MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antioxidant effect of these compounds was initially performed in vitro using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assay methods before subjecting them to in vivo experiments. Compounds showing potent antioxidant activity (CS-1 and CS-2) were investigated further for their antidepressant activity using the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Ascorbic acid (AA) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, p.o) were used as reference drugs for comparison in the antioxidant and antidepressant experiments, respectively.
RESULTS: It was observed that CS-2 and CS-3 exhibited highest DPPH (half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50]: 16.22 and 25.18 μg/mL) and ABTS (IC50: 17.2 and 28.86 μg/mL) radical scavenging activity, respectively, compared to AA (IC50: 15.73 and 16.79 μg/mL) and therefore, both CS-2 and CS-3 were tested for their antidepressant effect using FST and TST as experimental models. Pretreatment of CS-2 and CS-3 (20 mg/kg) for 10 days considerably decreased the immobility time in both the FST and TST models.
CONCLUSION: The antioxidant and antidepressant effect of CS-2 and CS-3 may be attributed to the presence of azomethine linkage in the molecule.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this nonrandomized trial on interrupted time series study, flipped class was conducted on group of 112 students of bachelor of pharmacy semester V. The topic selected was popular herbal remedies of the complementary medicine module. Flipped class was conducted with audio and video presentation in the form of a quiz using ten one-best-answer type of multiple-choice questions covering the learning objectives. Audience response was captured using web-based interaction with Poll Everywhere. Feedback was obtained from participants at the end of FC activity and debriefing was done.
RESULTS: Randomly selected 112 complete responses were included in the final analysis. There were 47 (42%) male and 65 (58%) female respondents. The overall Cronbach's alpha of feedback questionnaire was 0.912. The central tendencies and dispersions of items in the questionnaire indicated the effectiveness of FC. The low or middle achievers of quiz session (pretest) during the FC activity were three times (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-8.9) at the risk of providing neutral or negative feedback than high achievers (P = 0.040). Those who gave neutral or negative feedback on FC activity were 3.9 times (95% CI = 1.3-11.8) at the risk of becoming low or middle achievers during the end of semester examination (P = 0.013). The multivariate analysis of "Agree" or "Disagree" and "Agree" or "Strongly Agree" was statistically significant.
CONCLUSION: This study provides insight on how the pharmacy students learn and develop their cognitive functions. The results revealed that the FC activity with Poll Everywhere is an effective teaching-learning method.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted among first to fifth semester students during February 2015. A previously developed instrument was used. Basic demographic information was collected. Respondent's agreement with a set of statements was noted using a Likert-type scale. The calculated total score was compared among subgroups of respondents. One sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to study the normality of distribution, Independent samples t-test to compare the total score for dichotomous variables, and analysis of variance for others were used for statistical analysis.
RESULTS: Fifty-six of the 85 students (65.8%) participated. Around 55% of respondents were between 20 and 25 years of age and of American nationality. Only three respondents (5.3%) provided the correct value of the regulatory bioequivalence limits. The mean total score was 43.41 (maximum 60). There was no significant difference in scores among subgroups.
CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant knowledge gap with regard to the regulatory bioequivalence limits for generic medicines. Respondents' level of knowledge about other aspects of generic medicines was good but could be improved. Studies among clinical students in the institution and in other Caribbean medical schools are required. Deficiencies were noted and we have strengthened learning about generic medicines during the basic science years.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Faculty of Dentistry, Melaka-Manipal Medical College among 3(rd) and 4(th) year BDS students. A total of 145 dental students, who consented, participate in the study. Students were divided into 14 groups. Nine online sessions followed by nine face-to-face discussions were held. Each session addressed topics related to oral lesions and orofacial pain with pharmacological applications. After each week, students were asked to reflect on blended learning. On completion of 9 weeks, reflections were collected and analyzed.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Qualitative analysis was done using thematic analysis model suggested by Braun and Clarke.
RESULTS: The four main themes were identified, namely, merits of blended learning, skill in writing prescription for oral diseases, dosages of drugs, and identification of strengths and weakness. In general, the participants had a positive feedback regarding blended learning. Students felt more confident in drug selection and prescription writing. They could recollect the doses better after the online and face-to-face sessions. Most interestingly, the students reflected that they are able to identify their strength and weakness after the blended learning sessions.
CONCLUSIONS: Blended learning module was successfully implemented for reinforcing dental pharmacology. The results obtained in this study enable us to plan future comparative studies to know the effectiveness of blended learning in dental pharmacology.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Silymarin was isolated from seeds of milk thistle. Various genotoxicity bioassays of silymarin were performed using mice. First, the bone marrow cell proliferation was estimated by calculating mitotic index. Second, the chromosomal abnormalities in mice bone marrow cells were studied. Third, micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPE) test and in vivo activation of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were carried out in mice bone marrow cells. Finally, primary spermatocytes were analyzed to estimate genotoxic effect of silymarin on germ cells.
RESULTS: We found that silymarin is capable of inducing a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in cell proliferation of bone marrow cells. There is no increase in chromosomal aberrations following silymarin treatments. Results clearly showed that it significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased the MPE. Likewise, it was found to be a negative inducer of SCEs. It decreased in total abnormal metaphase, SCEs, MPE, and aberrant diakinesis.
CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that silymarin has a strong anticlastogenic activity upon mice genome in somatic and germ cells, indicating its safe use as a medicinal substance. Furthermore, it is not only safe but also has protective effect from clastogens.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The SLs that were fermented and further characterized for their biochemical activities. Cytotoxicity study was performed to assess cytostatic properties. A series of in vitro and ex vivo angiogenesis assay was also carried out. The relative fold change in the expression of p53 mRNA by SLs was also studied.
RESULTS: Altogether, the data show that SLs derived from palm oil fermentation process inhibited neovascularization in the ex vivo tissue segments and also the endothelial cell proliferation between 50% and 65% inhibition as a whole. The palm oil derived SLs also caused downregulation of the suppression level of vascular endothelial growth factor and also upregulate the p53 mRNA level. The analytical studies revealed the presence of high amount of phenolic compounds but with relatively weak antioxidant activity. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry studies revealed abundant amount of palmitic and oleic acid, the latter an established antiangiogenic agent, and the former being proangiogenic.
CONCLUSION: Therefore, it can be concluded from this study that SLs derived from fermented palm oil have potent antiangiogenic activity which may be attributed by its oleic acid component.