Burstein R 1 , Henry NJ 1 , Collison ML 1 , Marczak LB 1 , Sligar A 1 , Watson S 1 Show all authors , Marquez N 1 , Abbasalizad-Farhangi M 2 , Abbasi M 3 , Abd-Allah F 4 , Abdoli A 5 , Abdollahi M 6 , Abdollahpour I 7 , Abdulkader RS 8 , Abrigo MRM 9 , Acharya D 10 , Adebayo OM 11 , Adekanmbi V 12 , Adham D 13 , Afshari M 14 , Aghaali M 15 , Ahmadi K 16 , Ahmadi M 17 , Ahmadpour E 18 , Ahmed R 19 , Akal CG 20 , Akinyemi JO 21 , Alahdab F 22 , Alam N 23 , Alamene GM 24 , Alene KA 25 , Alijanzadeh M 26 , Alinia C 27 , Alipour V 28 , Aljunid SM 29 , Almalki MJ 30 , Al-Mekhlafi HM 31 , Altirkawi K 32 , Alvis-Guzman N 33 , Amegah AK 34 , Amini S 35 , Amit AML 36 , Anbari Z 35 , Androudi S 37 , Anjomshoa M 38 , Ansari F 39 , Antonio CAT 40 , Arabloo J 41 , Arefi Z 42 , Aremu O 43 , Armoon B 44 , Arora A 45 , Artaman A 46 , Asadi A 47 , Asadi-Aliabadi M 48 , Ashraf-Ganjouei A 7 , Assadi R 49 , Ataeinia B 50 , Atre SR 51 , Quintanilla BPA 52 , Ayanore MA 53 , Azari S 41 , Babaee E 48 , Babazadeh A 54 , Badawi A 55 , Bagheri S 3 , Bagherzadeh M 56 , Baheiraei N 57 , Balouchi A 58 , Barac A 59 , Bassat Q 60 , Baune BT 61 , Bayati M 62 , Bedi N 63 , Beghi E 64 , Behzadifar M 65 , Behzadifar M 66 , Belay YB 67 , Bell B 1 , Bell ML 68 , Berbada DA 69 , Bernstein RS 70 , Bhattacharjee NV 1 , Bhattarai S 71 , Bhutta ZA 72 , Bijani A 73 , Bohlouli S 74 , Breitborde NJK 75 , Britton G 76 , Browne AJ 77 , Nagaraja SB 78 , Busse R 79 , Butt ZA 80 , Car J 81 , Cárdenas R 82 , Castañeda-Orjuela CA 83 , Cerin E 84 , Chanie WF 85 , Chatterjee P 86 , Chu DT 87 , Cooper C 88 , Costa VM 89 , Dalal K 90 , Dandona L 1 , Dandona R 1 , Daoud F 1 , Daryani A 91 , Das Gupta R 19 , Davis I 1 , Davis Weaver N 1 , Davitoiu DV 92 , De Neve JW 93 , Demeke FM 94 , Demoz GT 95 , Deribe K 96 , Desai R 97 , Deshpande A 1 , Desyibelew HD 98 , Dey S 99 , Dharmaratne SD 1 , Dhimal M 100 , Diaz D 101 , Doshmangir L 102 , Duraes AR 103 , Dwyer-Lindgren L 1 , Earl L 1 , Ebrahimi R 104 , Ebrahimpour S 54 , Effiong A 105 , Eftekhari A 106 , Ehsani-Chimeh E 107 , El Sayed I 108 , El Sayed Zaki M 109 , El Tantawi M 110 , El-Khatib Z 111 , Emamian MH 112 , Enany S 113 , Eskandarieh S 7 , Eyawo O 114 , Ezalarab M 1 , Faramarzi M 115 , Fareed M 116 , Faridnia R 117 , Faro A 118 , Fazaeli AA 119 , Fazlzadeh M 120 , Fentahun N 121 , Fereshtehnejad SM 122 , Fernandes JC 123 , Filip I 124 , Fischer F 125 , Foigt NA 126 , Foroutan M 127 , Francis JM 128 , Fukumoto T 129 , Fullman N 1 , Gallus S 130 , Gebre DG 131 , Gebrehiwot TT 132 , Gebremeskel GG 133 , Gessner BD 134 , Geta B 135 , Gething PW 77 , Ghadimi R 136 , Ghadiri K 3 , Ghajarzadeh M 137 , Ghashghaee A 138 , Gill PS 139 , Gill TK 140 , Golding N 141 , Gomes NGM 142 , Gona PN 143 , Gopalani SV 144 , Gorini G 145 , Goulart BNG 146 , Graetz N 1 , Greaves F 147 , Green MS 148 , Guo Y 149 , Haj-Mirzaian A 150 , Haj-Mirzaian A 150 , Hall BJ 151 , Hamidi S 152 , Haririan H 153 , Haro JM 154 , Hasankhani M 155 , Hasanpoor E 156 , Hasanzadeh A 157 , Hassankhani H 158 , Hassen HY 159 , Hegazy MI 4 , Hendrie D 160 , Heydarpour F 161 , Hird TR 149 , Hoang CL 162 , Hollerich G 1 , Rad EH 163 , Hoseini-Ghahfarokhi M 164 , Hossain N 165 , Hosseini M 166 , Hosseinzadeh M 41 , Hostiuc M 92 , Hostiuc S 167 , Househ M 168 , Hsairi M 169 , Ilesanmi OS 170 , Imani-Nasab MH 171 , Iqbal U 172 , Irvani SSN 173 , Islam N 174 , Islam SMS 175 , Jürisson M 176 , Balalami NJ 177 , Jalali A 178 , Javidnia J 179 , Jayatilleke AU 180 , Jenabi E 181 , Ji JS 182 , Jobanputra YB 183 , Johnson K 1 , Jonas JB 184 , Shushtari ZJ 185 , Jozwiak JJ 186 , Kabir A 187 , Kahsay A 188 , Kalani H 189 , Kalhor R 190 , Karami M 191 , Karki S 192 , Kasaeian A 193 , Kassebaum NJ 1 , Keiyoro PN 194 , Kemp GR 1 , Khabiri R 195 , Khader YS 196 , Khafaie MA 197 , Khan EA 198 , Khan J 199 , Khan MS 200 , Khang YH 201 , Khatab K 202 , Khater A 203 , Khater MM 204 , Khatony A 3 , Khazaei M 205 , Khazaei S 191 , Khazaei-Pool M 206 , Khubchandani J 207 , Kianipour N 3 , Kim YJ 208 , Kimokoti RW 209 , Kinyoki DK 1 , Kisa A 210 , Kisa S 211 , Kolola T 212 , Kosen S 213 , Koul PA 214 , Koyanagi A 215 , Kraemer MUG 216 , Krishan K 217 , Krohn KJ 1 , Kugbey N 218 , Kumar GA 219 , Kumar M 220 , Kumar P 221 , Kuupiel D 222 , Lacey B 223 , Lad SD 224 , Lami FH 225 , Larsson AO 226 , Lee PH 227 , Leili M 205 , Levine AJ 1 , Li S 149 , Lim LL 228 , Listl S 229 , Longbottom J 230 , Lopez JCF 36 , Lorkowski S 231 , Magdeldin S 232 , Abd El Razek HM 233 , Abd El Razek MM 234 , Majeed A 147 , Maleki A 104 , Malekzadeh R 235 , Malta DC 236 , Mamun AA 237 , Manafi N 238 , Manda AL 239 , Mansourian M 240 , Martins-Melo FR 241 , Masaka A 242 , Massenburg BB 243 , Maulik PK 244 , Mayala BK 1 , Mazidi M 245 , McKee M 246 , Mehrotra R 247 , Mehta KM 248 , Meles GG 69 , Mendoza W 249 , Menezes RG 250 , Meretoja A 251 , Meretoja TJ 252 , Mestrovic T 253 , Miller TR 160 , Miller-Petrie MK 1 , Mills EJ 254 , Milne GJ 255 , Mini GK 256 , Mir SM 257 , Mirjalali H 258 , Mirrakhimov EM 259 , Mohamadi E 260 , Mohammad DK 261 , Darwesh AM 262 , Mezerji NMG 263 , Mohammed AS 264 , Mohammed S 265 , Mokdad AH 1 , Molokhia M 266 , Monasta L 267 , Moodley Y 222 , Moosazadeh M 268 , Moradi G 269 , Moradi M 3 , Moradi Y 270 , Moradi-Lakeh M 48 , Moradinazar M 47 , Moraga P 271 , Morawska L 272 , Mosapour A 257 , Mousavi SM 273 , Mueller UO 274 , Muluneh AG 275 , Mustafa G 276 , Nabavizadeh B 277 , Naderi M 278 , Nagarajan AJ 279 , Nahvijou A 280 , Najafi F 281 , Nangia V 282 , Ndwandwe DE 283 , Neamati N 257 , Negoi I 284 , Negoi RI 285 , Ngunjiri JW 286 , Thi Nguyen HL 287 , Nguyen LH 288 , Nguyen SH 288 , Nielsen KR 289 , Ningrum DNA 290 , Nirayo YL 291 , Nixon MR 1 , Nnaji CA 283 , Nojomi M 48 , Noroozi M 292 , Nosratnejad S 293 , Noubiap JJ 294 , Motlagh SN 171 , Ofori-Asenso R 295 , Ogbo FA 296 , Oladimeji KE 222 , Olagunju AT 297 , Olfatifar M 298 , Olum S 299 , Olusanya BO 300 , Oluwasanu MM 301 , Onwujekwe OE 302 , Oren E 303 , Ortega-Altamirano DDV 304 , Ortiz A 305 , Osarenotor O 306 , Osei FB 307 , Osgood-Zimmerman AE 1 , Otstavnov SS 308 , Owolabi MO 309 , P A M 310 , Pagheh AS 91 , Pakhale S 311 , Panda-Jonas S 312 , Pandey A 219 , Park EK 313 , Parsian H 257 , Pashaei T 104 , Patel SK 314 , Pepito VCF 315 , Pereira A 316 , Perkins S 1 , Pickering BV 1 , Pilgrim T 317 , Pirestani M 318 , Piroozi B 319 , Pirsaheb M 3 , Plana-Ripoll O 320 , Pourjafar H 321 , Puri P 221 , Qorbani M 322 , Quintana H 323 , Rabiee M 324 , Rabiee N 56 , Radfar A 325 , Rafiei A 326 , Rahim F 327 , Rahimi Z 328 , Rahimi-Movaghar V 329 , Rahimzadeh S 50 , Rajati F 330 , Raju SB 331 , Ramezankhani A 332 , Ranabhat CL 333 , Rasella D 334 , Rashedi V 335 , Rawal L 45 , Reiner RC 1 , Renzaho AMN 336 , Rezaei S 337 , Rezapour A 41 , Riahi SM 338 , Ribeiro AI 339 , Roever L 340 , Roro EM 341 , Roser M 342 , Roshandel G 235 , Roshani D 343 , Rostami A 344 , Rubagotti E 345 , Rubino S 346 , Sabour S 338 , Sadat N 1 , Sadeghi E 47 , Saeedi R 347 , Safari Y 3 , Safari-Faramani R 348 , Safdarian M 329 , Sahebkar A 349 , Salahshoor MR 350 , Salam N 351 , Salamati P 329 , Salehi F 352 , Zahabi SS 353 , Salimi Y 281 , Salimzadeh H 235 , Salomon JA 354 , Sambala EZ 283 , Samy AM 355 , Santric Milicevic MM 356 , Jose BPS 357 , Saraswathy SYI 358 , Sarmiento-Suárez R 359 , Sartorius B 360 , Sathian B 361 , Saxena S 362 , Sbarra AN 1 , Schaeffer LE 1 , Schwebel DC 363 , Sepanlou SG 235 , Seyedmousavi S 364 , Shaahmadi F 365 , Shaikh MA 366 , Shams-Beyranvand M 50 , Shamshirian A 367 , Shamsizadeh M 368 , Sharafi K 3 , Sharif M 369 , Sharif-Alhoseini M 329 , Sharifi H 370 , Sharma J 371 , Sharma R 372 , Sheikh A 373 , Shields C 1 , Shigematsu M 374 , Shiri R 375 , Shiue I 376 , Shuval K 148 , Siddiqi TJ 377 , Silva JP 89 , Singh JA 378 , Sinha DN 379 , Sisay MM 275 , Sisay S 380 , Sliwa K 294 , Smith DL 1 , Somayaji R 381 , Soofi M 382 , Soriano JB 383 , Sreeramareddy CT 384 , Sudaryanto A 385 , Sufiyan MB 386 , Sykes BL 387 , Sylaja PN 388 , Tabarés-Seisdedos R 389 , Tabb KM 390 , Tabuchi T 391 , Taveira N 392 , Temsah MH 393 , Terkawi AS 394 , Tessema ZT 275 , Thankappan KR 395 , Thirunavukkarasu S 396 , To QG 397 , Tovani-Palone MR 398 , Tran BX 399 , Tran KB 400 , Ullah I 401 , Usman MS 377 , Uthman OA 402 , Vahedian-Azimi A 403 , Valdez PR 404 , van Boven JFM 405 , Vasankari TJ 406 , Vasseghian Y 337 , Veisani Y 407 , Venketasubramanian N 408 , Violante FS 409 , Vladimirov SK 410 , Vlassov V 411 , Vos T 1 , Vu GT 162 , Vujcic IS 412 , Waheed Y 413 , Wakefield J 414 , Wang H 1 , Wang Y 415 , Wang YP 416 , Ward JL 417 , Weintraub RG 418 , Weldegwergs KG 291 , Weldesamuel GT 419 , Westerman R 420 , Wiysonge CS 421 , Wondafrash DZ 422 , Woyczynski L 1 , Wu AM 423 , Xu G 424 , Yadegar A 258 , Yamada T 425 , Yazdi-Feyzabadi V 426 , Yilgwan CS 427 , Yip P 428 , Yonemoto N 429 , Lebni JY 240 , Younis MZ 430 , Yousefifard M 431 , Yousof HSA 432 , Yu C 415 , Yusefzadeh H 433 , Zabeh E 434 , Moghadam TZ 41 , Bin Zaman S 435 , Zamani M 436 , Zandian H 437 , Zangeneh A 382 , Zerfu TA 438 , Zhang Y 439 , Ziapour A 240 , Zodpey S 440 , Murray CJL 1 , Hay SI 441

Affiliations 

  • 1 Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
  • 2 Department of Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
  • 3 Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
  • 4 Department of Neurology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
  • 5 Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran
  • 6 The Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 7 Multiple Sclerosis Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 8 Department of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • 9 Research Department, Philippine Institute for Development Studies, Quezon City, The Philippines
  • 10 Department of Preventive Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju, South Korea
  • 11 College of Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • 12 School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
  • 13 School of Health, Ardabil University of Medical Science, Ardabil, Iran
  • 14 Department of Community Medicine, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, Iran
  • 15 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran
  • 16 School of Pharmacy, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, UK
  • 17 Environmental Technologies Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
  • 18 Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
  • 19 James P. Grant School of Public Health, Brac University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • 20 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
  • 21 Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • 22 Evidence Based Practice Center, Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Rochester, MN, USA
  • 23 Prevention Division, Queensland Health, Herston, Queensland, Australia
  • 24 School of Health Sciences, Madda Walabu University, Bale Goba, Ethiopia
  • 25 Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
  • 26 Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran
  • 27 Department of Health Care Management and Economics, Urmia University of Medical Science, Urmia, Iran
  • 28 Health Economics Department, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 29 Department of Health Policy and Management, Kuwait University, Safat, Kuwait
  • 30 Faculty of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
  • 31 Medical Research Center, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
  • 32 King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • 33 Research Group in Health Economics, Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena, Colombia
  • 34 Biomedical Science, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana
  • 35 Health Services Management Department, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
  • 36 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of the Philippines Manila, Manila, The Philippines
  • 37 Department of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece
  • 38 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran
  • 39 Research Center for Evidence Based Medicine-Health Management and Safety Promotion Research Institute, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
  • 40 Department of Health Policy and Administration, University of the Philippines Manila, Manila, The Philippines
  • 41 Health Management and Economics Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 42 Department of Health Promotion and Education, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 43 School of Health Sciences, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UK
  • 44 School of Nursing and Midwifery, Saveh University of Medical Sciences, Saveh, Iran
  • 45 School of Science and Health, Western Sydney University, Penrith, New South Wales, Australia
  • 46 Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 47 Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
  • 48 Preventive Medicine and Public Health Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 49 Education Development Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
  • 50 Non-communicable Diseases Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 51 Center for Clinical Global Health Education, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
  • 52 The Judith Lumley Centre, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 53 Department of Family and Community Health, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana
  • 54 Center for Infectious Diseases Research, Babol, Iran
  • 55 Public Health Risk Sciences Division, Public Health Agency of Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 56 Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
  • 57 Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences Division, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
  • 58 School of Nursing and Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 59 Clinic for Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia
  • 60 Barcelona Institute for Global Health, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
  • 61 Department of Psychiatry, Melbourne Medical School, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 62 Health Human Resources Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
  • 63 Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
  • 64 Department of Neuroscience, Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Milan, Italy
  • 65 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
  • 66 Hepatitis Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
  • 67 Pharmacoepidemiology and Social Pharmacy, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia
  • 68 School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA
  • 69 Department of Public Health, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia
  • 70 Hubert Department of Global Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
  • 71 London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK
  • 72 The Centre for Global Child Health, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 73 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
  • 74 Department of Veterinary Medicine, Karaj Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran
  • 75 Department of Psychology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
  • 76 Neuroscience Department, Institute for Scientific Research and High Technology Services, City of Knowledge, Panama
  • 77 Big Data Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Information and Discovery, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
  • 78 Department of Community Medicine, Employees' State Insurance Model Hospital, Bangalore, India
  • 79 Department for Health Care Management, Technical University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany
  • 80 School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 81 Centre for Population Health Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore
  • 82 Department of Population and Health, Metropolitan Autonomous University, Mexico City, Mexico
  • 83 Colombian National Health Observatory, National Institute of Health, Bogota, Colombia
  • 84 Mary Mackillop Institute for Health Research, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 85 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
  • 86 Division of Epidemiology, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata, India
  • 87 Faculty of Biology, Hanoi National University of Education, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • 88 Department of Rheumatology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
  • 89 Applied Molecular Biosciences Unit (UCIBIO), University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
  • 90 Institute of Public Health Kalyani, Kalyani, India
  • 91 Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
  • 92 Department of General Surgery, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
  • 93 Heidelberg Institute of Global Health (HIGH), Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany
  • 94 Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
  • 95 School of Pharmacy, Aksum University, Aksum, Ethiopia
  • 96 School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  • 97 Division of Cardiology, Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur, GA, USA
  • 98 Public Health Nutrition, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
  • 99 Centre for Atmospheric Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India
  • 100 Health Research Section, Nepal Health Research Council, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • 101 Center of Complexity Sciences, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico
  • 102 Department of Health Policy and Economy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
  • 103 School of Medicine, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil
  • 104 Environmental Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
  • 105 Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia
  • 106 Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
  • 107 National Institute for Health Researchers, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 108 Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
  • 109 Department of Clinical Pathology, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
  • 110 Pediatric Dentistry and Dental Public Health, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
  • 111 Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 112 Ophthalmic Epidemiology Research Center, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran
  • 113 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt
  • 114 Epidemiology and Population Health, British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 115 Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
  • 116 College of Medicine, Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • 117 Department of Parasitology, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
  • 118 Department of Psychology, Federal University of Sergipe, Sao Cristovao, Brazil
  • 119 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
  • 120 Environmental Health Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 121 Department of Public Health Nutrition, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
  • 122 Department of Neurobiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 123 Center for Biotechnology and Fine Chemistry, Catholic University of Portugal, Porto, Portugal
  • 124 Psychiatry Department, Kaiser Permanente, Fontana, CA, USA
  • 125 Department of Public Health Medicine, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany
  • 126 Institute of Gerontology, National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
  • 127 Abadan School of Medical Sciences, Abadan, Iran
  • 128 Clinical Medicine and Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
  • 129 Gene Expression & Regulation Program, Cancer Institute (W.I.A.), Philadelphia, PA, USA
  • 130 Department of Environmental Health Science, Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Milan, Italy
  • 131 Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia
  • 132 Department of Epidemiology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
  • 133 School of Nursing, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia
  • 134 Vaccines Department, Pfizer, Collegeville, PA, USA
  • 135 Department of Pharmacy, Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia
  • 136 Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
  • 137 Department of Neurology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 138 Department of Health Services Management, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 139 Unit of Academic Primary Care, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  • 140 Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
  • 141 School of BioSciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
  • 142 Department of Chemistry, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
  • 143 Nursing and Health Sciences Department, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA, USA
  • 144 Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK, USA
  • 145 Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Section, Cancer Prevention and Research Institute, Florence, Italy
  • 146 Postgraduate Program in Epidemiology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil
  • 147 Department of Primary Care and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK
  • 148 School of Public Health, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel
  • 149 School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 150 Department of Pharmacology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 151 Global and Community Mental Health Research Group, University of Macau, Macao, China
  • 152 School of Health and Environmental Studies, Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
  • 153 Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
  • 154 Biomedical Research Networking Center for Mental Health Network (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain
  • 155 School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
  • 156 Healthcare Management, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran
  • 157 Department of Microbiology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 158 School of Nursing and Midwifery Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
  • 159 Public Health Department, Mizan-Tepi University, Teppi, Ethiopia
  • 160 School of Public Health, Curtin University, Bentley, Western Australia, Australia
  • 161 Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
  • 162 Center of Excellence in Behavioral Medicine, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam
  • 163 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Guilan Road Trauma Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran
  • 164 Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Department, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
  • 165 Health Systems and Population Studies Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • 166 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 167 Faculty of Dentistry, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
  • 168 Division of Information and Computing Technology, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Doha, Qatar
  • 169 Faculty of Medicine Tunis, Medicine School of Tunis, Baab Saadoun, Tunisia
  • 170 Department of Community Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • 171 Department of Public Health, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
  • 172 Global Health and Development Department, Taipei Medical University, Taipei City, Taiwan
  • 173 Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 174 MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
  • 175 Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria, Australia
  • 176 Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
  • 177 Psychosis Department, Babol Nushirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran
  • 178 Psychiatric Department, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
  • 179 Department of Medical Mycology, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
  • 180 Faculty of Graduate Studies, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka
  • 181 School of Midwifery, A.T. Still University, Mesa, AZ, USA
  • 182 Environmental Research Center, Duke Kunshan University, Kunshan, China
  • 183 Department of Medicine, University of Miami, Atlantis, FL, USA
  • 184 Department of Ophthalmology, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany
  • 185 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 186 Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Opole, Opole, Poland
  • 187 Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 188 Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia
  • 189 Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
  • 190 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran
  • 191 Department of Epidemiology, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
  • 192 Research and Development, Australian Red Cross Blood Service, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 193 Hematologic Malignancies Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 194 Odel Campus, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
  • 195 Tabriz Health Management Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
  • 196 Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Ramtha, Jordan
  • 197 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
  • 198 Epidemiology and Biostatistics Department, Health Services Academy, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • 199 Population Studies, International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, India
  • 200 Department of Internal Medicine, John H. Stroger Jr Hospital of Cook County, Chicago, IL, USA
  • 201 Institute of Health Policy and Management, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea
  • 202 Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK
  • 203 Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology Department, National Hepatology and Tropical Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt
  • 204 Department of Medical Parasitology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
  • 205 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
  • 206 Department of Public Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
  • 207 Department of Nutrition and Health Science, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA
  • 208 School of Medicine, Xiamen University Malaysia, Sepang, Malaysia
  • 209 Department of Nutrition, Simmons College, Boston, MA, USA
  • 210 Department of Health Management and Health Economics, Kristiania University College, Oslo, Norway
  • 211 Nursing and Health Promotion, Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway
  • 212 Department of Public Health, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia
  • 213 Independent Consultant, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • 214 Department of Internal and Pulmonary Medicine, Sheri Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, India
  • 215 Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain
  • 216 Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
  • 217 Department of Anthropology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India
  • 218 Family and Community Health, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana
  • 219 Public Health Foundation of India, Gurugram, India
  • 220 Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
  • 221 International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, India
  • 222 Department of Public Health Medicine, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
  • 223 Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
  • 224 Department of Pediatrics, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
  • 225 Department of Community and Family Medicine, Academy of Medical Science, Baghdad, Iraq
  • 226 Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 227 School of Nursing, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
  • 228 Department of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 229 Department of Dentistry, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
  • 230 Department of Vector Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK
  • 231 Institute of Nutrition, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany
  • 232 Physiology Department, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt
  • 233 Department of Cardiology, Damietta University, Damietta, Egypt
  • 234 Ophthalmology Department, Aswan Faculty of Medicine, Aswan, Egypt
  • 235 Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 236 Department of Maternal and Child Nursing and Public Health, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
  • 237 Institute for Social Science Research, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 238 Ophthalmology Department, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 239 Surgery Department, Emergency University Hospital Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania
  • 240 Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 241 Campus Caucaia, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Ceará, Caucaia, Brazil
  • 242 Faculty of Health and Education, Botho University-Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana
  • 243 Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
  • 244 School of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 245 Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden
  • 246 Department of Health Services Research and Policy, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK
  • 247 Preventive Oncology Department, National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research, Noida, India
  • 248 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
  • 249 Peru Country Office, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), Lima, Peru
  • 250 Forensic Medicine Division, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
  • 251 Neurocenter, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
  • 252 Breast Surgery Unit, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
  • 253 Clinical Microbiology and Parasitology Unit, Dr Zora Profozic Polyclinic, Zagreb, Croatia
  • 254 Health, Evidence and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 255 Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  • 256 Department of Public Health, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi, India
  • 257 Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
  • 258 Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 259 Faculty of General Medicine, Kyrgyz State Medical Academy, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
  • 260 Health Equity Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 261 Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 262 Information Technology Department, University of Human Development, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq
  • 263 Department of Biostatistics, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
  • 264 School of Pharmacy, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia
  • 265 Institute of Public Health, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany
  • 266 Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London, UK
  • 267 Clinical Epidemiology and Public Health Research Unit, Burlo Garofolo Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Trieste, Italy
  • 268 Health Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
  • 269 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
  • 270 Department of Epidemiology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 271 Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Bath, Bath, UK
  • 272 International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 273 Department of Health Management and Economics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 274 Federal Institute for Population Research, Wiesbaden, Germany
  • 275 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
  • 276 Department of Pediatric Medicine, Nishtar Medical University, Multan, Pakistan
  • 277 Department of Urology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 278 Operating Room Department, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
  • 279 Research and Analytics, Initiative for Financing Health and Human Development, Chennai, India
  • 280 Cancer Research Center of Cancer Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 281 Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
  • 282 Suraj Eye Institute, Nagpur, India
  • 283 Cochrane South Africa, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa
  • 284 Emergency Hospital of Bucharest, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
  • 285 Anatomy and Embryology Department, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
  • 286 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Embu, Embu, Kenya
  • 287 Institute for Global Health Innovations, Duy Tan University, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • 288 Center for Excellence in Behavioral Health, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam
  • 289 Global Health Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
  • 290 State University of Semarang, Public Health Science Department, Kota Semarang, Indonesia
  • 291 Clinical Pharmacy Unit, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia
  • 292 University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 293 Department of Health Economics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
  • 294 Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
  • 295 Centre of Cardiovascular Research and Education in Therapeutics, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 296 Translational Health Research Institute, Western Sydney University, Penrith, New South Wales, Australia
  • 297 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 298 Gastroenterology and Liver Disease Research Center, A.C.S. Medical College and Hospital, Tehran, Iran
  • 299 Department of Food Science and Postharvest Technology, Gulu University, Gulu, Uganda
  • 300 Centre for Healthy Start Initiative, Lagos, Nigeria
  • 301 Department of Health Promotion and Education, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • 302 Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu, Nigeria
  • 303 University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
  • 304 Center for Health Systems Research, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico
  • 305 School of Medicine, Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 306 Environmental Management and Toxicology, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
  • 307 Faculty of Geoinformation Science and Earth Observation, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands
  • 308 Analytical Center, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Russia
  • 309 Institute for Advanced Medical Research and Training, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • 310 Department of Tb & Respiratory Medicine, Jagadguru Sri Shivarathreeswara University, Mysore, India
  • 311 Department of Medicine, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 312 Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany
  • 313 Department of Medical Humanities and Social Medicine, Kosin University, Busan, South Korea
  • 314 Research and Evaluation, Population Council, New Delhi, India
  • 315 Center for Research and Innovation, Ateneo De Manila University, Pasig City, The Philippines
  • 316 Department of Genetics, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA
  • 317 Department of Cardiology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
  • 318 Parasitology and Entomology Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
  • 319 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
  • 320 National Centre for Register-Based Research, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
  • 321 Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran
  • 322 Non-communicable Diseases Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran
  • 323 Gorgas Memorial Institute for Health Studies, Panama, Panama
  • 324 Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
  • 325 College of Graduate Health Sciences, A.T. Still University, Mesa, AZ, USA
  • 326 Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
  • 327 Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 328 Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
  • 329 Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 330 Department of Health Education & Promotion, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
  • 331 Department of Nephrology, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, India
  • 332 Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 333 Policy Research Institute, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • 334 Institute of Public Health, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil
  • 335 School of Behavioral Sciences and Mental Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 336 School of Social Sciences and Psychology, Western Sydney University, Penrith, New South Wales, Australia
  • 337 Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health (RCEDH), Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
  • 338 Department of Epidemiology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 339 EPIUnit, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
  • 340 Department of Clinical Research, Federal University of Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Brazil
  • 341 Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  • 342 Martin School, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
  • 343 Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
  • 344 Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
  • 345 School of Biotechnology, Ikiam Amazon Regional University, Tena, Ecuador
  • 346 Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy
  • 347 Department of Health, Safety and Environment (HSE), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 348 Faculty of Public Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
  • 349 Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
  • 350 Department of Anatomical Sciences, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
  • 351 Department of Pathology, Al-Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • 352 Taleghani Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
  • 353 Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
  • 354 Center for Health Policy & Center for Primary Care and Outcomes Research, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
  • 355 Department of Entomology, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
  • 356 Centre School of Public Health and Health Management, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
  • 357 Post-graduate Program in Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
  • 358 Department of Community Medicine, PSG Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Coimbatore, India
  • 359 Department of Health and Society, Faculty of Medicine, University of Applied and Environmental Sciences, Bogotá, Colombia
  • 360 Department of Health Metrics Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
  • 361 Surgery Department, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar
  • 362 School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK
  • 363 Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
  • 364 Center of Expertise in Microbiology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 365 Department of Health Promotion and Education, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran
  • 366 Independent Consultant, Karachi, Pakistan
  • 367 Medical Laboratory Sciences, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
  • 368 Chronic Diseases (Home Care) Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
  • 369 Department of Laboratory Sciences, Karaj Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran
  • 370 HIV/STI Surveillance Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • 371 Policy and Planning Division, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • 372 University School of Management and Entrepreneurship, Delhi Technological University, New Delhi, India
  • 373 Division of General Internal Medicine and Primary Care, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA
  • 374 National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan
  • 375 Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland
  • 376 Institute of Medical Epidemiology, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany
  • 377 Department of Internal Medicine, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan
  • 378 Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
  • 379 Department of Epidemiology, School of Preventive Oncology, Patna, India
  • 380 Medical Division, German Leprosy and TB Relief Association Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  • 381 Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
  • 382 Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
  • 383 Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 384 Division of Community Medicine, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 385 Department of Nursing, Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta, Kartasura, Indonesia
  • 386 Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
  • 387 Department of Criminology, Law and Society, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA
  • 388 Neurology Department, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, India
  • 389 Carlos III Health Institute, Biomedical Research Networking Center for Mental Health Network (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain
  • 390 School of Social Work, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA
  • 391 Cancer Control Center, Osaka International Cancer Institute, Osaka, Japan
  • 392 University Institute 'Egas Moniz', Monte Da Caparica, Portugal
  • 393 Department of Pediatrics, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • 394 Anesthesiology Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA
  • 395 Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Central University Kerala, Kasaragod, India
  • 396 Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore
  • 397 School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 398 Department of Pathology and Legal Medicine, University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  • 399 Department of Health Economics, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • 400 Department of Molecular Medicine and Pathology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
  • 401 Gomal Center of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan
  • 402 Division of Health Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  • 403 Department of Education and Health, Trauma Research Center, Tehran, Iran
  • 404 Argentine Society of Medicine, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • 405 University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
  • 406 Ukk Institute, Tampere, Finland
  • 407 Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran
  • 408 Raffles Neuroscience Centre, Raffles Hospital, Singapore, Singapore
  • 409 Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
  • 410 Department of Information Technologies and Management, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Russia
  • 411 Department of Health Care Administration and Economy, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia
  • 412 Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
  • 413 Foundation University Medical College, Foundation University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
  • 414 Department of Statistics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
  • 415 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
  • 416 Department of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  • 417 Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK
  • 418 Cardiology Department, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 419 School of Nursing, Aksum University, Aksum, Ethiopia
  • 420 Competence Center of Mortality-Follow-Up, Federal Institute for Population Research, Wiesbaden, Germany
  • 421 Cochrane South Africa, Medical Research Council South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa
  • 422 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia
  • 423 Zhejiang Spine Research Center, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China
  • 424 School of Medicine, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China
  • 425 Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
  • 426 Department of Health Management, Policy and Economics, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • 427 Department of Pediatrics, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
  • 428 Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
  • 429 Department of Psychopharmacology, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan
  • 430 Health Economics & Finance, Global Health, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS, USA
  • 431 Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 432 Medical Parasitology Department, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
  • 433 Department of Health Management and Economics, A.C.S. Medical College and Hospital, Tehran, Iran
  • 434 Department of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
  • 435 Maternal and Child Health Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • 436 Student Research Committee, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
  • 437 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Ardabil University of Medical Science, Ardabil, Iran
  • 438 Maternal and Child Wellbeing Unit, African Population Health Research Centre, Nairobi, Kenya
  • 439 Department of Preventative Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
  • 440 Indian Institute of Public Health, Public Health Foundation of India, Gurugram, India
  • 441 Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. sihay@uw.edu
Nature, 2019 10;574(7778):353-358.
PMID: 31619795 DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1545-0

Abstract

Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2-to end preventable child deaths by 2030-we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000-2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

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