The literature on choice of endotracheal tube in paediatric anaesthesia is reviewed. 643 Malaysian patients were studied regarding size of tube required for endotracheal intubation in a 4-year period. In the 2-10 year age group (500 cases) it was found that the size required is 0.5 mm (internal diameter) less than that currently recommended by a formula based on experience with Western patients. A new formula is proposed for the Malaysian patient as a guide for anaesthetists under training in this part of the world.
The aim of this review was to summarise published literature on child abuse and neglect and its consequences in Malaysia, to discuss the implications of the research findings and to identify gaps in the local literature on child abuse and neglect. Medical and social literature in the English language published between the year 2000 to 2015 were searched for, resulting in forty four papers to be reviewed inclusive of a few key papers in the earlier years to provide some background information. The literature shows that child abuse and neglect is an important impact factor on mental health outcomes, involvement in substance abuse and delinquency due to the slant of the research interest from social studies. At least 70% of perpetrators are known to the affected children according to school-based prevalence studies. Safety programs and rehabilitation outcome studies involve small cohort groups. Studies on childhood mortality from child abuse or neglect are very limited. Overall, there are a few comprehensive studies involving school children but overall available studies are too patchy in to advocate for resource allocation, change in statutory procedures or training requirements. More extensive studies looking at the complex interaction of social environment, parenting skills, societal attitudes and responses, resilience factors and child safety nets and statutory response and their impact on different types of abuse or neglect are required.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease commonly found among the Caucasian population. The availability of sweat test and with increasing experience have made it possible to diagnose more cases of CF. Our first case of CF was diagnosed 16 years ago and to date we have managed sixteen cases of CF. Sixteen children were diagnosed with CF in our units at the Paediatric Institute and University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). They were referred with either one or all of the following symptoms: i) recurrent pneumonia, ii) bronchiectasis, iii) failure to thrive, iii) malabsorption or iv) history of meconium ileus obstruction during the neonatal period. When the clinical features suggested strongly of CF, sweat tests will be performed in duplicates and considered positive when the sweat chloride or sweat sodium was more than 60 mmol/l for both results. Seventy- two hours fecal fat excretion or stool for fat globule was performed to document malabsorption. From the year 1987 to 2003, 16 patients were confirmed to have cystic fibrosis in Malaysia by positive sweat tests. Thirteen patients were diagnosed in Paediatric Institute while the remaining three were diagnosed in UMMC. On follow-up two patients died due to severe bronchopneumonia at the age of two years old. Although once considered rare, CF should now be considered in any children with clinical presentations of recurrent chest infections, bronchiectasis, in the presence or absence of malabsoption stmptoms and in neonates with meconium ileus obstruction.
Childhood obesity has been growing at an alarming rate and is the most common nutritional problem among children in developed as well as in developing countries. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, including cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, endocrine and psychosocial morbidities. This unhealthy trend will progress to adulthood and is expected to lead to huge economic costs in health and social security systems. Among the many factors which contribute to the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity include environment and genetic factors. This paper discusses the aetiology, consequences and necessary interventions for this problem.
Child maltreatment is a substantial public health problem worldwide. Although extensively studied in Western countries, until recently little systematic research had been published about the situation in the world's most populous nation and ethnic diaspora. In this review, we examine trends from community-based research with Chinese young people and parents in mainland China, Hong Kong SAR, Taiwan, Singapore, and Malaysia. It is clear that many Chinese adolescents experience a substantial burden from various forms of maltreatment and the psychological and behavioral correlates are similar to those found in other cultures. However, the research reveals a large gap between this reality and Chinese adults' perceptions about emotional, physical, and sexual abuse. Comprehensive awareness programs are needed to close this information gap and thereby mobilize support for prevention and care initiatives.
The Griffiths Scales for Mental Development were used to assess a group of 60 normal 2-year old Malaysian children (25 Indian, 23 Malay and 12 Chinese). The mean GQ was 104.2 (SD 9.3). This was significantly higher than the test mean of 100, p < 0.001. The mean score for Malaysian children was significantly higher on the locomotor, personal social, performance and practical reasoning subscales while they were significantly lower on the hand eye subscale and did not differ from the test mean on the hearing and speech subscale. There was a significant correlation between GQ and social class, r = -0.39, p < 0.05. Scores were lower than those currently obtained on British children, p < 0.001. Minor difficulties due to language and cultural factors arose over the interpretation of several items but with standardisation of these items the test is useful in Malaysian children.
Taking a form of Official Development Aid (ODA), the Japan International Cooperation of Welfare Services (JICWELS) and Imperial Gift Foundation, Boshi-Aiiku-Kai (Aiiku Association for Maternal and Child Health and Welfare) have extended a study program on maternal and child health (MCH) since 1989 on the commission of the Ministry of Health and Welfare. 'Community participation' is the key to the first international study program focused solely on MCH. The purpose of the program is to help to improve the planning and administration in the field of MCH. Through this, the information and experience attained in Japanese MCH activities are introduced especially by participation in community-level activities of 'Aiiku-Han' in which local citizens play a major role. The operation system of the Asian MCH Workshop, contents of the workshop, evaluation and future prospects are discussed.
Two cases of girls seen in Sarawak with the diagnosis of Rett Syndrome are reported. Their ages were 6 and 2 years respectively at the time of the report. Diagnosis is made clinically as there is as yet no scientific marker. Specific diagnostic criteria were met. There was a history of slowing of development followed by loss of previously acquired skills, changes in emotional development and behaviour and the definite emergency of stereotyped behaviour especially hand wringing in both girls. Onset was early in both girls, around nine months. Both girls are profoundly retarded mentally but the regression appeared to be static at present.
Pseudoseizures, weakness of limbs, elective mutism, dystonia and behaviour problems were the presenting symptoms in three children from three different families with crises superimposed on chronic marital and familial stresses. Lack of open communication among parents and children contribute to the use of physical symptoms as an expression of emotional conflicts. Psychotherapeutic management includes individual and family counselling which begin with obtaining a history of psychosocial background and recent stresses. The families, in addition to seeking modern medical intervention, proceeded with their own religious, cultural and social management.