OBJECTIVE: To conduct an umbrella review to determine whether there is an association between CVDs and the prevalence of AP in adults.
METHODS: The protocol of the review was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42020185753). The literature search was conducted using the following electronic databases: Clarivate Analytics' Web of Science Scopus, PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, from inception to May, 2020, with no language restrictions. Systematic reviews with or without meta-analysis that evaluated the association between CVDs and AP were included. Other types of studies, including narrative reviews, were excluded. Two reviewers independently performed a literature search, data extraction and quality assessment of included studies. Any disagreements or doubts were resolved by a third reviewer. The quality of the reviews was assessed using the AMSTAR 2 tool (A measurement tool to assess systematic reviews), with 16 items. A final categorization of the systematic reviews classified each as of 'high', 'moderate', 'low' or 'critically low' quality.
RESULTS: Four systematic reviews were included in the current review. Three reviews were graded by AMSTAR 2 as 'moderate' quality, whereas one review was graded as 'critically low' quality.
DISCUSSION: Only one systematic review included a meta-analysis. Substantial heterogeneity amongst the primary studies included within each systematic review was notable in preventing a pooled analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: From the limited 'moderate' to 'critically low' quality evidence available, the current umbrella review concluded that a weak association exists between CVDs and AP. In the future, well-designed, longitudinal clinical studies with long-term follow-up are required.
Aim: To investigate the concurrent validity and reliability of the WBB for balance assessment in healthy young adults.
Methods: Thirty-two young adults participated in this study. Their ability to balance was tested while standing on a WBB and a laboratory-grade force platform, under three conditions: feet together with eyes open, feet together with eyes closed and semi-tandem standing with eyes open. They had 10 min resting period between tests. The agreement between the WBB and the laboratory-grade force platform was investigated, and the reliability of the WBB was determined.
Results: A poor agreement between the WBB and the laboratory-grade force platform was found for all standing conditions [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.03 to 0.07]. A moderate to high reliability was found for the WBB for balance assessment in healthy young adults (ICC = 0.66 to 0.76).
Conclusion: The WBB was found to be a reliable tool for static balance assessment in healthy young adults. However, it had poor validity compared to the laboratory-grade force platform.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Neural induction was carried out with a small molecule cocktail based two-step culture protocol, over a total duration of 14 days. At the 8 and 14 day timepoints, the cells were analyzed for expression of neural markers with immunocytochemistry, qRT-PCR and Western Blot. The Fluo 4-AM calcium flux assay was also performed after a further 14 days of neural maturation.
RESULTS: More pronounced morphological changes characteristic of the neural lineage (i.e. neuritogenesis) were observed in all three cell types treated with small molecules, as compared to the untreated controls. This was corroborated by the immunocytochemistry, qRT-PCR and western blot data, which showed upregulated expression of several early and mature neural markers in all three cell types treated with small molecules, versus the corresponding untreated controls. Finally, the Fluo-4 AM calcium flux assay showed consistently higher calcium transient (F/Fo) peaks for the small molecule-treated versus untreated control groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Small molecules can enhance the neurogenic differentiation of DPSCs, SCAPs and GMSCs, which offer much potential for therapeutic applications.