Persisting delay in seeking treatment among Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) patients was reported in Malaysia despite intensified efforts in educating the public on symptoms of AMI and the importance of seeking prompt treatment. Studies outside Malaysia have shown that patients' personal thoughts during symptom onset could contribute to the delay. The purpose of this study is to explore the barriers of AMI patients prior to the decision of seeking treatment in Malaysia.
Five new Althepus species and one new Psiloderces species of the family Ochyroceratidae are described from Southeast Asia: Althepus erectus spec. nov. (male) and A. nophaseudi spec. nov. (male, female) from Laos, A. flabellaris spec. nov. (male, female) from Thailand, A. reduncus spec. nov. (male) from Myanmar, A. spiralis spec. nov. (male) from Malaysia, and Psiloderces dicellocerus spec. nov. (male) from Indonesia. Primary types are deposited in the Senckenberg Research Institute in Frankfurt, Germany (SMF).
Four new species belonging to four genera of the subfamily Pholcinae are reported from Southeast Asia: Belisana protumida spec. nov. (male, female), Khorata bayeri spec. nov. (male), Pholcus schawalleri spec. nov. (male), and Uthina khaosokensis spec. nov. (male).
Obturator hernia is a rare condition that may present in an acute or subacute setting in correlation with the degree of small-bowel obstruction. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult, as symptoms are often non-specific. A high index of suspicion should be maintained for emaciated elderly women with small-bowel obstruction without a previous abdominal operation and a positive Howship-Romberg sign. When diagnosis is in doubt, computed tomography scan of the abdomen and the pelvis (if available) or laparotomy should be performed immediately, as high mortality rate is related to the perforation of gangrenous bowels. We present 2 cases of strangulated obturator hernia, managed differently with both open and laparoscopic approaches. The diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography scan is highlighted followed by a brief literature review with an emphasis placed on surgical management.
Several anuran groups of Laurasian origin are each co-distributed in four isolated regions of the Northern Hemisphere: central/southern Europe and adjacent areas, Korean Peninsula and adjacent areas, Indo-Malaya, and southern North America. Similar distribution patterns have been observed in diverse animal and plant groups. Savage [Savage, J.M., 1973. The geographic distribution of frogs: patterns and predictions. In: Vial, J.L. (Ed.), Evolutionary Biology of the Anurans. University of Missouri Press, Columbia, pp. 351-445] hypothesized that the Miocene global cooling and increasing aridities in interiors of Eurasia and North America caused a southward displacement and range contraction of Laurasian frogs (and other groups). We use the frog genus Bombina to test Savage's biogeographical hypothesis. A phylogeny of Bombina is reconstructed based on three mitochondrial and two nuclear gene fragments. The genus is divided into three major clades: an Indo-Malaya clade includes B. fortinuptialis, B. lichuanensis, B. maxima, and B. microdeladigitora; a European clade includes B. bombina, B. pachypus, and B. variegata; and a Korean clade contains B. orientalis. The European and Korean clades form sister-group relationship. Molecular dating of the phylogenetic tree using the penalized likelihood and Bayesian analyses suggests that the divergence between the Indo-Malaya clade and other Bombina species occurred 5.9-28.6 million years ago. The split time between the European clade and the Korean clade is estimated at 5.1-20.9 million years ago. The divergence times of these clades are not significantly later than the timing of Miocene cooling and drying, and therefore can not reject Savage's hypothesis. Some other aspects of biogeography of Bombina also are discussed. The Korean Peninsula and the Shandong Peninsula might have supplied distinct southern refugia for B. orientalis during the Pleistocene glacial maxima. In the Indo-Malaya clade, the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau might have promoted the split between B. maxima and the other species.
This review analyzes the economic costs of HF in Asia. The availability and quality of studies on the burden of osteoporosis in Asia are very scarce. There is a need to encourage more quality cost of osteoporosis studies based on standardized methods to convince healthcare authorities in implementing appropriate strategies.
INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis fractures, especially hip fractures, impose large economic costs to governments and societies. This review aimed to systematically analyze available evidence on healthcare costs associated with osteoporosis-related hip fractures (HF) in Asia.
METHODS: Articles were systematically sought from databases including PubMed, EMBASE, and EBSCOHost between 2000 and 2015. Total costs associated with HF care, the cost components, and length of stays were retrieved and analyzed. Study designs were also qualitatively analyzed.
RESULTS: The availability of published studies on economic burden of HF in Asia is severely lacking with only 15 articles met the inclusion criteria. Even among the included studies, only two studies reported comprehensive costs evaluating all costs including indirect or intangible costs. Most studies satisfactorily reported criteria for conducting economic evaluation, but large variations existed in the methodological design. Due to study design and other influencing factors, large variation in the cost of HF treatment from US$774 to US$14,198.90 (median S$2943), representing an average of 18.95% (range: 3.58-57.05%) of the countries' 2014 GDP/capita, was observed. This highlighted the heavy burden of managing HF in Asia with about 40% of the included studies reported using more than one third of GDP/capita.
CONCLUSION: There is a paucity of burden of illness studies of osteoporosis in the Asian region. For the few available studies, there was a lack of standardization in methodological approach in evaluating the economic burden of the disease. There is a need to encourage more quality burden of illness studies of osteoporosis to inform policymakers in healthcare planning.
Eight species of armored spiders belonging to two families, Pacullidae Simon, 1894 and Tetrablemmidae O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1873, are reported from Singapore. Five species are documented as new to science: Paculla bukittimahensis Lin & Li, sp. n. (male and female), Paculla globosa Lin & Li, sp. n. (male and female), Ablemma malacca Lin & Li, sp. n. (male and female), Singaporemma lenachanae Lin & Li, sp. n. (male and female), and Sulaimania brevis Lin & Li, sp. n. (male). The three known species are Brignoliella besutensis Lin, Li & Jäger, 2012, Brignoliella michaeli Lehtinen, 1981, and Singaporemma singulare Shear, 1978, of which the female of Brignoliella besutensis is described for the first time. For comparison, types of Singaporemma adjacens Lehtinen, 1981 from Vietnam, Singaporemma halongense Lehtinen, 1981 from Vietnam, Singaporemma singulare from Singapore and Sulaimania vigelandi Lehtinen, 1981 from Malaysia are studied and photographed.
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in genome analysis have established that chromatin has preferred 3D conformations, which bring distant loci into contact. Identifying these contacts is important for us to understand possible interactions between these loci. This has motivated the creation of the Hi-C technology, which detects long-range chromosomal interactions. Distance geometry-based algorithms, such as ChromSDE and ShRec3D, have been able to utilize Hi-C data to infer 3D chromosomal structures. However, these algorithms, being matrix-based, are space- and time-consuming on very large datasets. A human genome of 100 kilobase resolution would involve ∼30,000 loci, requiring gigabytes just in storing the matrices.
RESULTS: We propose a succinct representation of the distance matrices which tremendously reduces the space requirement. We give a complete solution, called SuperRec, for the inference of chromosomal structures from Hi-C data, through iterative solving the large-scale weighted multidimensional scaling problem.
CONCLUSIONS: SuperRec runs faster than earlier systems without compromising on result accuracy. The SuperRec package can be obtained from http://www.cs.cityu.edu.hk/~shuaicli/SuperRec .
Duck Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a recently identified pathogenic flavivirus that causes severe egg drop and encephalitis in Chinese ducks and geese. It has been found to be most closely related to the mosquito-origin Tembusu virus and chicken Sitiawan virus reported in Malaysia. However, the ecological characteristics and the pathogenesis of duck TMUV are largely unknown. We report the construction of full-length cDNA clone of duck TMUV strain JXSP. The virus genome was reverse transcribed, amplified as seven overlapping fragments and successively ligated into the low copy number vector pWSK29 under the control of a T7 promoter. Transfection of BHK-21 cells with the transcribed RNA from the full-length cDNA clone resulted in production of highly infectious progeny virus. In vitro growth characteristics in BHK-21 cells and virulence in ducklings and BALB/c mice were similar for the rescued and parental viruses. This stable infectious cDNA clone will be a valuable tool for studying the genetic determinants of duck TMUV.
Synthetic polymers have attracted much attention in tissue engineering due to their ability to modulate biomechanical properties. This study investigated the feasibility of processing poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) homopolymer, PCL-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) diblock, and PCL-PEG-PCL triblock copolymers into three-dimensional porous scaffolds. Properties of the various polymers were investigated by dynamic thermal analysis. The scaffolds were manufactured using the desktop robot-based rapid prototyping technique. Gross morphology and internal three-dimensional structure of scaffolds were identified by scanning electron microscopy and micro-computed tomography, which showed excellent fusion at the filament junctions, high uniformity, and complete interconnectivity of pore networks. The influences of process parameters on scaffolds' morphological and mechanical characteristics were studied. Data confirmed that the process parameters directly influenced the pore size, porosity, and, consequently, the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. The in vitro cell culture study was performed to investigate the influence of polymer nature and scaffold architecture on the adhesion of the cells onto the scaffolds using rabbit smooth muscle cells. Light, scanning electron, and confocal laser microscopy showed cell adhesion, proliferation, and extracellular matrix formation on the surface as well as inside the structure of both scaffold groups. The completely interconnected and highly regular honeycomb-like pore morphology supported bridging of the pores via cell-to-cell contact as well as production of extracellular matrix at later time points. The results indicated that the incorporation of hydrophilic PEG into hydrophobic PCL enhanced the overall hydrophilicity and cell culture performance of PCL-PEG copolymer. However, the scaffold architecture did not significantly influence the cell culture performance in this study.
Pogostemon cablin, originating in Malaysia and India, is cultivated in southern China including Guangdong and Hainan Province, which was called GuangHuoXiang to differentiate it from the HuoXiang of the north, the species Agastache rugosa, that it resembles. Essential oil of P. cablin mainly contributes to the pharmacological activities and the therapeutic properties of the essential oils are directly correlated with their qualitative and quantitative composition. For controlling the quality, standard fingerprint of P. cablin collected from different regions was developed by using GC-MS. Nine compounds including beta-patchoulene, caryophyllene, alpha-guaiene, seychellene, beta-guaiene, delta-guaiene, spathulenol, patchouli alcohol and pogostone were identified among 10 main peaks in P. cablin. Hierarchical clustering analysis based on characteristics of 10 investigated peaks in GC profiles showed that 18 samples were divided into three main clusters, patchouliol-type, pogostone-type and an interim-type, which was the one between the two chemotypes. The simulative mean chromatogram for the three types P. cablin was generated using the Computer Aided Similarity Evaluation System. The fingerprint can help to distinguish the substitute or adulterant, and further assess the differences of P. cablin grown in various areas of China.
A common phenomenon in South-East Asia is ageing of the population. This article describes the various stages of development of psychogeriatrics in Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and the Philippines. It is only in the last few years that more systematic development of psychogeriatric services has begun under the pressure of an ageing population. The model of service delivery in Hong Kong can serve as an example of development of psychogeriatric services in South-East Asia.
Sediment cores and overlying water samples were collected at four sites in Tianjin Coastal Zone, Bohai Bay, to investigate nutrient (N, P and Si) exchanges across the sediment-water interface. The exchange fluxes of each nutrient species were estimated based on the porewater profiles and laboratory incubation experiments. The results showed significant differences between the two methods, which implied that molecular diffusion alone was not the dominant process controlling nutrient exchanges at these sites. The impacts of redox conditions and bioturbation on the nutrient fluxes were confirmed by the laboratory incubation experiments. The results from this study showed that the nutrient fluxes measured directly from the incubation experiment were more reliable than that predicted from the porewater profiles. The possible impacts causing variations in the nutrient fluxes include sewage discharge and land reclamation.
The title compound, [Ni(C(21)H(15)N(2)S(2))(2)], has a novel cis configuration with two fluorene moieties on the same side. The Ni atom is in a square-planar configuration. The molecular packing is stabilized by intramolecular stacking between the fluorene moieties and extensive C-H.pi interactions.
The crucifix crab, Charybdis feriatus, which mainly inhabits Indo-Pacific region, is regarded as one of the most high-potential species for domestication and incorporation into the aquaculture sector. However, the regulatory mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation of this species remain unclear. To identify candidate genes involved in sex determination and differentiation, high throughput sequencing of transcriptome from the testis and ovary of C. feriatus was performed by the Illumina platform. After removing adaptor primers, low-quality sequences and very short (<50 nt) reads, we obtained 80.9 million and 66.2 million clean reads from testis and ovary, respectively. A total of 86,433 unigenes were assembled, and ~43% (37,500 unigenes) were successfully annotated to the NR, NT, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG, GO databases. By comparing the testis and ovary libraries, we obtained 27,636 differentially expressed genes. Some candidate genes involved in the sex determination and differentiation of C. feriatus were identified, such as vasa, pgds, vgr, hsp90, dsx-f, fem-1, and gpr. In addition, 88,608 simple sequence repeats were obtained, and 61,929 and 77,473 single nucleotide polymorphisms from testis and ovary were detected, respectively. The transcriptome profiling was validated by quantitative real-time PCR in 30 selected genes, which showed a good consistency. The present study is the first high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of C. feriatus. These findings will be useful for future functional analysis of sex-associated genes and molecular marker-assisted selections in C. feriatus.
SE Asia comprises a heterogeneous assemblage of fragments derived from Cathaysia (Eurasia) in the north and Gondwana in the south, separated by suture zones representing closed former ocean basins. The western part of the region comprises Sundaland, which was formed by Late Permian-Triassic amalgamation of continental and arc fragments now found in Indochina, the Thai Penisula, Peninsular Malaysia, and Sumatra. On Borneo, the Kuching Zone formed the eastern margin of Sundaland since the Triassic. To the SE of the Kuching Zone, the Gondwana-derived continental fragments of SW Borneo and East Kalimantan accreted in the Cretaceous. South China-derived fragments accreted to north of the Kuching Zone in the Miocene. Deciphering this complex geodynamic history of SE Asia requires restoration of its deformation history, but quantitative constraints are often sparse. Paleomagnetism may provide such constraints. Previous paleomagnetic studies demonstrated that Sundaland and fragments in Borneo underwent vertical axis rotations since the Cretaceous. We provide new paleomagnetic data from Eocene-Miocene sedimentary rocks in the Kutai Basin, east Borneo, and critically reevaluate the published database, omitting sites that do not pass widely used, up-to-date reliability criteria. We use the resulting database to develop an updated kinematic restoration. We test the regional or local nature of paleomagnetic rotations against fits between the restored orientation of the Sunda Trench and seismic tomography images of the associated slabs. Paleomagnetic data and mantle tomography of the Sunda slab indicate that Sundaland did not experience significant vertical axis rotations since the Late Jurassic. Paleomagnetic data show that Borneo underwent a ~35° counterclockwise rotation constrained to the Late Eocene and an additional ~10° counterclockwise rotation since the Early Miocene. How this rotation was accommodated relative to Sundaland is enigmatic but likely involved distributed extension in the West Java Sea between Borneo and Sumatra. This Late Eocene-Early Oligocene rotation is contemporaneous with and may have been driven by a marked change in motion of Australia relative to Eurasia, from eastward to northward, which also has led to the initiation of subduction along the eastern Sunda trench and the proto-South China Sea to the south and north of Borneo, respectively.
Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) catalyzes the o-hydroxylation of monophenols and oxidation of o-diphenols to quinones. Although the effects of PPO on plant physiology were recently proposed, little has been done to explore the inherent molecular mechanisms. To explore the in vivo physiological functions of PPO, a model with decreased PPO expression and enzymatic activity was constructed on Clematis terniflora DC. using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology. Proteomics was performed to identify the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the model (VC) and empty vector-carrying plants (VV) untreated or exposed to high levels of UV-B and dark (HUV-B+D). Following integration, it was concluded that the DEPs mainly functioned in photosynthesis, glycolysis, and redox in the PPO silence plants. Mapman analysis showed that the DEPs were mainly involved in light reaction and Calvin cycle in photosynthesis. Further analysis illustrated that the expression level of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase, the content of chlorophyll, and the photosynthesis rate were increased in VC plants compared to VV plants pre- and post HUV-B+D. These results indicate that the silence of PPO elevated the plant photosynthesis by activating the glycolysis process, regulating Calvin cycle and providing ATP for energy metabolism. This study provides a prospective approach for increasing crop yield in agricultural production.
Organotypic slice culture is a living cell research technique which blends features of both in vivo and in vitro techniques. While organotypic brain slice culture techniques have been well established in rodents, there are few reports on the study of organotypic slice culture, especially of the central nervous system (CNS), in chicken embryos. We established a combined in ovo electroporation and organotypic slice culture method to study exogenous genes functions in the CNS during chicken embryo development. We performed in ovo electroporation in the spinal cord or optic tectum prior to slice culture. When embryonic development reached a specific stage, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive embryos were selected and fluorescent expression sites were cut under stereo fluorescence microscopy. Selected tissues were embedded in 4% agar. Tissues were sectioned on a vibratory microtome and 300 μm thick sections were mounted on a membrane of millicell cell culture insert. The insert was placed in a 30-mm culture dish and 1 ml of slice culture media was added. We show that during serum-free medium culture, the slice loses its original structure and propensity to be strictly regulated, which are the characteristics of the CNS. However, after adding serum, the histological structure of cultured-tissue slices was able to be well maintained and neuronal axons were significantly longer than that those of serum-free medium cultured-tissue slices. As the structure of a complete single neuron can be observed from a slice culture, this is a suitable way of studying single neuronal dynamics. As such, we present an effective method to study axon formation and migration of single neurons in vitro.
PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are abundantly found in germ cells and involved in gametogenesis and gonadal development. Information on the regulatory roles of piRNAs in crustacean reproduction, however, is scarce. Thus, we identified gonadal piRNAs of mud crab Scylla paramamosain. Of the 115,491 novel piRNAs, 596 were differentially expressed. Subsequently, 389,887 potential piRNA-target genes were predicted. The expression of 4 piRNAs and 9 genes with high piRNA interactions were validated with the inclusion of additional immature specimens, including LRP2 that is involved in growth and reproduction, MDN1 in ribosome biogenesis pathway and gametogenesis, and PRKDC, a DNA repair gene involved in gonadal differentiation and maturation. KEGG analysis further revealed the involvement of predicted piRNA target genes in gametogenesis- and reproduction-related pathways. Our findings provide baseline information of mud crab piRNAs and their differential expression between testes and ovaries suggests that piRNAs play an essential role in regulating gametogenesis and gonadal development.