• 1 Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Shenandoah University, Winchester, VA, USA
  • 2 The University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH, USA
  • 3 Department of Pharmaceutical Systems and Policy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA
  • 4 Department of Pharmaceutical Policy and Outcomes Research, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, South Korea
  • 5 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, UCSI University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 6 Department of Pharmaceutical, Social and Administrative Sciences, Samford University, Birmingham, AL, USA
Indian J Pharmacol, 2015;47(6):585-93.
PMID: 26729947 DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.169592


Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is an important branch of pharmacoeconomics that systematically studies and evaluates the cost-effectiveness of medical interventions. CER plays instrumental roles in guiding government public health policy programs and insurance. Countries throughout the world use different methods of CER to help make medical decisions based on providing optimal therapy at a reduced cost. Expenses to the healthcare system continue to rise, and CER is one-way in which expenses could be curbed in the future by applying cost-effectiveness evidence to clinical decisions. China, India, South Korea, and the United Kingdom are of essential focus because these country's economies and health care expenses continue to expand. The structures and use of CER are diverse throughout these countries, and each is of prime importance. By conducting this thorough comparison of CER in different nations, strategies and organizational setups from different countries can be applied to help guide public health and medical decision-making in order to continue to expand the establishment and role of CER programs. The patient-centered medical home has been created to help reduce costs in the primary care sector and to help improve the effectiveness of therapy. Barriers to CER are also important as many stakeholders need to be able to work together to provide the best CER evidence. The advancement of CER in multiple countries throughout the world provides a possible way of reducing costs to the healthcare system in an age of expanding expenses.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.