophen intraperitoneally (700 mg/kg). Mice were euthanized at predetermined time points, blood samples collected, and imatinib plasma concentration measured by HPLC.
    RESULTS: Imatinib AUC(0-12) was 27.04 +/- 0.38 mg.h/ml, C(max) was 7.21 +/- 0.99 mg/ml and elimination half-life was 2.3 hours. Acetaminophen affected the imatinib disposition profile: AUC(0-12) and C(max) decreased 56% and 59%, respectively and a longer half-life was observed (5.6 hours).
    CONCLUSIONS: The study shows a pharmacokinetic interaction between acetaminophen and imatinib which may render further human studies necessary if both drugs are administered concurrently to cancer patients.
  10. Sasidharan S, Darah I, Noordin MK
    Indian J Pharmacol, 2008 Oct;40(5):227-9.
    PMID: 20040962 DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.44155
    To isolate the active fraction from crude extract of Gracilaria changii and to determine its in vitro antifungal activity.
  11. Ibrahim IA, Yusof K, Ismail NM, Fahami NA
    Indian J Pharmacol, 2008 Mar;40(2):73-7.
    PMID: 21279170 DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.41042
    Stress can lead to various changes in the gastrointestinal tract of rats. The present study was designed to compare the effect of palm vitamin E (PVE) and α-tocopherol (α-TF) supplementations on the gastric parameters important in maintaining gastric mucosal integrity in rats exposed to water immersion restraint stress (WRS). These parameters include gastric acidity, plasma gastrin level, gastric prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and gastric lesions.
  12. Seong CL, Shanmuganathan M
    Indian J Pharmacol, 2016 Nov-Dec;48(6):739-740.
    PMID: 28066119 DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.194848
    Ibuprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is used widely in treating pain, fever, and inflammation. Its side effects are mainly due to acute renal impairment and gastric discomfort. We hereby report a rare case of Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis secondary to ibuprofen consumption which has not been reported in literature before.
  13. Chigurupati S, Shaikh SA, Mohammad JI, Selvarajan KK, Nemala AR, Khaw CH, et al.
    Indian J Pharmacol, 2017 10 17;49(3):229-235.
    PMID: 29033482 DOI: 10.4103/ijp.IJP_293_16
    OBJECTIVES: In this study, three (CS-1 to CS-3) azomethine derivatives of cinnamaldehyde were green synthesized, characterized, and their antioxidant and antidepressant activities were explored.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antioxidant effect of these compounds was initially performed in vitro using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assay methods before subjecting them to in vivo experiments. Compounds showing potent antioxidant activity (CS-1 and CS-2) were investigated further for their antidepressant activity using the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Ascorbic acid (AA) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, p.o) were used as reference drugs for comparison in the antioxidant and antidepressant experiments, respectively.

    RESULTS: It was observed that CS-2 and CS-3 exhibited highest DPPH (half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50]: 16.22 and 25.18 μg/mL) and ABTS (IC50: 17.2 and 28.86 μg/mL) radical scavenging activity, respectively, compared to AA (IC50: 15.73 and 16.79 μg/mL) and therefore, both CS-2 and CS-3 were tested for their antidepressant effect using FST and TST as experimental models. Pretreatment of CS-2 and CS-3 (20 mg/kg) for 10 days considerably decreased the immobility time in both the FST and TST models.

    CONCLUSION: The antioxidant and antidepressant effect of CS-2 and CS-3 may be attributed to the presence of azomethine linkage in the molecule.

  14. Gubbiyappa KS, Barua A, Das B, Vasudeva Murthy CR, Baloch HZ
    Indian J Pharmacol, 2016 Oct;48(Suppl 1):S41-S46.
    PMID: 28031607 DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.193313
    OBJECTIVES: Flipped classroom (FC) is a pedagogical model to engage students in learning process by replacing the didactic lectures. Using technology, lectures are moved out of the classroom and delivered online as means to provide interaction and collaboration. Poll Everywhere is an audience response system (ARS) which can be used in an FC to make the activities more interesting, engaging, and interactive. This study aims to study the perception of undergraduate pharmacy students on FC activity using Poll Everywhere ARS and to study the effectiveness of FC activity as a teaching-learning tool for delivering complementary medicine module in the undergraduate pharmacy program.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this nonrandomized trial on interrupted time series study, flipped class was conducted on group of 112 students of bachelor of pharmacy semester V. The topic selected was popular herbal remedies of the complementary medicine module. Flipped class was conducted with audio and video presentation in the form of a quiz using ten one-best-answer type of multiple-choice questions covering the learning objectives. Audience response was captured using web-based interaction with Poll Everywhere. Feedback was obtained from participants at the end of FC activity and debriefing was done.

    RESULTS: Randomly selected 112 complete responses were included in the final analysis. There were 47 (42%) male and 65 (58%) female respondents. The overall Cronbach's alpha of feedback questionnaire was 0.912. The central tendencies and dispersions of items in the questionnaire indicated the effectiveness of FC. The low or middle achievers of quiz session (pretest) during the FC activity were three times (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-8.9) at the risk of providing neutral or negative feedback than high achievers (P = 0.040). Those who gave neutral or negative feedback on FC activity were 3.9 times (95% CI = 1.3-11.8) at the risk of becoming low or middle achievers during the end of semester examination (P = 0.013). The multivariate analysis of "Agree" or "Disagree" and "Agree" or "Strongly Agree" was statistically significant.

    CONCLUSION: This study provides insight on how the pharmacy students learn and develop their cognitive functions. The results revealed that the FC activity with Poll Everywhere is an effective teaching-learning method.

  15. Shankar PR, Herz BL, Dubey AK, Hassali MA
    Indian J Pharmacol, 2016 Oct;48(Suppl 1):S29-S32.
    PMID: 28031604 DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.193309
    OBJECTIVE: Use of generic medicines is important to reduce rising health-care costs. Proper knowledge and perception of medical students and doctors toward generic medicines are important. Xavier University School of Medicine in Aruba admits students from the United States, Canada, and other countries to the undergraduate medical (MD) program. The present study was conducted to study the knowledge and perception about generic medicines among basic science MD students.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted among first to fifth semester students during February 2015. A previously developed instrument was used. Basic demographic information was collected. Respondent's agreement with a set of statements was noted using a Likert-type scale. The calculated total score was compared among subgroups of respondents. One sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to study the normality of distribution, Independent samples t-test to compare the total score for dichotomous variables, and analysis of variance for others were used for statistical analysis.

    RESULTS: Fifty-six of the 85 students (65.8%) participated. Around 55% of respondents were between 20 and 25 years of age and of American nationality. Only three respondents (5.3%) provided the correct value of the regulatory bioequivalence limits. The mean total score was 43.41 (maximum 60). There was no significant difference in scores among subgroups.

    CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant knowledge gap with regard to the regulatory bioequivalence limits for generic medicines. Respondents' level of knowledge about other aspects of generic medicines was good but could be improved. Studies among clinical students in the institution and in other Caribbean medical schools are required. Deficiencies were noted and we have strengthened learning about generic medicines during the basic science years.

  16. Eachempati P, Kiran Kumar KS, Sumanth KN
    Indian J Pharmacol, 2016 Oct;48(Suppl 1):S25-S28.
    PMID: 28031603 DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.193315
    OBJECTIVES: Blended learning has become the method of choice in educational institutions because of its systematic integration of traditional classroom teaching and online components. This study aims to analyze student's reflection regarding blended learning in dental pharmacology.

    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Faculty of Dentistry, Melaka-Manipal Medical College among 3(rd) and 4(th) year BDS students. A total of 145 dental students, who consented, participate in the study. Students were divided into 14 groups. Nine online sessions followed by nine face-to-face discussions were held. Each session addressed topics related to oral lesions and orofacial pain with pharmacological applications. After each week, students were asked to reflect on blended learning. On completion of 9 weeks, reflections were collected and analyzed.

    STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Qualitative analysis was done using thematic analysis model suggested by Braun and Clarke.

    RESULTS: The four main themes were identified, namely, merits of blended learning, skill in writing prescription for oral diseases, dosages of drugs, and identification of strengths and weakness. In general, the participants had a positive feedback regarding blended learning. Students felt more confident in drug selection and prescription writing. They could recollect the doses better after the online and face-to-face sessions. Most interestingly, the students reflected that they are able to identify their strength and weakness after the blended learning sessions.

    CONCLUSIONS: Blended learning module was successfully implemented for reinforcing dental pharmacology. The results obtained in this study enable us to plan future comparative studies to know the effectiveness of blended learning in dental pharmacology.

  17. Anwar S, Madkor HR, Ahmed N, Wagih ME
    Indian J Pharmacol, 2018 9 1;50(3):108-115.
    PMID: 30166747 DOI: 10.4103/ijp.IJP_660_16
    OBJECTIVE: Silymarin, extracted from the seeds of Silybum marianum L. (Milk thistle), is traditionally used for treating various illnesses such as diabetes, cancer, inflammation, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and renal problems. Acute cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies have been reported with ambiguous outcomes; however, its relevant anticlastogenic potential is not yet evaluated. This study was aimed to evaluate in vivo subacute anticlastogenic properties of silymarin to validate its use as a medicinal agent.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Silymarin was isolated from seeds of milk thistle. Various genotoxicity bioassays of silymarin were performed using mice. First, the bone marrow cell proliferation was estimated by calculating mitotic index. Second, the chromosomal abnormalities in mice bone marrow cells were studied. Third, micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPE) test and in vivo activation of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were carried out in mice bone marrow cells. Finally, primary spermatocytes were analyzed to estimate genotoxic effect of silymarin on germ cells.

    RESULTS: We found that silymarin is capable of inducing a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in cell proliferation of bone marrow cells. There is no increase in chromosomal aberrations following silymarin treatments. Results clearly showed that it significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased the MPE. Likewise, it was found to be a negative inducer of SCEs. It decreased in total abnormal metaphase, SCEs, MPE, and aberrant diakinesis.

    CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that silymarin has a strong anticlastogenic activity upon mice genome in somatic and germ cells, indicating its safe use as a medicinal substance. Furthermore, it is not only safe but also has protective effect from clastogens.

  18. Kithur Mohamed S, Asif M, Nazari MV, Baharetha HM, Mahmood S, Yatim ARM, et al.
    Indian J Pharmacol, 2019 4 30;51(1):45-54.
    PMID: 31031467 DOI: 10.4103/ijp.IJP_312_18
    OBJECTIVES: Sophorolipids (SLs) are a group of surface-active glycolipids produced by a type of nonpathogenic yeast Candida bombicola in the presence of vegetable oil through fermentation technology. SLs have shown antitumor activity; however, the mechanism of action underlying the anticancer activity of SLs is poorly understood. This work evaluated the anticancer activity of SLs fermented from palm oil by exploring its antiangiogenic activity.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The SLs that were fermented and further characterized for their biochemical activities. Cytotoxicity study was performed to assess cytostatic properties. A series of in vitro and ex vivo angiogenesis assay was also carried out. The relative fold change in the expression of p53 mRNA by SLs was also studied.

    RESULTS: Altogether, the data show that SLs derived from palm oil fermentation process inhibited neovascularization in the ex vivo tissue segments and also the endothelial cell proliferation between 50% and 65% inhibition as a whole. The palm oil derived SLs also caused downregulation of the suppression level of vascular endothelial growth factor and also upregulate the p53 mRNA level. The analytical studies revealed the presence of high amount of phenolic compounds but with relatively weak antioxidant activity. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry studies revealed abundant amount of palmitic and oleic acid, the latter an established antiangiogenic agent, and the former being proangiogenic.

    CONCLUSION: Therefore, it can be concluded from this study that SLs derived from fermented palm oil have potent antiangiogenic activity which may be attributed by its oleic acid component.

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