A comparative study on solid substrate fermentation (SSF) of sago 'hampas', oil palm frond parenchyma tissue (OPFPt) and rubberwood sawdust with Pycnoporus sanguineus for laccase production was carried out. Optimal mycelial growth of Pyc. sanguineus was observed on all the substrates studied over a 21 days time-course fermentation. Laccase productivity was highest during degradation of sago 'hampas' and OPFPt and a range from 7.5 to 7.6 U/g substrate on the 11th day of fermentation compared to degradation of rubberwood sawdust with a maximum laccase productivity of 5.7 U/g substrate on day 11 of SSF. Further optimization of laccase production was done by varying the inoculum age, density and nitrogen supplementation. SSF of OPFPt by Pyc. sanguineus gave maximum productivity of laccase of 46.5 U/g substrate on day 6 of fermentation with a 30% (w/w) of 4 weeks old inoculum and 0.92% nitrogen in the form of urea supplemented in the substrate. The extraction of laccase was also optimized in this study. Recovery of laccase was fourfold higher at 30.6 U/g substrate on day 10 of SSF using unadjusted tap water at pH 8.0 as extraction medium at 25+/-2 degrees C compared to laccase recovery of 7.46 U/g substrate using sodium acetate buffer at pH 4.8 at 4 degrees C. Further optimization showed that laccase recovery was increased by 50% with a value of 46.5 U/g substrate on day 10 of SSF when the extraction medium was tap water adjusted to pH 5.0 at 25+/-2 degrees C.
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to possess a wide range of functions in both cellular and developmental processes including cancers. Although some of the lncRNAs have been implicated in the regulation of the immune response, the exact function of the large majority of lncRNAs still remains unknown. In this study, we characterized the lncRNAs in human primary monocytes, an essential component of the innate immune system. We performed RNA sequencing of monocytes from four individuals and combined our data with eleven other publicly available datasets. Our analysis led to identification of ~8000 lncRNAs of which >1000 have not been previously reported in monocytes. PCR-based validation of a subset of the identified novel long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) revealed distinct expression patterns. Our study provides a landscape of lncRNAs in monocytes, which could facilitate future experimental studies to characterize the functions of these molecules in the innate immune system.