OBJECTIVE: The review aimed to familiarize physicians with the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, evaluation, and management of scabies.
METHODS: A search was conducted using Pubmed with the built-in "Clinical Queries" tool. The search term "Scabies" was used. The categories of "epidemiology", "diagnosis", "therapy", "prevention" and "prognosis" had a limited scope for primary clinical studies. Meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, observational studies, and reviews were included. Only papers published in the English language were included. A descriptive, narrative synthesis was provided of the retrieved articles.
RESULTS: Worldwide, scabies affects 200 to 300 million individuals annually. The average prevalence is estimated to be 5 to 10% in children of developing countries. Transmission usually occurs after close prolonged skin-to-skin contact. Classic scabies is characterized by an erythematous papular eruption, serpiginous burrows, and intense pruritus. Sites of predilection include the webs of the fingers, volar wrists, lateral aspects of fingers, extensor surfaces of elbows and knees, waist, navel, abdomen, buttocks, groins, and, genitals. A clinical diagnosis of classic scabies can be made on the basis of the history and clinical findings. Other clinical variants include crusted scabies, nodular scabies, and bullous scabies. Finding the mite, ova, or fecal pellets on microscopic examination of scrapings taken from skin lesions confirms the diagnosis of scabies infestation. For eradication of scabies mites, the drugs of choice are topical permethrin and oral ivermectin.
CONCLUSION: Scabies is a highly contagious parasitic cutaneous disease that is stigmatising and debilitating. Increased awareness, accurate diagnosis, and prompt treatment are essential for the effective control of scabies and for the prevention of the spread of the disease.
METHODS: This paper draws on a 12-country study series on MSC for health and sustainable development, in the context of the health and rights of women, children and adolescents. It is written by core members of the research coordination and country teams. Issues were analyzed during the study period through 'real-time' discussions and structured reporting, as well as through literature reviews and retrospective feedback and analysis at the end of the study.
RESULTS: We identify four considerations that are unique to MSC research which will be of interest to other researchers, in the context of COVID-19 and beyond: 1) use theoretical frameworks to frame research questions as relevant to all sectors and to facilitate theoretical generalizability and evolution; 2) specifically incorporate sectoral analysis into MSC research methods; 3) develop a core set of research questions, using mixed methods and contextual adaptations as needed, with agreement on criteria for research rigor; and 4) identify shared indicators of success and failure across sectors to assess MSCs.
CONCLUSION: In responding to COVID-19 it is evident that effective MSC is an urgent priority. It enables partners from diverse sectors to effectively convene to do more together than alone. Our findings have practical relevance for achieving this objective and contribute to the growing literature on partnerships and collaboration. We must seize the opportunity here to identify remaining knowledge gaps on how diverse sectors can work together efficiently and effectively in different settings to accelerate progress towards achieving shared goals.