BACKGROUND: The main risks for glaucoma are increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and decreased ocular perfusion pressure (OPP). This review aims to examine the potential impact of lower limb isometric resistance exercise on intraocular pressure and ocular perfusion pressure.
METHOD: A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the potential impact of isometric exercise on IOP and OPP. The literature on the relationship between isometric resistance exercise and IOP was systematically searched according to the "Cochrane Handbook" in the databases of Pubmed, Web of Science, EBSCO, and Scopus through December 31, 2020. The search terms used were "exercise," "train," "isometric," "intraocular pressure," and "ocular perfusion pressure," and the mean differences of the data were analyzed using the Stata 16.0 software, with a 95% confidence interval.
RESULTS: A total of 13 studies, which included 268 adult participants consisting of 162 men and 106 women, were selected. All the exercise programs that were included were isometric resistance exercises of the lower limbs with intervention times of 1min, 2min, or 6min. The increase in IOP after intervention was as follows: I2=87.1%, P=0.001 using random-effects model combined statistics, SMD=1.03 (0.48, 1.59), and the increase in OPP was as follows: I2=94.5%, P=0.001 using random-effects model combined statistics, SMD=2.94 (1.65, 4.22), with both results showing high heterogeneity.
CONCLUSION: As isometric exercise may cause an increase in IOP and OPP, therefore, people with glaucoma and related high risk should perform isometric exercise with caution.
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.