A comparative study on solid substrate fermentation (SSF) of sago 'hampas', oil palm frond parenchyma tissue (OPFPt) and rubberwood sawdust with Pycnoporus sanguineus for laccase production was carried out. Optimal mycelial growth of Pyc. sanguineus was observed on all the substrates studied over a 21 days time-course fermentation. Laccase productivity was highest during degradation of sago 'hampas' and OPFPt and a range from 7.5 to 7.6 U/g substrate on the 11th day of fermentation compared to degradation of rubberwood sawdust with a maximum laccase productivity of 5.7 U/g substrate on day 11 of SSF. Further optimization of laccase production was done by varying the inoculum age, density and nitrogen supplementation. SSF of OPFPt by Pyc. sanguineus gave maximum productivity of laccase of 46.5 U/g substrate on day 6 of fermentation with a 30% (w/w) of 4 weeks old inoculum and 0.92% nitrogen in the form of urea supplemented in the substrate. The extraction of laccase was also optimized in this study. Recovery of laccase was fourfold higher at 30.6 U/g substrate on day 10 of SSF using unadjusted tap water at pH 8.0 as extraction medium at 25+/-2 degrees C compared to laccase recovery of 7.46 U/g substrate using sodium acetate buffer at pH 4.8 at 4 degrees C. Further optimization showed that laccase recovery was increased by 50% with a value of 46.5 U/g substrate on day 10 of SSF when the extraction medium was tap water adjusted to pH 5.0 at 25+/-2 degrees C.
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to possess a wide range of functions in both cellular and developmental processes including cancers. Although some of the lncRNAs have been implicated in the regulation of the immune response, the exact function of the large majority of lncRNAs still remains unknown. In this study, we characterized the lncRNAs in human primary monocytes, an essential component of the innate immune system. We performed RNA sequencing of monocytes from four individuals and combined our data with eleven other publicly available datasets. Our analysis led to identification of ~8000 lncRNAs of which >1000 have not been previously reported in monocytes. PCR-based validation of a subset of the identified novel long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) revealed distinct expression patterns. Our study provides a landscape of lncRNAs in monocytes, which could facilitate future experimental studies to characterize the functions of these molecules in the innate immune system.
The pituitary function is regulated by a complex system involving the hypothalamus and biological networks within the pituitary. Although the hormones secreted from the pituitary have been well studied, comprehensive analyses of the pituitary proteome are limited. Pituitary proteomics is a field of postgenomic research that is crucial to understand human health and pituitary diseases. In this context, we report here a systematic proteomic profiling of human anterior pituitary gland (adenohypophysis) using high-resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry. A total of 2164 proteins were identified in this study, of which 105 proteins were identified for the first time compared with high-throughput proteomic-based studies from human pituitary glands. In addition, we identified 480 proteins with secretory potential and 187 N-terminally acetylated proteins. These are the first region-specific data that could serve as a vital resource for further investigations on the physiological role of the human anterior pituitary glands and the proteins secreted by them. We anticipate that the identification of previously unknown proteins in the present study will accelerate biomedical research to decipher their role in functioning of the human anterior pituitary gland and associated human diseases.
Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2-to end preventable child deaths by 2030-we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000-2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations.