Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 27 in total

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  1. Razidah Ismail
    Scientific Research Journal, 2006;3(1):37-52.
    MyJurnal
    The state space modeling approach was developed to cope with the demand
    and performance due to the increase in system complexity, which may have
    multiple inputs and multiple outputs (MIMO). This approach is based on timedomain
    analysis and synthesis using state variables. This paper describes the
    development of a state space representation of a furnace system of a combined
    cycle power plant. Power plants will need to operate optimally so as to stay
    competitive, as even a small improvement in energy efficiency would involve
    substantial cost savings. Both the quantitative and qualitative analyses of the
    state space representation of the furnace system are discussed. These include
    the responses of systems excited by certain inputs and the structural properties
    of the system. The analysis on the furnace system showed that the system is
    bounded input and bounded output stable, controllable and observable. In
    practice, the state space formulation is very important for numerical computation
    and controller design, and can be extended for time-varying systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost Savings
  2. Roslizar A, Alghoul MA, Bakhtyar B, Asim N, Sopian K
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:310539.
    PMID: 25485294 DOI: 10.1155/2014/310539
    Buildings are among the largest consumers of energy. Part of the energy is wasted due to the habits of users and equipment conditions. A solution to this problem is efficient energy usage. To this end, an energy audit can be conducted to assess the energy efficiency. This study aims to analyze the energy usage of a primary school and identify the potential energy reductions and cost savings. A preliminary audit was conducted, and several energy conservation measures were proposed. The energy conservation measures, with reference to the MS1525:2007 standard, were modelled to identify the potential energy reduction and cost savings. It was found that the school's usage of electricity exceeded its need, incurring an excess expenditure of RM 2947.42. From the lighting system alone, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction of 5489.06 kWh, which gives a cost saving of RM 2282.52 via the improvement of lighting system design and its operating hours. Overall, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction and cost saving of 20.7% when the energy conservation measures are earnestly implemented. The previous energy intensity of the school was found to be 50.6 kWh/m(2)/year, but can theoretically be reduced to 40.19 kWh/mm(2)/year.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost Savings*
  3. Kalong NA, Yusof MM
    Stud Health Technol Inform, 2013;192:749-53.
    PMID: 23920657
    Despite the rapid application of the Lean method in healthcare, its study in IT environments, particularly in Health Information Systems (HIS), is still limited primarily by a lack of waste identification. This paper aims to review the literature to provide an insight into the nature of waste in HIS from the perspective of Lean management. Eight waste frameworks within the context of healthcare and information technology were reviewed. Based on the review, it was found that all the seven waste categories from the manufacturing sector also exist in both the healthcare and IT domains. However, the nature of the waste varied depending on the processes of the domains. A number of additional waste categories were also identified. The findings reveal that the traditional waste model can be adapted to identify waste in both the healthcare and IT sectors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost Savings/economics*; Cost Savings/methods*
  4. Abdullah HR, Ang AL, Froessler B, Hofmann A, Jang JH, Kim YW, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2019 May 02.
    PMID: 31044255 DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2019037
    Preoperative anaemia is common in the Asia-Pacific. Iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a risk factor that can be addressed under patient blood management (PBM) Pillar 1, leading to reduced morbidity and mortality. We examined PBM implementation under four different healthcare systems, identified challenges and proposed several measures. (a) Test for anaemia once patients are scheduled for surgery. (b) Inform patients about risks of preoperative anaemia and benefits of treatment. (c) Treat IDA and replenish iron stores before surgery, using intravenous iron when oral treatment is ineffective, not tolerated or rapid iron replenishment is needed; transfusion should not be the default management. (d) Harness support from multiple medical disciplines and relevant bodies to promote PBM implementation. (e) Demonstrate better outcomes and cost savings from reduced mortality and morbidity. Although PBM implementation may seem complex and daunting, it is feasible to start small. Implementing PBM Pillar 1, particularly in preoperative patients, is a sensible first step regardless of the healthcare setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost Savings
  5. Zaidi ST, Hassan Y, Postma MJ, Ng SH
    Pharm World Sci, 2003 Dec;25(6):299-302.
    PMID: 14689820
    To analyse clinical pharmacists interventions in the ICU of the Penang General Hospital (Penang, Malaysia) and to assess the pharmaco-economic impact of these interventions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost Savings/economics
  6. Huck-Soo L, Richardson S
    J Hum Ergol (Tokyo), 2012 Dec;41(1-2):1-16.
    PMID: 25665194
    The two final decades of the 20th century saw a significant increase in ergonomics activity (and resulting publications) in industrially developing countries (IDCs). However, a few ergonomics papers from Singapore, for example, were published in 1969 and 1970. This paper reviews developments in ergonomics in industrially developing countries from 1969 relying heavily on published papers although their quality varies considerably. Some criticism of these papers is offered. Most were concerned with the use of work tools, workstation operations, material handling and working environments especially in tropical climates. The similar problems encountered in a variety of countries are discussed, and the importance of low-cost solutions stressed. This study presents an overview of er gonomics research in IDCs. It concentrates on ASEAN countries whilst recognising the valuable work done in other areas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost Savings
  7. Yeow PH, Sen RN
    Int J Occup Saf Ergon, 2004;10(4):369-85.
    PMID: 15598361
    An ergonomics improvement study was conducted on the visual inspection process of a printed circuit assembly (PCA) factory. The process was studied through subjective assessment and direct observation. Three problems were identified: operators' eye problems, insufficient time for inspection and ineffective visual inspection. These problems caused a huge yearly rejection cost of US 298,240 dollars, poor quality, customer dissatisfaction and poor occupational health and safety. Ergonomics interventions were made to rectify the problems: reduced usage of a magnifying glass, the use of less glaring inspection templates, inspection of only electrically non-tested components and introduction of a visual inspection sequence. The interventions produced savings in rejection cost, reduced operators' eye strain, headaches and watery eyes, lowered the defect percentage at customers' sites and increased the factory's productivity and customer satisfaction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost Savings
  8. Ahmadi H, Nilashi M, Ibrahim O, Raisian K
    Curr Health Sci J, 2016 03 29;42(1):82-93.
    PMID: 30568817 DOI: 10.12865/CHSJ.42.01.12
    As Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) have a great possibility for rising physician's performance in their daily work which improves quality, safety and efficiency in healthcare, they are implemented throughout the world (Boonstra and Broekhuis, 2010). In physician practices the rate of EMRs adoption has been slow and restricted (around 25%) according to Endsley, Baker, Kershner, and Curtin (2005) in spite of the cost savings through lower administrative costs and medical errors related with EMRs systems. The core objective of this research is to identify, categorize, and analyse meso-level factors introduced by Lau et al, 2012, perceived by physicians to the adoption of EMRs in order to give more knowledge in primary care setting. Finding was extracted through questionnaire which distributed to 350 physicians in primary cares in Malaysia to assess their perception towards EMRs adoption. The findings showed that Physicians had positive perception towards some features related to technology adoption success and emphasized EMRs had helpful impact in their office. The fuzzy TOPSIS physician EMRs adoption model in meso-level developed and its factors and sub-factors discussed in this study which provide making sense of EMRs adoption. The related factors based on meso-level perspective prioritized and ranked by using the fuzzy TOPSIS. The purpose of ranking using these approaches is to inspect which factors are more imperative in EMRs adoption among primary care physicians. The result of performing fuzzy TOPSIS is as a novelty method to identify the critical factors which assist healthcare organizations to inspire their users in accepting of new technology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost Savings
  9. Sze WT, Kong MC
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2018 06 17;16(2):855.
    PMID: 30023021 DOI: 10.18549/PharmPract.2018.02.855
    Background: Early intravenous to oral (IV-PO) antibiotics switch, which is one of the important elements in antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) is not well implemented in Malaysian district hospitals. A systematic interventional strategy is required to facilitate IV-PO antibiotic switch.

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of printed AMS recommendations on early IV-PO antibiotics switch practice in district hospitals.

    Methods: This study was an interventional study conducted in medical wards of eight Sarawak district hospitals from May to August 2015. In pre-intervention phase, pharmacists performed the conventional practice of reviewing medication charts and verbally informed the prescribers on eligible IV-PO switches. In post-intervention phase, pharmacists attached printed checklist which contained IV-PO switch criteria to patients' medical notes on the day patients were eligible for the switch. Stickers of IV-PO switch were applied to the antibiotic prescription to serve as reminders.

    Results: 79 and 77 courses of antibiotics were studied in the pre-intervention phase and post-intervention phase respectively. Timeliness of switch was improved by 1.63 days in the post-intervention phase (95%CI 1.26:2.00 days, p<0.001). Mean duration of IV antibiotics in the post-intervention phase was shorter than pre-intervention phase (2.81 days (SD=1.77) vs 4.05 days (SD=2.81), p<0.001). The proportion of IV-PO switches that were only performed upon discharge reduced significantly in the post-intervention phase (31.2% vs 82.3%, p<0.001). Length of hospital stay in the post-intervention phase was shortened by 1.44 days (p<0.001). Median antibiotic cost savings increased significantly in the post-intervention phase compared to the pre-intervention phase [MYR21.96 (IQR=23.23) vs MYR13.10 (IQR=53.76); p=0.025)].

    Conclusions: Pharmacist initiated printed AMS recommendations are successful in improving the timeliness of IV-PO switch, reducing the duration of IV, reducing the length of hospitalisation, and increasing antibiotic cost savings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cost Savings
  10. Haque M, Rahman NAA, McKimm J, Kibria GM, Azim Majumder MA, Haque SZ, et al.
    Infect Drug Resist, 2019;12:1333-1351.
    PMID: 31190922 DOI: 10.2147/IDR.S203364
    Background: Self-medication of drugs to alleviate symptoms is a common global behavior, helping relieve burdens on health services, but many drugs eg, antibiotics are prescription-only. Self-medication of antibiotics (SMA) is an irrational use of drugs, contributing to microbial resistance increasing health care costs and higher mortality and morbidity. This study aimed to assess SMA among university students. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among medical and non-medical students of the National Defence University of Malaysia. A validated instrument was used to gather data. Ethics approval was obtained. Random and universal sampling was adopted, and SPSS 21 was used for data analysis. Results: A total of 649 students participated in the study: 48.5% male and 51.5% female, 39.3% reported self-medicating with antibiotics. Penicillin, doxycycline, clarithromycin were the antibiotics most used with the majority reporting no adverse drug reactions. Cost savings and convenience were the principal reasons for SMA which were mainly obtained from local retail pharmacies. Despite medical students (particularly the more senior) having better knowledge of antibiotic use than non-medical students, 89% of all research participants responded that practicing SMA was a good/acceptable practice. Conclusion: SMA is common amongst Malaysian students and, despite understanding why SMA is unwise, even medical students self-medicate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost Savings
  11. Jutarut Iewkittayakorn, Juntima Chungsiriporn, Prukraya Pongyeela
    Sains Malaysiana, 2017;46:1763-1769.
    Ammonium-enriched skim latex serum - used for absorption of contaminating ammonia gas - when composted with other rubber tree wastes, is promising as a good compost. The objective of this research was to utilize ammonium-enriched skim latex serum (S) as a raw composting ingredient after being combined with para sawdust (W1) and para rubber leaves (W2). Several ratios of S, W1 and W2 were experimented in a 15L composting vessel to determine the most effective compost. The best ratio was found to be 3:1:3 by weight at 12-day retention. The modified 30 L composting reactor employed with the derived optimum mixing conditions yielded N, P and K of 2.40, 1.51 and 14.84 %w/w. The growth of Brassica alboglabra after application of this compost combined with a chemical fertilizer generated the highest fresh weight (4.48 g/plant). Thus, compost from these wastes could be used as a fertilizer and logically should contribute to cost saving of waste disposal.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost Savings
  12. Chan PW, Abdel-Latif ME
    Acta Paediatr., 2003 Apr;92(4):481-5.
    PMID: 12801117
    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) chest infection is a common cause of hospitalization in the very young child. The aim of this study was to determine the direct cost of resource utilization in the treatment of children hospitalized with RSV chest infection and the potential cost-savings with passive immunization for high-risk infants. An audit of the hospital resource consumption and its costs was performed for 216 children aged < 24 mo admitted with RSV chest infection between 1995 and 1997. The cost-saving potential of passive immunization using monoclonal RSV antibodies during the RSV season was determined by assuming an 0.55 efficacy in hospitalization reduction when administered to "high-risk" infants according to the guidelines outlined by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). The hospital treatment cost of 1064 bed-days amounted to USD 64 277.70. Each child occupied a median of 4.0 bed-days at a median cost of USD 169.99 (IQ1 128.08, IQ3 248.47). Children, who were ex-premature or with an underlying illness were more likely to have a longer hospital stay, higher treatment costs and need for intensive care. Ten (42%) of 24 ex-premature infants fulfilled the recommended criteria for passive immunization. Its use resulted in an incremental cost of USD 31.39 to a potential cost saving of USD 0.91 per infant for each hospital day saved.

    CONCLUSION: Ex-prematurity and the presence of an underlying illness results in escalation of the direct treatment cost of RSV chest infection. Current guidelines for use of passive RSV immunization do not appear to be cost-effective if adopted for Malaysian infants.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cost Savings/economics
  13. Lu N, Pahang JA, Zhang G, Loengard A, Wong LL, Biffl WL
    J Trauma Acute Care Surg, 2019 10;87(4):870-875.
    PMID: 31233439 DOI: 10.1097/TA.0000000000002415
    BACKGROUND: In bowel obstruction and biliary pancreatitis, patients receive more expedient surgical care when admitted to surgical compared with medical services. This has not been studied in acute cholecystitis.

    METHODS: Retrospective analysis of clinical and cost data from July 2013 to September 2015 for patients with cholecystitis who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a tertiary care inpatient hospital. One hundred ninety lower-risk (Charlson-Deyo) patients were included. We assessed admitting service, length of stay (LOS), time from admission to surgery, time from surgery to discharge, number of imaging studies, and total cost.

    RESULTS: Patients admitted to surgical (n = 106) versus medical (n = 84) service had shorter mean LOS (1.4 days vs. 2.6 days), shorter time from admission to surgery (0.4 days vs. 0.8 days), and shorter time from surgery to discharge (0.8 days vs. 1.1 days). Surgical service patients had fewer CT (38% vs. 56%) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (5% vs. 16%) studies. Cholangiography (30% vs. 25%) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) (3 vs. 8%) rates were similar. Surgical service patients had 39% lower median total costs (US $7787 vs. US $12572).

    CONCLUSION: Nonsurgical admissions of patients with cholecystitis are common, even among lower-risk patients. Routine admission to the surgical service should decrease LOS, resource utilization and costs.

    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic/care management, level IV.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cost Savings/methods
  14. Kulthanan K, Chusakul S, Recto MT, Gabriel MT, Aw DCW, Prepageran N, et al.
    Allergy Asthma Immunol Res, 2018 Jul;10(4):370-378.
    PMID: 29949833 DOI: 10.4168/aair.2018.10.4.370
    PURPOSE: Across Hong Kong, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam, (referred to as Asia) approximately 30-53 million individuals of the 151 million employed suffer from allergic rhinitis (AR) and urticaria. It is estimated that approximately 90% of patients with these allergic conditions are insufficiently treated, impacting the socioeconomic burden in terms of absence from work and decreased productivity. This study aims to estimate the socioeconomic burden of allergies in Asia and the cost savings that their adequate management can provide. Due to the limited availability of regional data, this study focused AR and urticaria in selected countries.

    METHODS: Published literature, information from statistical bureaus, clinician surveys and extrapolation of selected data from the European Union were used to determine the socioeconomic costs of AR and urticaria.

    RESULTS: Many patients in Asia suffer from perennial allergies and experience symptoms of AR and urticaria for up to 298 days per year. An estimate of the indirect costs of patients insufficiently treated for AR and urticaria amounts to USD 105.4 billion a year, which equates to USD 1,137-2,195 per patient due to absenteeism and presenteeism. Adherence to guideline-approved treatment can lead to estimated savings of up to USD 104 billion.

    CONCLUSIONS: The current study suggests that within Asia, the socioeconomic impact of AR and urticaria is similar to that seen in the European Union in spite of the lower wages in Asia. This is due to the mainly perennial allergens prevailing in Asia, whereas the sensitization patterns observed in the European Union are dominated by seasonal exposure to pollen. These results underline the need for governmental initiatives to increase public awareness on the prevention and treatment of these and other allergic diseases as well as greater research funding and large-scale studies to reduce their growing socioeconomic burden in coming years.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cost Savings
  15. Cheah IGS
    Transl Pediatr, 2019 Jul;8(3):246-256.
    PMID: 31413958 DOI: 10.21037/tp.2019.07.03
    Most of the studies on the costing of neonatal intensive care has concentrated on the costs associated with preterm infants which takes up more than half of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) costs. The focus has been on determining the cost-effectiveness of extreme preterm infants and those at threshold of viability. While the costs of care have an inverse relationship with gestational age (GA) and the lifetime medical costs of the extreme preterm can be as high as $450,000, the total NICU expenditure are skewed towards the care of moderate and late preterm infants who form the main bulk of patients. Neonatal intensive care, has been found to be very cost-effective at $1,000 per term infant per QALY and $9,100 for extreme preterm survivor per QALY. For low and LMIC, where NICU resources are limited, the costs of NICU care is lower largely due to a patient profile of more term and preterm of greater GAs and correspondingly less intensity of care. Public health measures, neonatal resuscitation training, empowerment of nurses to do resuscitation, increasing the accessibility to essential newborn care are recommended cheaper cost-effective measures to reduce neonatal mortality in countries with high neonatal mortality rate, whilst upgraded neonatal intensive care services are needed to further reduce neonatal mortality rate once below 15 per 1,000 livebirths. Economic evaluation of neonatal intensive care should also include post discharge costs which mainly fall on the health, social and educational sectors. Strategies to reduce neonatal intensive care costs could include more widespread implementation of cost-effective methods of improving neonatal outcome and reducing neonatal morbidities, including access to antenatal care, perinatal interventions to delay preterm delivery wherever feasible, improving maternal health status and practising cost saving and effective neonatal intensive care treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost Savings
  16. Ping CC, Bahari MB, Hassali MA
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2008 Jan;17(1):82-9.
    PMID: 17879323
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the generic substitution (GS) practices undertaken by community pharmacists in the State of Penang, Malaysia with a focus on the extent of communication between pharmacists and prescribers on issues related to GS, consumer's acceptance on the GS and estimation of cost saving achieved for patients opted for GS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost Savings
  17. Hauswald M, Yeoh E
    Am J Emerg Med, 1997 Oct;15(6):600-3.
    PMID: 9337371
    Many of the costs associated with prehospital care in developed countries are covered in budgets for fire suppression, police services, and the like. Determining these costs is therefore difficult. The costs and benefits of developing a prehospital care system for Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, which now has essentially no emergency medical services (EMS) system, were estimated. Prehospital therapies that have been suggested to decrease mortality were identified. A minimal prehospital system was designed to deliver these treatments in Kuala Lumpur. The potential benefit of these therapies was calculated by using statistics from the United States corrected for demographic differences between the United States and Malaysia. Costs were extrapolated from the current operating budget of the Malaysian Red Crescent Society. Primary dysrhythmias are responsible for almost all potentially survivable cardiac arrests. A system designed to deliver a defibrillator to 85% of arrests within 6 minutes would require an estimated 48 ambulances. Kuala Lumpur has approximately 120 prehospital arrhythmic deaths per year. A 6% resuscitation rate was chosen for the denominator, resulting in seven survivors. Half of these would be expected to have significant neurological damage. Ambulances cost $53,000 (US dollars) to operate per year in Kuala Lumpur; 48 ambulances would cost a total of $2.5 million. Demographic factors and traffic problems would significantly increase the cost per patient. Other therapies, including medications, airway management, and trauma care, were discounted because both their additional cost and their benefit are small. Transport of patients (including trauma) is now performed by police or private vehicle and would probably take longer by ambulance. A prehospital system for Kuala Lumpur would cost approximately $2.5 million per year. It might save seven lives, three of which would be marred by significant neurological injury. Developing countries would do well to consider alternatives to a North American EMS model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost Savings
  18. Aljunid S, Maimaiti N, Ahmed Z, Muhammad Nur A, Md Isa Z, Azmi S, et al.
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2014 May;3:146-155.
    PMID: 29702920 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2014.04.008
    OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of introducing pneumococcal polysaccharide and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in the National Immunization Programme of Malaysia. This study compared introducing PHiD-CV (10 valent vaccine) with current no vaccination, as well as against the alternative 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13).

    METHODS: A lifetime Markov cohort model was adapted using national estimates of disease burden, outcomes of pneumococcal disease, and treatment costs of disease manifestations including pneumonia, acute otitis media, septicemia, and meningitis for a hypothetical birth cohort of 550,000 infants. Clinical information was obtained by review of medical records from four public hospitals in Malaysia from the year 2008 to 2009. Inpatient cost from the four study hospitals was obtained from a diagnostic-related group-based costing system. Outpatient cost was estimated using clinical pathways developed by an expert panel. The perspective assessed was that of the Ministry of Health, Malaysia.

    RESULTS: The estimated disease incidence was 1.2, 3.7, 70, and 6.9 per 100,000 population for meningitis, bacteremia, pneumonia, and acute otitis media, respectively. The Markov model predicted medical costs of Malaysian ringgit (RM) 4.86 billion (US $1.51 billion) in the absence of vaccination. Vaccination with PHiD-CV would be highly cost-effective against no vaccination at RM30,290 (US $7,407) per quality-adjusted life-year gained. On comparing PHiD-CV with PCV13, it was found that PHiD-CV dominates PCV13, with 179 quality-adjusted life-years gained while saving RM35 million (US $10.87 million).

    CONCLUSIONS: It is cost-effective to incorporate pneumococcal vaccination in the National Immunization Programme of Malaysia. Our model suggests that PHiD-CV would be more cost saving than PCV13 from the perspective of the Ministry of Health of Malaysia.

    Study site: UKM Medical Centre, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Hospital
    Alor Setar, and Hospital Queen Elizabeth, Kota Kinabalu
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost Savings
  19. Hasan SS, Thiruchelvam K, Kow CS, Ghori MU, Babar ZU
    Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res, 2017 Oct;17(5):431-439.
    PMID: 28825502 DOI: 10.1080/14737167.2017.1370376
    INTRODUCTION: Medication reviews is a widely accepted approach known to have a substantial impact on patients' pharmacotherapy and safety. Numerous options to optimise pharmacotherapy in older people have been reported in literature and they include medication reviews, computerised decision support systems, management teams, and educational approaches. Pharmacist-led medication reviews are increasingly being conducted, aimed at attaining patient safety and medication optimisation. Cost effectiveness is an essential aspect of a medication review evaluation. Areas covered: A systematic searching of articles that examined the cost-effectiveness of medication reviews conducted in aged care facilities was performed using the relevant databases. Pharmacist-led medication reviews confer many benefits such as attainment of biomarker targets for improved clinical outcomes, and other clinical parameters, as well as depict concrete financial advantages in terms of decrement in total medication costs and associated cost savings. Expert commentary: The cost-effectiveness of medication reviews are more consequential than ever before. A critical evaluation of pharmacist-led medication reviews in residential aged care facilities from an economical aspect is crucial in determining if the time, effort, and direct and indirect costs involved in the review rationalise the significance of conducting medication reviews for older people in aged care facilities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost Savings
  20. Wong ZY, Alrasheedy AA, Hassali MA, Saleem F
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2016 04 20;12(5):807-10.
    PMID: 27157864 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2016.04.002
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost Savings
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