Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 41 in total

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  1. Vassiliev P, Iezhitsa I, Agarwal R, Marcus AJ, Spasov A, Zhukovskaya O, et al.
    Data Brief, 2018 Jun;18:340-347.
    PMID: 29896521 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2018.02.067
    This article contains data that relate to the study carried out in the work of Marcus et al. (2018) [1]. Data represent an information about pharmacophore analysis of imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazole and pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivatives and results of construction of the relationship between intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering activity and hypotensive activity of imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazole and pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivatives using a multilayer perceptron artificial neural network. In particular, they include the ones listed in this article: 1) table of all pharmacophores of imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazole and pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivatives that showed IOP lowering activity; 2) table of all pharmacophores of the compounds that showed absence of IOP lowering activity; 3) table of initial data for artificial neural network analysis of relationship between IOP activity and hypotensive activity of this chemical series; 4) graphical representation of the best neural network model of this dependence; 5) original txt-file of results of pharmacophore analysis; 6) xls-file of initial data for neural network modeling; 7) original stw-file of results of neural network modeling; 8) original xml-file of the best neural network model of dependence between IOP lowering activity and hypotensive activity of these azole derivatives. The data may be useful for researchers interested in designing new drug substances and will contribute to understanding of the mechanisms of IOP lowering activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tonometry, Ocular
  2. Marcus AJ, Iezhitsa I, Agarwal R, Vassiliev P, Spasov A, Zhukovskaya O, et al.
    Data Brief, 2018 Jun;18:523-554.
    PMID: 29896529 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2018.03.019
    This data is to document the intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering activity of imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazole and pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole compounds in ocular normotensive rats. Effects of single drop application of imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazole and pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole compounds on IOP in ocular normotensive rats are presented at 3 different concentrations (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.4%). Time course of changes in IOP is presented over 6 h period post-instillation. The IOP lowering activities of test compounds were determined by assessing maximum decrease in IOP from baseline and corresponding control, duration of IOP lowering and area under curve (AUC) of time versus response curve. Data shown here may serve as benchmarks for other researchers studying IOP-lowering effect of imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazole and pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole compounds and would be useful in determining therapeutic potential of these test compounds as IOP lowering agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tonometry, Ocular
  3. Agarwal R
    Medical Health Reviews, 2009;2009(1):75-93.
    MyJurnal
    Glaucoma, recognized as optic neuropathy is the second largest cause of blindness worldwide. The disease is characterized by progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells and visual field defects. The pathophysiological factors involved in the onset and progression of glaucoma are not fully understood. However, it is now well accepted that elevated intraocular pressure is not the only causative factor. The pathophysiology of glaucoma involves multiple factors that interact in a highly complex manner to favor development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. As the knowledge of molecular mechanisms involved is expanding, more and more therapeutic targets are being recognized for the development of safe and effective pharmacotherapy of glaucoma. Although at present the intraocular pressure lowering drugs are still the first line of treatment, the prospect of introducing neuroprotective therapies that can directly protect and perhaps stimulate regeneration of dying and dead retinal ganglion cells, shows considerable promise. This review presents recent developments in the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of glaucoma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tonometry, Ocular
  4. Hashim SE, Fatisha A, Nazri MN
    MyJurnal
    Subperiosteal haematoma of the orbit is an uncommon complication of maxillofacial trauma, hence easily missed. It usually presents subacutely with proptosis and diplopia. In our case, the subperiosteal haematoma is complicated with high intraocular pressure, necessisating measures to reduce the intraocular pressure. Unresponsive to only medical treatment, surgical evacuation was carried out in this patient. Removal of the clot finally relieved the intraocular pressure and simultaneously improved the proptosis and the cumbersome diplopia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tonometry, Ocular
  5. Ch'ng TW, Mosavi SA, Noor Azimah AA, Azlan NZ, Azhany Y, Liza-Sharmini AT
    Med J Malaysia, 2013 Oct;68(5):410-4.
    PMID: 24632871 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Acute angle closure (AAC) without prompt treatment may lead to optic neuropathy. Environmental factor such as climate change may precipitate pupillary block, the possible mechanism of AAC.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of northeast monsoon and incidence of AAC in Malaysia.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on AAC patients admitted to two main tertiary hospitals in Kelantan, Malaysia between January 2001 and December 2011. The cumulative number of rainy day, amount of rain, mean cloud cover and 24 hours mean humidity at the estimated day of attack were obtained from the Department of Meteorology, Malaysia.

    RESULTS: A total 73 cases of AAC were admitted with mean duration of 4.1SD 2.0 days. More than half have previous history of possibility of AAC. There was higher incidence of AAC during the northeast monsoon (October to March). There was also significant correlation of number of rainy day (r=0.718, p<0.001), amount of rain (r=0.587, p<0.001), cloud cover (r=0.637, p<0.001), mean daily global radiation (r=- 0.596, P<0.001), 24 hours mean temperature (r=-0.298, p=0.015) and 24 hours mean humidity (r=0.508, p<0.001) with cumulative number of admission for AAC for 12 calendar months.

    CONCLUSION: Higher incidence of AAC during northeast monsoon suggested the effect of climate as the potential risk factor. Prompt treatment to arrest pupillary block and reduction of the intraocular pressure is important to prevent potential glaucomatous damage. Public awareness of AAC and accessibility to treatment should be part of preparation to face the effect of northeast monsoon.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tonometry, Ocular
  6. Lee MY, Teh NC, Nur Zulekha M, Thayanithi S, Jelinar MN, Rizal AM, et al.
    Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila), 2012 Jul-Aug;1(4):208-12.
    PMID: 26107474 DOI: 10.1097/APO.0b013e31825c5b1b
    PURPOSE:
    To compare the effects of fixed combination of bimatoprost-timolol and travoprost-timolol on intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.
    DESIGN:
    This was a prospective, randomized, observer-masked, crossover parallel comparison trial.
    METHODS:
    Forty-one patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension on nonfixed combination of latanoprost and timolol with IOP of 21 mm Hg or less were randomized to either bimatoprost-timolol or travoprost-timolol fixed combinations for 8-week treatment period. Intraocular pressure was measured at 8 AM, 12 PM, 4 PM, and 8 PM at the baseline and at the end point. Conjunctiva hyperemia and superficial punctate keratopathy after treatment with each fixed combination therapy were assessed and compared with the baseline. Patients were then switched to the opposite drug without a medication-free period for another 8-week, and diurnal IOP measurement was repeated.
    RESULTS:
    Bimatoprost-timolol fixed combination reduced the baseline mean diurnal IOP statistically significantly from 17.3 mm Hg [95% confidence interval (CI), 16.8-17.7 mm Hg] to 16.4 mm Hg (95% CI, 15.9-17.0 mm Hg) (P = 0.036). Travoprost-timolol fixed combination lowered the mean diurnal IOP to 17.1 mm Hg (95% CI, 16.5-17.7 mm Hg), but it was not significant. Direct comparison between the 2 fixed combinations showed no significant difference. Both fixed combinations had no significant effect on conjunctiva hyperemia. Interestingly, patients on travoprost-timolol fixed combination had significantly less superficial punctuate keratopathy (P = 0.012).
    CONCLUSIONS:
    Both fixed combination of bimatoprost-timolol and travoprost-timolol had no significantly different ocular hypotensive effect. However, bimatoprost-timolol fixed combination produced additional IOP lowering in patients previously treated with nonfixed combination of latanoprost and timolol.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tonometry, Ocular
  7. Ooi, Edwin I.L., Safinaz, M.K., Ropilah, A.R
    MyJurnal
    This was a 28-year-old mentally-challenged girl with underlying congenital Rubella syndrome. She was bilaterally aphakic after congenital cataract surgery. She then developed bilateral aphakic glaucoma and had to undergo multiple glaucoma filtering surgeries. The most recent procedure she had undergone for her left eye was a second Ahmed valve implantation with an overlying sclera patch. Postoperatively, intraocular pressure was well controlled. However, nine months later, slit lamp examination revealed the tube was adherent to the overlying cornea with surrounding deep and superficial cornea vascularization. Siedel test was negative and intraocular pressure was normal. Subsequently the tube was removed but the plate was left in situ.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tonometry, Ocular
  8. Azhany Y, Hemalatha C, Nani D, Rosediani M, Liza-Sharmini A
    Malays Fam Physician, 2013;8(1):33-7.
    PMID: 25606266 MyJurnal
    Cataract is the most common cause of blindness in the world. An attack of phacolytic and phacomorphic glaucoma as a result of neglected cataract constitutes a medical emergency that must be addressed immediately. Ocular emergencies such as these is challenging for the surgeon with guarded or poor prognosis. We describe the presentation, management and prognosis of three cases of phacomorphic and phacolytic glaucoma. All three patients underwent aggressive management of intraocular pressure. Despite successful cataract operation with implantation of intraocular lens, there was only mild improvement of the vision. Optic nerve and pupil functions were permanently affected following the insult. Phacomorphic and phacolytic glaucoma present a very challenging problem to the surgeon with poor visual outcome. Public health education and awareness are important and health workers should encourage patients with cataract to seek early treatment for better prognosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tonometry, Ocular
  9. Chua PY, Day AC, Lai KL, Hall N, Tan LL, Khan K, et al.
    Br J Ophthalmol, 2018 Apr;102(4):539-543.
    PMID: 28794074 DOI: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2017-310725
    PURPOSE: To estimate the incidence, and describe the clinical features and short-term clinical outcomes of acute angle closure (AAC).

    METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed AAC were identified prospectively over a 12-month period (November 2011 to October 2012) by active surveillance through the Scottish Ophthalmic Surveillance Unit reporting system. Data were collected at case identification and at 6 months follow-up.

    RESULTS: There were 114 cases (108 patients) reported, giving an annual incidence of 2.2 cases (95% CI 1.8 to 2.6) or 2 patients (95% CI 1.7 to 2.4) per 1 00 000 in the whole population in Scotland. Precipitating factors were identified in 40% of cases. Almost one in five cases was associated with topical dilating drops. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at presentation ranged from 6/6 to perception of light. The mean presenting intraocular pressure (IOP) was 52 mm Hg (SD 11). Almost 30% cases had a delayed presentation of 3 or more days. At 6 months follow-up, 75% had BCVA of 6/12 or better and 30% were found to have glaucoma at follow-up. Delayed presentation (≥3 days) was associated with higher rate of glaucoma at follow-up (22.6% vs 60.8%, p<0.001), worse VA (0.34 vs 0.74 LogMAR, p<0.0001) and need for more topical medication (0.52 vs 1.2, p=0.003) to control IOP.

    CONCLUSION: The incidence of AAC in Scotland is relatively low compared with the Far East countries, but in line with previous European data. Almost one in five cases were associated with pupil dilation for retinal examination.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tonometry, Ocular
  10. Noorlaila B., Zunaina E., Raja Norliza R.O., Nor Fadzillah A.J., Alice, G.K.C.
    MyJurnal
    We report a case of dural carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) pose a diagnostic dilemma with initial symptoms of the arteriovenous shunt. A 56 year-old man presented with right eye diplopia, thensubsequently developed ptosis, congestion of conjunctiva, dilated episcleral vessels, and gradual rise in intraocular pressure. Initial diagnosis of pseudotumour was made based on negative finding of CCF by computed tomography angiography (CTA). In view of persistent clinical manifestations in spite of steroid therapy, and with the presence of new ocular signs; cock-screw conjunctival vessels, dilated retinal veins, and proptosis, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed and confirmed the diagnosis of dural CCF.The ocular symptoms resolved completely post embolization of the fistula.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tonometry, Ocular
  11. Mohd Nasir NA, Agarwal R, Krasilnikova A, Sheikh Abdul Kadir SH, Iezhitsa I
    Eur J Pharmacol, 2020 Nov 15;887:173431.
    PMID: 32758568 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173431
    Intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering in glaucomatous eyes is currently achieved mainly by improved aqueous outflow via alternate drainage pathways. However, the focus is now shifting to trabecular meshwork (TM), the site or major pathological changes including increased extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and reduced matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) secretion by TM cells. Trans-resveratrol was previously shown to lower IOP and reduce ECM deposition; however, the mechanisms of action remain unclear. Therefore, we determined the effect of trans-resveratrol on MMP-2 and -9 expression by human TM cells (HTMCs) in the presence of dexamethasone and whether it also affects adenosine A1 receptors (A1AR) expression and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) activation. We observed that trans-resveratrol, 12.5 μM, increased MMP-2 and -9 protein expression by HTMCs despite exposure to dexamethasone (1.89- and 1.53-fold, respectively; P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Tonometry, Ocular
  12. Md Noh UK, Then KY
    Malays J Med Sci, 2013 Jan;20(1):84-7.
    PMID: 23785259
    A 42-year-old man from Ghana presented with bilateral painful corneal perforations following ingestion of a sulphur-based antibiotic. Emergency bilateral penetrating keratoplasty was performed, with restoration of globe integrity. However, surgical complications arose such as non-healing epithelial defect, secondary infection, graft dehiscence, and mounting intraocular pressure. This case illustrates the challenges faced in managing corneal grafts in patients with already compromised ocular surfaces.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tonometry, Ocular
  13. Yong MH, Che Hamzah J
    Med J Malaysia, 2020 07;75(4):342-348.
    PMID: 32723992
    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical effectiveness, health related quality of life (HRQoL) and cost effectiveness of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) compared to topical anti-glaucoma medications in step-up treatment of patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG).

    METHODS: Seventeen POAG patients with suboptimal IOP control despite pre-existing topical medications were subjected to adjunct SLT (50 applications 180 degrees) or second line medical therapy. Current medications were continued, and patients were followed up for 6 months for degree of intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering. HRQoL was assessed using Glaucoma Quality of Life 36-item (GlauQoL-36), Assessment of Quality of Life-7D (AQoL-7D) and Vision related Quality of Life (VisQoL). Costs involved were calculated and compared to the effect (IOP reduction) achieved in each arm.

    RESULTS: Ten patients were in the SLT group and 7 in the topical medication (MED) group. Mean baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) was 18.90±3.48mmHg in SLT group and 15.57±2.23mmHg in MED group. Mean reduction of IOP was 4.30±1.64mmHg in SLT group and 2.71±2.56 mmHg in MED group at 6 months which was not statistically significant (p=0.14) between two groups. All the HRQoL questionnaires did not show significant changes in the groups or between groups when compared baseline with 6-month post treatment (p-values ranging from 0.247 to 0.987). For every 1mmHg reduction in IOP, cost involved in MED group (RM53.61) was 165% of the cost involved in SLT group (RM32.56).

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This study has shown that SLT was as effective clinically and tolerable as topical anti glaucoma medications and was possibly more cost effective in the step-up treatment of patients with POAG at 6 months follow- up.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tonometry, Ocular
  14. Iezhitsa I, Agarwal R
    Neural Regen Res, 2021 May;16(5):967-971.
    PMID: 33229737 DOI: 10.4103/1673-5374.297059
    Glaucoma is a range of progressive optic neuropathies characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell loss and visual field defects. It is recognized as a leading cause of irreversible blindness affecting more than 70 million people worldwide. Currently, reduction of intraocular pressure, a widely recognized risk factor for glaucoma development, is the only pharmacological strategy for slowing down retinal ganglion cell loss and disease progression. However, retinal ganglion cell death and visual field loss have been observed in normotensive glaucoma, suggesting that the disease process is partially independent of intraocular pressure. Taurine is one of the agents that have attracted attention of researchers recently. Taurine has been shown to be involved in multiple cellular functions, including a central role as a neurotransmitter, as a trophic factor in the central nervous system development, as an osmolyte, as a neuromodulator, and as a neuroprotectant. It also plays a role in the maintenance of the structural integrity of the membranes and in the regulation of calcium transport and homeostasis. Taurine is known to prevent N-methyl-D-aspartic acid-induced excitotoxic injury to retinal ganglion cells. A recently published study clearly demonstrated that taurine prevents retinal neuronal apoptosis both in vivo and in vitro. Protective effect of taurine may be attributed to direct inhibition of apoptosis, an activation of brain derived neurotrophic factor-related neuroprotective mechanisms and reduction of retinal oxidative and nitrosative stresses. Further studies are needed to fully explore the potential of taurine as a neuroprotective agent, so that it can be applied in clinical practice, particularly for the treatment of glaucoma. The objective of current review was to summarize recent evidence on neuroprotective properties of taurine in glaucoma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tonometry, Ocular
  15. Nur Raihan Esa, Nor Azwani Mohd Shukri, Norsham Ahmad, Mohd Radzi Hilmi, Md Muziman Syah Md Mustafa, Nura Syahiera Ibrahim, et al.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Short-term fasting may influence intraocular pressure (IOP) due to alteration of fluid (total body water;
    TBW, and water intake) and fat (total body fat; TBF). This study aimed: i) to compare IOP values within and between,
    fasting and non-fasting periods; and ii) to assess the association between IOP and, TBW and TBF. Methods: Thirty
    healthy participants aged 21.8±1.1 years were assessed on two different periods (fasting vs. non-fasting). During each
    period, the IOP, TBW and TBF values were assessed for four times (morning, afternoon, evening, late-evening). The
    IOP was measured using AccuPen® tonopen, while TBW and TBF were assessed by using a Tanita body composition
    analyser. Results: During fasting, the IOP value in the afternoon (14.53±2.33 mmHg) was significantly higher than in
    the evening (12.43±2.73 mmHg, p=0.009) and late-evening (12.60±2.44 mmHg, p=0.003). No significant difference
    in IOP was observed during non-fasting period. The mean of IOP in the evening was significantly lower during fasting
    compared to non-fasting (12.43±2.73 mmHg vs 13.75±2.53 mmHg, p=0.044). The IOP and TBW were negatively
    correlated (r=-0.268; p=0.011) during non-fasting and showed no association during fasting period. There was no
    significant correlation between IOP and TBF during both fasting and non-fasting periods. Conclusion: IOP reduction
    during short-term fasting, together with the no association with TBF and TBW suggested that IOP is an independent
    factor that reduces during fasting in healthy population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tonometry, Ocular
  16. Chow JY, Wan Norliza WM, Bastion MC
    Med J Malaysia, 2021 03;76(2):236-240.
    PMID: 33742635
    BACKGROUND: Subliminal transscleral cyclophotocoagulation (SL-TSCPC) is a new alternative therapy to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) safely and effectively. However, there are few studies regarding SL-TSCPC by Supra 810 laser machine and limited data regarding its effectiveness in moderate severity glaucoma that still has good preservation of vision. This study was conducted to evaluate the outcome of SL-TSPCPC in various types of glaucoma including patients with good vision.

    METHODS: A retrospective, non-comparative, analytical case series of all patients who received SL-TSCPC treatment from October 2018 to April 2019 at Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, Pahang, Malaysia. Data was collected during the second week, sixth week, third month and sixth month follow-up. The primary outcome measure gave success rate at six months post-treatment. Secondary measures were changes in visual acuity, mean IOP reduction, mean number of IOP lowering medications reduced and ocular side effects noted during follow-up.

    RESULTS: The success rate was 43.8% (seven eyes out of sixteen eyes) at six months post-treatment. The mean IOP reduced from 43.0mmHg±14.8mmHg pre-treatment to 24.7mmHg±12.0mmHg at two weeks post treatment with 42.6% reduction. Subsequently, mean IOP at sixth week, third month and sixth month were 33.8mmHg±16.9mmHg, 35.2mmHg±14.9mmHg, and 29.0mmHg±16.2mmHg respectively. Vision maintained in 13 patients, two patients had improvement in vision however, five patients had deterioration in vision. No serious ocular side effects were noted.

    CONCLUSION: Subliminal TSCPC is a safe and alternative method of lowering IOP in moderate to advanced glaucoma over 6 months duration of follow-up. As it has good safety profile and repeatability, it is a good treatment option for patients with uncontrolled glaucoma.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tonometry, Ocular
  17. Renu Agarwal, SK Gupta, Sushma Srivastava, Rohit Saxena
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Ocimum basilicum (OB), a herb known for its antihypertensive,
    anticholinesterase and antioxidant properties was investigated for possible intraocular
    pressure (IOP) lowering effects in rabbits with ocular hypertension (OHT). Methods: The
    IOP lowering effect of a single drop of OB extract (OBE) was evaluated in oculonormotensive
    rabbits using three concentrations (0.25, 0.5 and 1% w/v). The concentration showing
    maximum IOP reduction was further evaluated in rabbits with water-loading and steroidinduced OHT. Results: IOP lowering effect of OBE 0.5% in oculonormotensive rabbit eyes
    was significantly greater compared to OBE 0.25% (p0.05) to
    OBE 1%. Therefore, 0.5% concentration was selected for further evaluation. Pretreatment
    with OBE (0.5%) caused significantly lower increase in IOP after water loading amounting to
    23.39% above baseline as compared to 54.00% in control eye, 15 minutes post water
    loading. At 60 minutes, post water loading, mean IOP rise was 95.12% and 63.58% in
    control and test eyes, respectively. Significant difference between the mean IOP of two eyes
    persisted during the 2nd hr. In rabbits with steroid induced OHT, OBE 0.5% produced a
    mean IOP reduction of 24.73% at the end of first hr and the mean peak IOP reduction of
    31.63% was observed at the end of 2 hr. A significant difference between the IOP of test and
    control eyes persisted from 1 to 6 hr. Conclusions: Ocimum basilicum seed extract showed
    significant IOP lowering effect in rabbits with water loading and steroid induced OHT,
    however, its utility as an effective antiglaucoma medication needs further investigations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tonometry, Ocular
  18. Ting SL, Lim LT, Ooi CY, Rahman MM
    Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila), 2019 06 05;8(3):229-232.
    PMID: 31165604 DOI: 10.22608/APO.2018433
    PURPOSE: To compare the measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) of Icare rebound tonometer and Perkins applanation tonometer (PAT) during community eye screening and to assess the agreement between these 2 instruments.

    DESIGN: A cross-sectional, non-interventional study.

    METHODS: The IOP measurements by handheld Icare rebound tonometer (Finland) were first performed by a primary care physician. Then the IOP was measured using Perkins Mk3 applanation tonometer (Haag-Streit, UK) by an ophthalmologist who was masked to previous readings from the Icare rebound tonometer. The mean IOP measured by each tonometer was compared. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to explore the correlation between the IOP measurements of the 2 instruments. The level of agreement between them was assessed using the Bland and Altman method.

    RESULTS: A total of 420 left eyes were examined. The mean age of subjects was 38.6 ± 18.2 years. Approximately 67% of subjects were female. The mean IOP was 16.3 ± 4.0 mm Hg using Icare and 13.4 ± 2.3 mm Hg using PAT. Pearson correlation coefficient showed a moderate positive correlation between the 2 methods (r = +0.524, P < 0.001). Linear regression analysis revealed a slope of 0.28 with R² of 0.255. The mean difference between the 2 methods was 2.90 ± 3.5 mm Hg and the sample t-test revealed a statistically significant mean difference from 0 (P < 0.001). The 95% limits of agreement between the 2 methods were between -9.73 and 3.93 mm Hg.

    CONCLUSIONS: The handheld Icare rebound tonometer is a reasonably acceptable screening tool in community practices. However, Icare overestimated IOP with a mean of 2.90 mm Hg higher than the PAT. Thus, using Goldmann applanation tonometer as a confirmatory measurement tool of IOP is suggested.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tonometry, Ocular/instrumentation*
  19. Zahari M, Ong YM, Taharin R, Ramli N
    Optom Vis Sci, 2014 Apr;91(4):459-63.
    PMID: 24637481 DOI: 10.1097/OPX.0000000000000220
    To evaluate ocular biometric parameters and darkroom prone provocative test (DPPT) in family members of primary angle closure (PAC) glaucoma (PACG) patients and to establish any correlation between these biometric parameters and the DPPT response.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tonometry, Ocular
  20. Liza-Sharmini AT, Sharina YN, Dolaboladi AJ, Zaid NA, Azhany Y, Zunaina E
    Med J Malaysia, 2014 Feb;69(1):21-6.
    PMID: 24814624 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: There is limited knowledge on primary angle closure (PAC) in Malays. Understanding the clinical presentation and progression of PAC in Malays is important for prevention of blindness in Southeast Asia.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective record review study was conducted on Malay patients seen in the eye clinic of two tertiary hospitals in Kelantan, Malaysia. Based on the available data, Malay patients re-diagnosed as primary angle closure suspect (PACS), primary angle closure (PAC), and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) based on the International Society Geographical Epidemiological classification. Clinical data was collected from initial presentation including the presence of acute primary angle closure until at least 5 years follow up. Progression was defined based on gonioscopic changes, vertical cup to disc ratio (VCDR), intraocular pressure (IOP) and Humphrey visual field (HVF) analysis. Progression and severity of PACG was defined based Hodapp-Parrish-Anderson classification on reliable HVF central 24-2 or 30-2 analysis.

    RESULTS: A total of 100 patients (200 eyes) with at least 5 years follow up were included. 94 eyes (47%) presented with APAC. During initial presentation, 135 eyes (67.5%) were diagnosed with glaucomatous changes with 91 eyes already blind. After 5 years of follow up, 155 eyes (77.5%) progressed. There was 4 times risk of progression in eyes with PAC (p=0.071) and 16 times risk of progression in PACG (p=0.001). Absence of laser peripheral iridotomy was associated with 10 times the risk of progression.

    CONCLUSION: Angle closure is common in Malays. Majority presented with optic neuropathy at the initial presentation and progressed further. Preventive measures including promoting public awareness among Malay population is important to prevent blindness.

    Study site: Eye clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia and Hospital
    Raja Perempuan Zainab II
    Matched MeSH terms: Tonometry, Ocular
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