Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 39 in total

  1. Guo Y, Lip GY, Apostolakis S
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Jul;19(3):1-7.
    PMID: 23610543 MyJurnal
    The prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is high in both community- and hospital-based studies in the Far East and South East Asia. Hypertension is the most common risk factor, but coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus are other important co-morbidities in these countries. Anticoagulant therapy use was low, being 0.5%-28% in Malaysia, Singapore, and China. The reported rate of stroke related to AF was 13.0%-15.4% based on community studies in those countries, and was 3.1%-24.2% of stroke rate in hospital-based cohorts. Better assessment of thromboembolic and bleeding risks is important. International guidelines now recommend the use of the CHA2DS2-VASc score to identify the ''truly low-risk'' AF patients, who do not need antithrombotic therapy, whilst those with ≥ 1 stroke risk factors can be offered oral anticoagulation. Aspirin is ineffective and may not be any safer than oral anticoagulants, especially in the elderly. It is anticipated that the availability of the new oral anticoagulant drugs would improve our efforts for stroke prevention in the Far East and South East Asia, especially where anticoagulation monitoring for warfarin is suboptimal.
  2. Banu S, Hu W, Guo Y, Naish S, Tong S
    PLoS One, 2014;9(2):e89440.
    PMID: 24586780 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089440
    BACKGROUND: Dengue fever (DF) is one of the most important emerging arboviral human diseases. Globally, DF incidence has increased by 30-fold over the last fifty years, and the geographic range of the virus and its vectors has expanded. The disease is now endemic in more than 120 countries in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. This study examines the spatiotemporal trends of DF transmission in the Asia-Pacific region over a 50-year period, and identified the disease's cluster areas.

    METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: The World Health Organization's DengueNet provided the annual number of DF cases in 16 countries in the Asia-Pacific region for the period 1955 to 2004. This fifty-year dataset was divided into five ten-year periods as the basis for the investigation of DF transmission trends. Space-time cluster analyses were conducted using scan statistics to detect the disease clusters. This study shows an increasing trend in the spatiotemporal distribution of DF in the Asia-Pacific region over the study period. Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Singapore and Malaysia are identified as the most likely clusters (relative risk = 13.02) of DF transmission in this region in the period studied (1995 to 2004). The study also indicates that, for the most part, DF transmission has expanded southwards in the region.

    CONCLUSIONS: This information will lead to the improvement of DF prevention and control strategies in the Asia-Pacific region by prioritizing control efforts and directing them where they are most needed.

  3. Deng D, Zhang P, Guo Y, Lim TO
    Ann Rheum Dis, 2017 Aug;76(8):1436-1439.
    PMID: 28478399 DOI: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2017-211073
    OBJECTIVE: We evaluate the efficacy of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell (hUC-MSC) for the treatment of lupus nephritis (LN). Previous reports showed hUC-MSC could have dramatic treatment effect.

    METHODS: Eighteen patients with WHO class III or IV LN were randomly assigned to hUC-MSC (dose 2×108 cells) or placebo. All patients received standard immunosuppressive treatment, which consisted of intravenous methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide, followed by maintenance oral prednisolone and mycophenolate mofetil.

    RESULTS: Remission occurred in 9 of 12 patients (75%) in the hUC-MSC group and 5 of 6 patients (83%) in the placebo group. Remission was defined as stabilisation or improvement in renal function, reduction in urinary red cells and protein. A similar proportion of patients on hUC-MSC and placebo achieved complete remission. Improvements in serum albumin, complement, renal function, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index and British Isles Lupus Assessment Group scores were similar in both groups. One patient on placebo had a stroke and another had ascites. One patient on hUC-MSC had leucopenia, pneumonia and subcutaneous abscess and another died of severe pneumonia. The trial was abandoned after 18 patients were enrolled when it had become obvious it would not demonstrate a positive treatment effect.

    CONCLUSION: hUC-MSC has no apparent additional effect over and above standard immunosuppression.

  4. Guo Y, Alomirah H, Cho HS, Minh TB, Mohd MA, Nakata H, et al.
    Environ Sci Technol, 2011 Apr 1;45(7):3138-44.
    PMID: 21395215 DOI: 10.1021/es103879m
    The occurrence of 14 phthalate metabolites was found in human urine samples collected from seven Asian countries: China, India, Japan, Korea, Kuwait, Malaysia, and Vietnam. Phthalate metabolites were found in all samples, indicating widespread exposure of humans to phthalates in these Asian countries. The highest total (the sum of 14 phthalates) phthalate metabolite concentrations were found in samples collected from Kuwait (median: 1050 ng/mL), followed in decreasing order by samples from India (389 ng/mL), China (234 ng/mL), Vietnam (133 ng/mL), Japan (120 ng/mL), Korea (117 ng/mL), and Malaysia (94.9 ng/mL). The creatinine-adjusted median concentrations of total phthalates for urine samples from Kuwait, India, China, Vietnam, Japan, Korea, and Malaysia were 692, 506, 289, 119, 103, 104, and 169 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Monomethyl phthalate (mMP), monoethyl phthalate (mEP), mono (2-isobutyl phthalate) (miBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (mBP), and metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were the dominant compounds, collectively accounting for >95% of the total concentrations in the samples from the seven countries. The profiles of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations varied among the samples collected from the seven countries. Urine samples from Kuwait contained the highest concentrations of mEP (median: 391 ng/mL), mBP (94.1 ng/mL), and the metabolites of DEHP (202 ng/mL), whereas samples from China and Japan contained the highest concentrations of miBP (50.8 ng/mL) and mMP (17.5 ng/mL), respectively. mEP was the predominant metabolite in urine samples from India and Kuwait (accounting for 49% of the total), mBP and miBP were the predominant compounds in samples from China (52%), and DEHP metabolites were the predominant compounds in samples from Korea (46%) and Vietnam (52%). Based on the urinary concentrations of mEP, mBP, miBP, and DEHP metabolites of the samples from the seven Asian countries, we estimated daily intake rates of diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and DEHP. The results indicated that people in the seven Asian countries are exposed to DEP, DBP, and DEHP at levels well below the reference doses (RfD) suggested as unsafe by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The estimated exposure doses to DEHP in Kuwait, however, were above the RfD recommended by the EPA.
  5. Guo Y, Senthilkumar K, Alomirah H, Moon HB, Minh TB, Mohd MA, et al.
    Environ Sci Technol, 2013 Mar 19;47(6):2932-8.
    PMID: 23409981 DOI: 10.1021/es3052262
    Concentrations of 12 hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) were determined in 306 urine samples collected from seven Asian countries (China, India, Japan, Korea, Kuwait, Malaysia, and Vietnam) by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The total concentrations of OH-PAHs found in the seven Asian countries were in the following increasing order: Malaysia (median: 2260 pg/mL) < Japan (4030 pg/mL) < China (5770 pg/mL) < India (6750 pg/mL) < Vietnam (8560 pg/mL) < Korea (9340 pg/mL) < Kuwait (10170 pg/mL). The measured urinary concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-PYR) in samples from Malaysia, Korea, and Japan (∼ 100 pg/mL) were similar to those reported for North America and Western Europe. The concentrations of 1-PYR in urine samples from China, India, and Vietnam were 4-10 times higher than those reported for other countries, thus far. Among the 12 OH-PAH compounds analyzed, hydroxynaphthalene (NAP: sum of 1-hydroxynaphthalene and 2-hydroxynaphthalene) was the dominant compound (accounting for 60-90% of total OH-PAHs), followed by hydroxyphenanthrene (PHEN: sum of 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, 3-hydroxyphenanthrene, 4-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 9-hydroxyphenanthrene [3-16%]), 2-hydroxyfluorene (3-20%), and 1-PYR (2-8%). The total daily intakes (DIs) of PAHs were estimated based on the urinary concentrations of their metabolites. The DIs of naphthalene were found to be higher for populations in Korea, Kuwait, and Vietnam (> 10 μg/day) than those of the other countries studied (∼ 5 μg/day). The DIs of phenanthrene and pyrene (> 10 μg/day) in the populations of China, India, and Vietnam were higher than those estimated for the populations in the other countries studied (∼ 5 μg/day).
  6. Fonseka HA, Ameruddin AS, Caroff P, Tedeschi D, De Luca M, Mura F, et al.
    Nanoscale, 2017 Sep 21;9(36):13554-13562.
    PMID: 28872181 DOI: 10.1039/c7nr04598k
    The usability and tunability of the essential InP-InGaAs material combination in nanowire-based quantum wells (QWs) are assessed. The wurtzite phase core-multi-shell InP-InGaAs-InP nanowire QWs are characterised using cross-section transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence measurements. The InP-InGaAs direct interface is found to be sharp while the InGaAs-InP inverted interface is more diffused, in agreement with their planar counterpart. Bright emission is observed from the single nanowires containing the QWs at room temperature, with no emission from the InP core or outer barrier. The tunability of the QW emission wavelength in the 1.3-1.55 μm communication wavelength range is demonstrated by varying the QW thickness and in the 1.3 μm range by varying the composition. The experiments are supported by simulation of the emission wavelength of the wurtzite phase InP-InGaAs QWs in the thickness range considered. The radial heterostructure is further extended to design multiple QWs with bright emission, therefore establishing the capability of this material system for nanowire based optical devices for communication applications.
  7. Yan L, Zhang M, Wang M, Guo Y, Zhang X, Xi J, et al.
    J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2020 03 01;20(3):1504-1510.
    PMID: 31492313 DOI: 10.1166/jnn.2020.17350
    This research has been accomplished using the advanced selective laser melting (SLM) technique as well as HIP post-treatment in order to improve mechanical properties and biocompatibility of Mg- Ca-Sr alloy. Through this research it becomes clearly noticeable that the Mg-1.5Ca-xSr (x = 0.6, 2.1, 2.5) alloys with Sr exhibited better mechanical properties and corrosion potentials. This is more particular with the Mg-1.5Ca-2.5Sr alloy after HIP post-treatment allowing it to provide a desired combination of degradation and mechanical behavior for orthopedic fracture fixation during a desired treatment period. In vivo trials, there was a clear indication and exhibition that this Mg-1.5Ca-2.5Sr alloy screw can completely dissolve in miniature pig's body which leads to an acceleration in growth of bone tissues. Mg-Ca-Sr alloy proved potential candidate for use in orthopedic fixation devices through Our results concluded that Mg-Ca-Sr alloy are potential candidate for use in orthopedic fixation devices through mechanical strength and biocompatibility evaluations (in vitro or In vivo).
  8. Sanjaya EH, Chen Y, Guo Y, Wu J, Chen H, Din MFM, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2021 Dec 24;346:126622.
    PMID: 34958906 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2021.126622
    The simultaneous partial nitritation, anammox, denitrification, and COD oxidation (SNADCO) method was successfully carried out in an air-lift moving bed biofilm reactor (AL-MBBR) with cylinders carriers for the treatment of digested fish processing wastewater (FPW). Synthetic wastewater was used as substrate at stage 1. It changed into the digested FPW with dilution variation in order to increase the nitrogen and COD loading rates. With influent concentration of NH4+-N of 909 ± 101 mg-N/L and COD of 731 ± 26 mg/L, the nitrogen removal efficiency was 86.8% (nitrogen loading rate of 1.21 g-TN/L/d) and the COD removal efficiency was 50.5% (COD loading rate at 0.98 g-COD/L/d). This study showed that the process has the advantages in treating the real high ammonia concentration of digested wastewater containing organic compounds. The nitritation and anammox route was predominant in nitrogen removal, while COD oxidation and microbe proliferation played the main role in COD removal.
  9. Wang Y, Guo Y, Lu J, Sun Y, Yu X, Gopinath SCB, et al.
    Nanoscale Res Lett, 2020 Feb 03;15(1):33.
    PMID: 32016709 DOI: 10.1186/s11671-020-3262-x
    Head and neck cancer is a heterogeneous disease, originating in the squamous cells lining the larynx (voice box), mouth, pharynx (throat), nasal cavity and salivary glands. Head and neck cancer diagnosis at the later stage is greatly influencing the survival rate of the patient. It makes a mandatory situation to identify this cancer at the earlier stages of development with a suitable biomarker. Squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) is a circulating serum tumour biomarker, and the elevated level has been found in the head and neck cancer patients and highly correlated with the tumour volume. The present research was carried out to detect and quantify the level of SCC-Ag on titanium oxide (TiO2)-modified interdigitated electrode sensor (IDE) by SCC-Ag antibody. The detection of SCC-Ag was found at the level of 100 fM, while it was improved to 10 fM when the antibody was conjugated with gold nanostar, representing a 10-fold improvement. Interestingly, this enhancement in sensitivity is 1000-folds higher than other substrates. Moreover, the specificity analysis was carried out using two different control proteins and noticed that the antibody only recognised SCC-Ag, indicating the specific detection on IDE-TiO2 sensing surface.
  10. You X, Liu S, Dai C, Zhong G, Duan Y, Guo Y, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Nov;27(33):41623-41638.
    PMID: 32691313 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-10149-9
    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) can serve as a washing agent in the remediation of low-permeability layers contaminated by heavy metals (HMs). Therefore, batch adsorption experiments, where pure quartz (SM1) and mineral mixtures (SM2) were used as typical soil minerals (SMs) in low-permeability layers, were implemented to explore the effects of different EDTA concentrations, pH, and exogenous chemicals on the HM-SM-EDTA adsorption system. As the EDTA concentration increased, it gradually cut down the maximum Cd adsorption capacities of SM1 and SM2 from approximately 135 to 55 mg/kg and 2660 to 1453 mg/kg; and the maximum Pb adsorption capacities of SM1 and SM2 were reduced from 660 to 306 mg/kg and 19,677 to 19,262 mg/kg, respectively. When the initial mole ratio (MR = moles of HM ions/sum of moles of HM ions and EDTA) was closer to 0.5, the effect of EDTA was more effective. Additionally, EDTA worked well at pH below 7.0 and 4.0 for Cd and Pb, respectively. Low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) affected the system mainly by bridging, complexation, adsorption site competition, and reductive dissolution. Cu2+, Fe2+ ions could significantly increase the Cd and Pb adsorption onto SM2. Notably, there were characteristic changes in mineral particles, including attachment of EDTA and microparticles, agglomeration, connection, and smoother surfaces, making the specific surface area (SSA) decrease from 16.73 to 12.59 m2/g. All findings indicated that EDTA could effectively and economically reduce the HM adsorption capacity of SMs at the reasonable MR value, contact time, and pH; EDTA reduced the HM adsorption capacity of SMs not only by complexation with HM ions but also by decreasing SSA and blocking active sites. Hence, the acquired insight from the presented study can help to promote the remediation of contaminated low-permeability layers in groundwater.
  11. Li G, Tang H, Chen Y, Yin Y, Ogawa S, Liu M, et al.
    Mol Cell Endocrinol, 2018 02 05;461:1-11.
    PMID: 28801227 DOI: 10.1016/j.mce.2017.08.003
    The LHb expression is up-regulated during puberty in female zebrafish. However, the molecular mechanism underlying how LHb expression is regulated during puberty remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that the mRNA expression levels of lhb, fshb and cyp19a1b were up-regulated along with the puberty onset in zebrafish. Among the three nuclear estrogen receptors (nERs), the esr2b is the only type whose expression is significantly up-regulated during puberty onset in the pituitary. However, in situ hybridization results revealed that lhb mRNA was colocalized with esr1 and esr2a but not esr2b. Exposure to estradiol (E2) significantly stimulates LHb expression in both wild-type and kiss1-/-;kiss2-/-;gnrh3-/- triple knockout pubertal zebrafish. Moreover, exposure of cultured pituitary cells to E2 increased the LHb expression, indicating that the estrogenic effect on LHb expression could be acted at the pituitary level. Finally, we cloned and analyzed the promoter of lhb by luciferase assay. Our results indicated that the E2 responsive regions of lhb promoter for ERα and ERβ2 are identical, suggesting that ERα and ERβ2 could bind to the same half ERE region of the promoter of lhb, exhibiting a classical ERE-dependent pathway. In summary, we demonstrate that E2 could directly act on the pituitary level to stimulate LHb transcription during puberty in zebrafish.
  12. Zhang Y, Xu W, Guo H, Zhang Y, He Y, Lee SH, et al.
    Cancer Res, 2017 Apr 17.
    PMID: 28416482 DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-16-1633
    Cancer stem-like cells (CSC) are thought to drive tumor initiation, metastasis, relapse and therapeutic resistance, but their specific pathogenic characters in many cancers including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have yet to be well defined. Here we develop findings that the growth factor HGF promotes CSC sphere formation in NSCLC cell populations. In patient-derived sphere-forming assays (PD-SFA) with HGF, CD49f and CD104 were defined as novel markers of lung CSC (LCSC). In particular, we isolated a subpopulation of CD166(+)CD49f(hi)CD104(-)Lin(-) LCSC present in all human specimens of NSCLC examined, regardless of their histological subtypes or genetic driver mutations. This specific cell population was tumorigenic and capable of self-renewal, giving rise to tumor spheres in vitro and orthotopic lung tumors in immune-compromised mice. Mechanistic investigations established that NOTCH1 was preferentially expressed in this cell subpopulation and required for self-renewal via the transcription factor HES1. Through a distinct HES1-independent pathway, NOTCH1 also protected LCSCs from cisplatin-induced cell death. Notably, treatment with a γ-secretase inhibitor that blunts NOTCH1 function ablated self-renewing LCSC activity and restored platinum sensitivity in vitro and in vivo Overall, our results define the pathogenic characters of a cancer stem-like subpopulation in lung cancer, the targeting of which may relieve platinum resistance in this disease.
  13. Zhang X, Li C, Zhou Y, Huang J, Yu T, Liu X, et al.
    iScience, 2020 Apr 24;23(4):101032.
    PMID: 32304863 DOI: 10.1016/j.isci.2020.101032
    Hanging Coffin is a unique and ancient burial custom that has been practiced in southern China, Southeast Asia, and near Oceania regions for more than 3,000 years. Here, we conducted mitochondrial whole-genome analyses of 41 human remains sampled from 13 Hanging Coffin sites in southern China and northern Thailand, which were dated between ∼2,500 and 660 years before present. We found that there were genetic connections between the Hanging Coffin people living in different geographic regions. Notably, the matrilineal genetic diversity of the Hanging Coffin people from southern China is much higher than those from northern Thailand, consistent with the hypothesized single origin of the Hanging Coffin custom in southern China about 3,600 years ago, followed by its dispersal in southern China through demic diffusion, whereas the major dispersal pattern in Southeast Asia is cultural assimilation in the past 2,000 years.
  14. Zhang X, Deng T, Lu J, Zhao P, Chen L, Qian M, et al.
    Transbound Emerg Dis, 2020 May;67(3):1349-1355.
    PMID: 31943814 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13477
    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), an ongoing emergence enveloped virus with a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome, belongs to the Gammacoronavirus genus in the Coronaviridae family. IBV-associated tracheitis, nephritis, salpingitis, proventriculitis and egg drop have caused devastating economic losses to poultry industry worldwide. Since the end of 2018, a remarkably increasing number of commercial broilers and layers, vaccinated or not, were infected with IBV in China. Here, we described two IB outbreaks with severe respiratory system or kidney injury in IBV-vaccinated commercial poultry farms in central China. Other possible causative viral pathogens, including avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and Kedah fatal kidney syndrome virus (KFKSV), were excluded by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and three virulent IBV strains, HeN-1/China/2019, HeN-2/China/2019 and HeN-101/China/2019, were identified. Although the gross pathologic appearance of these two IB outbreaks was different, the newly identified IBV strains were all closely related to the ck/China/I0529/17 strain and grouped into GI-19 genotype clade based on the sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the complete S1 genes. Moreover, there are still some evolutionary distance between the newly identified IBV strains, HeN-101/China/2019 in particular, and other GI-19 strains, suggesting that Chinese IBV strains constantly emerge and evolve towards different directions. In conclusion, this study provided an insight of the recently emerging IBV outbreaks in IBV-vaccinated commercial poultry farms and identified the genetic characteristics of three virulent GI-19 IBV strains, which shows the need to carry out proper preventive measures and control strategies.
  15. Vermunt J, Bragg F, Halsey J, Yang L, Chen Y, Guo Y, et al.
    PMID: 34728472 DOI: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2021-002495
    INTRODUCTION: We examined the associations between long-term usual random plasma glucose (RPG) levels and cause-specific mortality risks among adults without known diabetes in China.

    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The China Kadoorie Biobank recruited 512,891 adults (59% women) aged 30-79 from 10 regions of China during 2004-2008. At baseline survey, and subsequent resurveys of a random subset of survivors, participants were interviewed and measurements collected, including on-site RPG testing. Cause of death was ascertained via linkage to local mortality registries. Cox regression yielded adjusted HR for all-cause and cause-specific mortality associated with usual levels of RPG.

    RESULTS: During median 11 years' follow-up, 37,214 deaths occurred among 452,993 participants without prior diagnosed diabetes or other chronic diseases. There were positive log-linear relationships between RPG and all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) (n=14,209) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) (n=432) mortality down to usual RPG levels of at least 5.1 mmol/L. At RPG <11.1 mmol/L, each 1.0 mmol/L higher usual RPG was associated with adjusted HRs of 1.14 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.16), 1.16 (1.12 to 1.19) and 1.44 (1.22 to 1.70) for all-cause, CVD and CKD mortality, respectively. Usual RPG was positively associated with chronic liver disease (n=547; 1.45 (1.26 to 1.66)) and cancer (n=12,680; 1.12 (1.09 to 1.16)) mortality, but with comparably lower risks at baseline RPG ≥11.1 mmol/L. These associations persisted after excluding participants who developed diabetes during follow-up.

    CONCLUSIONS: Among Chinese adults without diabetes, higher RPG levels were associated with higher mortality risks from several major diseases, with no evidence of apparent thresholds below the cut-points for diabetes diagnosis.

  16. D'cruz A, Lin T, Anand AK, Atmakusuma D, Calaguas MJ, Chitapanarux I, et al.
    Oral Oncol, 2013 Sep;49(9):872-877.
    PMID: 23830839 DOI: 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2013.05.010
    Head and neck cancer (HNC) is a disease of the upper aerodigestive tract and is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers worldwide. A high rate of cancers involving the head and neck are reported across the Asian region, with notable variations between countries. Disease prognosis is largely dependent on tumor stage and site. Patients with early stage disease have a 60-95% chance of cure with local therapy. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important to increase the likelihood of cure and survival. However, the majority of patients present with locally advanced disease and require multimodality treatment. This necessitates, a multidisciplinary approach which is essential to make appropriate treatment decisions, particularly with regards to tolerability, costs, available infrastructure and quality of life issues. Unfortunately, majority of the studies that dictate current practice have been developed in the west where diseases biology, patient population and available infrastructure are very different from those in the Asian continent. With this in mind an expert panel of Head and Neck Oncologists was convened in May 2012 to review the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) and the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) clinical practice guidelines and develop practical recommendations on the applicability of these guidelines on the management of head and neck cancer for Asian patients. The objective of this review and consensus meeting was to suggest revisions, to account for potential differences in demographics and resources, to the NCCN and ESMO guidelines, to better reflect current clinical management of head and neck cancer within the Asian region for health care providers. These recommendations, which reflect best clinical practice within Asia, are expected to benefit practitioners when making decisions regarding optimal treatment strategies for their patients.
  17. Keam B, Machiels JP, Kim HR, Licitra L, Golusinski W, Gregoire V, et al.
    ESMO Open, 2021 Dec;6(6):100309.
    PMID: 34844180 DOI: 10.1016/j.esmoop.2021.100309
    The most recent version of the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Clinical Practice Guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity, larynx, oropharynx and hypopharynx was published in 2020. It was therefore decided by both the ESMO and the Korean Society of Medical Oncology (KSMO) to convene a special, virtual guidelines meeting in July 2021 to adapt the ESMO 2020 guidelines to consider the potential ethnic differences associated with the treatment of SCCs of the head and neck (SCCHN) in Asian patients. These guidelines represent the consensus opinions reached by experts in the treatment of patients with SCCHN (excluding nasopharyngeal carcinomas) representing the oncological societies of Korea (KSMO), China (CSCO), India (ISMPO), Japan (JSMO), Malaysia (MOS), Singapore (SSO) and Taiwan (TOS). The voting was based on scientific evidence and was independent of the current treatment practices and drug access restrictions in the different Asian countries. The latter was discussed when appropriate. This manuscript provides a series of expert recommendations (Clinical Practice Guidelines) which can be used to provide guidance to health care providers and clinicians for the optimisation of the diagnosis, treatment and management of patients with SCC of the oral cavity, larynx, oropharynx and hypopharynx across Asia.
  18. Xiao K, Zhai J, Feng Y, Zhou N, Zhang X, Zou JJ, et al.
    Nature, 2020 07;583(7815):286-289.
    PMID: 32380510 DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2313-x
    The current outbreak of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) poses unprecedented challenges to global health1. The new coronavirus responsible for this outbreak-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-shares high sequence identity to SARS-CoV and a bat coronavirus, RaTG132. Although bats may be the reservoir host for a variety of coronaviruses3,4, it remains unknown whether SARS-CoV-2 has additional host species. Here we show that a coronavirus, which we name pangolin-CoV, isolated from a Malayan pangolin has 100%, 98.6%, 97.8% and 90.7% amino acid identity with SARS-CoV-2 in the E, M, N and S proteins, respectively. In particular, the receptor-binding domain of the S protein of pangolin-CoV is almost identical to that of SARS-CoV-2, with one difference in a noncritical amino acid. Our comparative genomic analysis suggests that SARS-CoV-2 may have originated in the recombination of a virus similar to pangolin-CoV with one similar to RaTG13. Pangolin-CoV was detected in 17 out of the 25 Malayan pangolins that we analysed. Infected pangolins showed clinical signs and histological changes, and circulating antibodies against pangolin-CoV reacted with the S protein of SARS-CoV-2. The isolation of a coronavirus from pangolins that is closely related to SARS-CoV-2 suggests that these animals have the potential to act as an intermediate host of SARS-CoV-2. This newly identified coronavirus from pangolins-the most-trafficked mammal in the illegal wildlife trade-could represent a future threat to public health if wildlife trade is not effectively controlled.
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