This study aims to explore the life experience of the husbands of women who survived breast cancer for more than five years following breast removal. Basic interpretative of qualitative methodology was applied in order to construct the phenomenon of breast cancer from the perspective of husbands. This approach allowed researchers to explore in-depth the experience of husbands in facing breast cancer of their wives. Four themes were identified. These are marital
challenges, pattern of life, supportive atmosphere and psychological defenses. Health strategies should direct the family member to the specific pathway in order to facilitate them towards the effective action of healthcare at their level. Evidence from this study is a direction for future research and health planning for better health policy.
In recent years image acquisition in close range photogrammetry relies on digital sensors such as digital cameras, video cameras, CCD cameras etc that are not specifically designed for photogrammetry. This study is performed to evaluate the compatibility of the digital metric camera and non-metric camera for the purpose of mapping meandering flume, using close range photogrammetric technique and further, to determine the accuracy that could be achieved using such a technique. The meandering flume provides an opportunity to conduct an experimental study in a controlled environment. In this study, the digital images of the whole meandering flume were acquired using a compact digital camera - Nikon Coolpix S560, a Single Lens Reflex (SLR) Nikon D60 and also a metric digital camera Rollei D30. A series of digital images were acquired to cover the whole meandering flume. Secondary data of ground control points (GCP) and check points (CP), established using the Total Station technique, was used. The digital camera was calibrated and the recovered camera calibration parameters were then used in the processing of digital images. In processing the digital images, digital photogrammetric software was used for processes such as aerial triangulation, stereo compilation, generation of digital elevation model (DEM) and generation of orthophoto. The whole process was successfully performed and the output produced in the form of orthophoto. The research output is then evaluated for planimetry and vertical accuracy using root mean square error (RMSE). Based on the analysis, sub-meter accuracy is obtained. It can be concluded that the differences between the different types of digital camera are small . As a conclusion, this study proves that close range photogrammetry technique can be used for mapping meandering flume using both the metric digital camera and non-metric digital camera.
In this paper a study on the wideband double-pass Raman fibre amplifier with mirror as the pump reflector is reported. The pump lights at 1435 nm and 1455 nm were launched in a co-directional manner with respect to the input signal. The double-pass direction of the signal was achieved through a fibre loop mirror constructed using an optical circulator. It was shown that multiple signal amplification was achieved without any disturbance of stimulated Brillouin scattering.
This paper describes the use of stereophotogrammetry approach to measure and hence identify accurately threedimensional (3D) coordinates of important landmarks on a craniofacial surface. A "novel" technique dubbed as "natural features" technique was employed to accurately compute the 3D coordinates of selected craniofacial landmarks. The natural features technique involves the use of 3D coordinates of the natural features (such as acne, scar, corners of eyes, edge of mouth, point of chin, etc.) that appear on the craniofacial surface as an absolute stereophotogrammetric mapping control points. The 3D coordinates of the natural features were gained using digital photogrammetric bundle adjustment method. Validation of the proposed technique has firstly been carried out using mannequin and finally, it was applied on the real-life human faces. The result shows that the craniofacial landmark measurement accuracy of 0.8mm with one standard deviation can be successfully achieved by the proposed technique.
Horseshoe crab is one of the oldest existing living fossils comprising four main species today. Of these, Limulus Polyphemus is found in North America and the other three species, Tachypleus tridentatus, Tachypleus gigas and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda are found in Southeast Asia. Horseshoe crabs play important roles in the regulation of the coastal ecology communities whereby the eggs serve as the main diet of shorebird species during the migrating season. Horseshoe crab is also seen as a versatile organism, useful in the biomedicine field particularly, as its blue blood has been widely integrated to be used for endotoxin tester in vaccines, drugs and injectables. Researchers have explored a material called perivitelline fluid (PVF) from the egg of a fertilized horseshoe crab which is rich in important proteins and amino acids that are crucial for embryogenesis. Previous studies have shown that PVF has the ability to enhance cell growth and differentiation as well as in promoting generation of certain organs. Testing of PVF on many types of cells has shown positive results and hence, it is suggested that PVF could be used as a supplement to support cell growth in future. Highlighting the horseshoe crab as a living fossil, this review brings out the relevance of the blue blood and PVF of the horseshoe crab as sources benefitting molecular research.
The purpose of the study is as a preliminary outline of the effectiveness of initiating high-risk individuals into the Health Farm concept in the primary prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD). Thirty-five (35) Army personnel, all male, with risk-factors for CAD were brought together on a Health Farm concept to go through a predesigned ten-day Farm programme comprising CAD risk-assessment, comprehensive medical examination, relevant blood chemistry analysis, physical fitness evaluation, individualised weekly exercise routine, physical fitness workouts, individualised diet, lectures, group discussion and individual counselling. Description of the participants (as measurements of various relevant parameters) are made at the start and as participant-achievement. The results show general participant-compliance to the programme which was reflected by significant changes in weight (p < 0.005), percentile VO2Max (p < 0.005), percentile push-ups (p < 0.005) and girth-difference (p < 0.005). The study showed that the Health Farm concept is effective in initiating high-risk individuals into lifestyles conducive to the primary prevention of CAD. Sustained results towards primary prevention of CAD can be expected with compliance to a long-term follow-up that has been identified and to which participants have been made aware of. Other previous intervention studies are briefly discussed.
The purpose of this work is to obtain optimal preparation conditions for activated carbons prepared from rattan sawdust (RSAC) for removal of disperse dye from aqueous solution. The RSAC was prepared by chemical activation with phosphoric acid using response surface methodology (RSM). RSM based on a three-variable central composite design was used to determine the effect of activation temperature (400-600 degrees C), activation time (1-3h) and H(3)PO(4):precursor (wt%) impregnation ratio (3:1-6:1) on C.I. Disperse Orange 30 (DO30) percentage removal and activated carbon yield were investigated. Based on the central composite design, quadratic model was developed to correlate the preparation variables to the two responses. The most influential factor on each experimental design responses was identified from the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimum conditions for preparation of RSAC, which were based on response surface and contour plots, were found as follows: temperature of 470 degrees C, activation time of 2h and 14min and chemical impregnation ratio of 4.45.
From the rhizomes of Curcuma ochrorhiza, four sesquiterpenes, isofuranodiene, germacrene, furanogermenone and zederone, have been isolated, the structures of which have been elucidated by spectroscopic methods.
The present study proposed the use of meranti sawdust in the removal of Cu(II), Cr(III), Ni(II) and Pb(II) ions from synthetic aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption studies showed that meranti sawdust was able to adsorb Cu(II), Cr(III), Ni(II) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions in the concentration range 1-200mg/L. The adsorption was favoured with maximum adsorption at pH 6, whereas the adsorption starts at pH 1 for all metal ions. The effects of contact time, initial concentration of metal ions, adsorbent dosage and temperature have been reported. The applicability of Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm was tried for the system to completely understand the adsorption isotherm processes. The adsorption kinetics tested with pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models yielded high R(2) values from 0.850 to 0.932 and from 0.991 to 0.999, respectively. The meranti sawdust was found to be cost effective and has good efficiency to remove these toxic metal ions from aqueous solution.
The coagulation-flocculation process incorporated with membrane separation technology will become a new approach for palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment as well as water reclamation and reuse. In our current research, a membrane pilot plant has been used for POME treatment where the coagulation-flocculation process plays an important role as a pretreatment process for the mitigation of membrane fouling problems. The pretreated POME with low turbidity values and high water recovery are the main objectives to be achieved through the coagulation-flocculation process. Therefore, treatment optimization to serve these purposes was performed using jar tests and applying a response surface methodology (RSM) to the results. A 2(3) full-factorial central composite design (CCD) was chosen to explain the effect and interaction of three factors: coagulant dosage, flocculent dosage, and pH. The CCD is successfully demonstrated to efficiently determine the optimized parameters, where 78% of water recovery with a 20 NTU turbidity value can be obtained at the optimum value of coagulant dosage, flocculent dosage, and pH at 15 000 mg/L, 300 mg/L, and 6, respectively.
Medicinal plants have healing properties and are able to synthesize various chemical compounds. These chemicals (also known as phytochemical compounds) play vital roles in determining the pharmacological properties existing in certain plants. The phytochemical compounds present in plants are associated with primary and secondary constituents. Most of the time, the secondary constituents exhibit the bioactivities in plants such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. Some common medicinal plants that have been used in curing various diseases by traditional practitioners in Malaysia are Ficus deltoidea Jack, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa, Clinacanthus nutans and Eurycoma longifolia Jack. This review discusses the morphology, phytochemical compounds and phytochemical properties of selected medicinal plants in Malaysia. The plants of focus have been found to possess anti-cancer and anti-diabetic effects. This review, it is hoped will enable Malaysian researchers to explore further on the potential of these plants in investigating new and novel drugs in the future.
One of the most important and debilitating complication of diabetes mellitus is foot problem such as ulcers, infections and amputations. However, these complications are preventable by simple intervention such as regular foot care practice. This study aims to assess the foot care practice and its associated factors among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients attending primary health clinics in Kuantan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at four primary health clinics in Kuantan involving 450 study participants who were selected by using universal sampling method. Level of awareness and practice toward diabetic foot care was assessed using validated self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to identify factors associated with poor foot care practice among the respondents. RESULTS:About 59.6% of respondents had poor foot care practice and 50.9% had poor awareness level. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that, increasing age (OR0.97, 95% CI: 0.955-0.993) and good awareness towards foot problem (OR0.43, 95%CI: 0.289-0.643) were less likely to have poor foot care practice. However, Malay ethnicity (OR 1.81, 95% CI: 1.002-3.271) and obesity (OR1.9, 95% CI: 1.225-2.976) were associated with poor foot care practice after controlling other variables. CONCLUSION:Majority of the respondents had poor foot care practice and poor awareness. Respondents who are older and have better awareness are less likely to have poor foot care practice. Diabetic patients who are Malays and/or obese are predicted to have poor diabetic foot practice and hence must be prioritized for a sustainable patient education and compliance towards foot care practice at primary care level.
The diabetic foot at risk is the diabetic foot which is at risk of ulceration, hence the importance of identifying the foot at this stage. This study aims to assess the prevalence of diabetic foot at risk and its associated factors among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients’ attending primary health clinics in Kuantan.Methods and methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at four primary health clinics in Kuantan involving 450 study participants who were selected by using universal sampling method. Foot examination was carried out and foot at risk was classified based on the Kings’ Classification. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to identify the predictors for diabetic foot at risk. Results: The prevalence of diabetic foot at risk was 31.3%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified age (OR 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01-1.06), smoker (OR 4.11, 95% CI: 1.96-8.63) and duration of diabetes more than 10 years (OR1.77, 95% CI: 1.05-2.98) as risk factors for diabetic foot at risk. Respondents with higher diabetic foot practice score (OR 0.87, 95% CI: 0.77-0.98) have lesser risk of developing diabetic foot at risk. Conclusion: Patients who are older, smoker and/or have chronic diabetes are predicted to be at higher risk to develop the diabetic foot at risk. This study also showed that patients with better foot care practice has lesser risk. Therefore, these are the groups of patients that need to be targeted for early detection and intervention to prevent serious complications.
This study aimed to compare population dynamics, antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation of Aeromonas and Vibrio species from seawater and sediment collected from Northern Malaysia. Isolates with different colony morphology were characterized using both biochemical and molecular methods before testing for antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation. Results obtained from this study showed that in Kedah, the population of Aeromonas isolated from sediment was highest in Pantai Merdeka (8.22 log CFU/ml), Pulau Bunting recorded the highest population of Aeromonas from sediment (8.43 log CFU/g). It was observed that Vibrio species isolated from seawater and sediment were highest in Kuala Sanglang (9.21 log CFU/ml). In Kuala Perlis, the population of Aeromonas isolated from seawater was highest in Jeti (7.94 log CFU/ml). Highest population of Aeromonas from sediment was recorded in Kampong Tanah Baru (7.99 log CFU/g). It was observed that Vibrio species isolated from seawater was highest in Padang Benta (8.42 log CFU/g) while Jeti Kuala Perlis had highest population of Vibrio isolated from sediment. It was observed that location does not influence population of Aeromonas. The results of the independent t - test revealed that there was no significant relationship between location and population of Vibrio (df = 10, t = 1.144, p > 0.05). The occurrence of biofilm formation and prevalence of antibiotic resistant Aeromonas and Vibrio species in seawater and sediment pose danger to human and aquatic animals' health.
In this study polymer electrolytes composed of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a host polymer and ethylene carbonate (EC) as a plasticizer complexed with different lithium salts, i.e. lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4) and lithium triflate (LiCF3SO3) were prepared by the solution casting technique. The conductivities of the films were characterized by impedance spectroscopy. At room temperature, the highest conductivities were 4.07 × 10–7S cm–1 and 3.40 × 10–5 S cm–1 achieved, respectively from the films containing 30 wt% LiBF4 in the PMMA-EC-LiBF4 system and 35 wt% LiCF3SO3 in the PMMA-EC-LiCF3SO3 system. The conductivity-temperature dependence of the films seemed to obey the Arrhenius equation in which the ion transport in these materials was thermally assisted. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the surface of PMMA-EC-LiCF3SO3 film was smooth and homogeneous, hence lithium ions could traverse through the PMMA-EC-LiCF3SO3 film more easily compared to the PMMA-EC-LiBF4 film. X-Ray diffraction studies revealed that complexation had occurred and the complexes formed were amorphous.
Introduction: The purpose of this study is to identify the incidence of clavicle fractures in newborn
associated with fetal, maternal and process of deliveries in Kuantan General Hospital from June 2012 until
January 2014. This study is to determine epidemiological data of clavicle fractures, maternal and baby risk
factors associated with clavicle fractures of newborn and its’ outcome.
Methods: This is a prospective
study. 13 patients were identified to fulfill the inclusion criteria of the study. The data of
sociodemographic, associated fetal and maternal risk factors and the outcomes were recorded using
proforma. The statistical data analysis was done using SPSS 12.0.
Results: Out of 20,257 live births at our
centre during the study period, 13 infants were diagnosed to have clavicle fractures, giving an incidence of
0.64 per 1000 live births. There were 5 (38.5%) left, 7 (53.8%) right and one (7.7%) bilateral fracture. All
fractures located at the mid shaft of the clavicle and none have associated brachial plexus injuries. All
infants were delivered through vaginal delivery (61.5%); five through assisted delivery (instrumental); 2
(15.4%) forcep and 3 (23.1%) vacuum. Two of the babies developed shoulder dystocia. The average birth
weight was 3371 grams (SD 0.269) and mean gestational age was 38.7 weeks (SD 1.16). Five of the mothers
(38.5%) were primigravida and eight (61.5%) were multigravida in which,7 (53.8%)were healthy without
other co-morbidty, 5 (38.5%) having gestational diabetis and one (7.7%) hypertension. The average maternal
weight was 62.0 kg and height 1.58 metres with average BMI of 24.16 (3.29SD). All eventually had a
complete recovery at 6 weeks with clinical and radiological evident of fracture union.
conclusion, all patients with clavicle fractures were found following vaginal delivery. There were no
associations between neonatal clavicle fractures with maternal or baby risk factors. All fractures healed
without any complications.