Virulence of Shigella is attributed to the genes presence in chromosome or in the megaplasmid. The apy gene which is located in the megaplasmid of Shigella species encodes for apyrase enzyme, a pathogenesis-associated enzyme causing mitochondrial damage and host cell death. In this study we constructed an apy mutant of Shigella flexneri by insertional activation using a kanamycin resistant gene cassette. The wild type apy gene of S. flexneri 2a was PCR amplified, cloned and mutated with insertion of kanamycin resistant gene cassette (aphA). The mutated construct (apy: aphA) was subcloned into a conjugative suicidal vector (pWM91) at the unique Sma1 and Sac1 sites. The mutation of the wild apy gene in the construct was confirmed by DNA sequencing. The mutated construct was introduced into wild type S. flexneri 2a by conjugation with Escherichia coli. After undergoing homologous recombination, the wild apy gene was deleted from the construct using the sucrose selection method. Non-functional activity of the apyrase enzyme in the constructed strain by colorimetric test indicated the successful mutation of the apyrase enzyme. This strain with mutated apy gene was evaluated for its protective efficacy using the guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis model. The strain was Sereny negative and it elicited a significant protection following challenge with wild S. flexneri strain. This apy mutant strain will form a base for the development of a vaccine target for shigellosis.
Haemorrhagic septicaemia is a disease caused by Pasteurella multocida serotype B: 2 and E: 2. The organism causes acute, highly fatal septicaemic disease with high morbidity and mortality in cattle and more susceptible in buffaloes. Lipopolysaccharide can be found on the outer cell wall of the organism. Lipopolysaccharide is released during multiplication which leads to inflammatory reaction. It represents the endotoxin of P. multocida type B: 2 and responsible for toxicity in haemorrhagic septicaemia which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the clinical signs, blood parameters, gross post mortem lesions and histopathology changes caused by P. multocida type B:2 immunogen lipopolysaccharide infections initiated through intravenous and oral routes of infection. 9 buffalo heifers were divided equally into 3 treatment groups. Group 1 was inoculated orally with 10 ml of phosphate buffer saline (PBS); Group 2 and 3 were inoculated with 10 ml of lipopolysaccharide broth intravenously and orally respectively. For the clinical signs, there were significant differences (p < 0.05) in temperature between the control, intravenous and oral group. In hematology and biochemistry findings, there were significant differences (p < 0.05) in erythrocytes, haemoglobin, PCV, MCV, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, GGT and albumin between the control, intravenous and oral group. However, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the MCHC, leukocytes, band neutrophils, basophils, thrombocytes, plasma protein, icterus index, total protein, globulin and A:G ratio between intravenous and oral group. For Group 2 buffaloes, there were gross lesions in the lung, trachea, heart, liver, spleen, and kidney. In contrast, lesions were only observed in the lung, trachea and liver of Group 3 buffaloes. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in hemorrhage and congestion; necrosis and degeneration; and inflammatory cells infiltration between experimental groups and control group. However, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in edema lesion between groups. In conclusion, this study is a proof that oral route infection of P. multocida type B:2 immunogen lipopolysaccharide can be used to stimulate host cell responses where oral vaccine through feed could be developed in the near future.
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) in immunocompromised host is a major infectious disease leading to reduce the survival rate of world population. Aspergillus niger is a causative agent causing IA. Cassia surattensis plant is commonly used in rural areas to treat various types of disease. C. surattensis flower extract was evaluated against the systemic aspergillosis model in this study. Qualitative measurement of fungal burden suggested a reduction pattern in the colony forming unit (CFU) of lung, liver, spleen and kidney for the extract treated group. Galactomannan assay assessment showed a decrease of fungal load in the treatment and positive control group with galactomannan index (GMI) value of 1.27 and 0.25 on day 28 but the negative control group showed high level of galactomannan in the serum with GMI value of 3.58. Histopathology examinations of the tissues featured major architecture modifications in the tissues of negative control group. Tissue reparation and recovery from infection were detected in extract treated and positive control group. Time killing fungicidal study of A. niger revealed dependence of the concentration of C. surattensis flower extract.
Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is able to survive extreme environments and utilizes various virulence factors for survival and pathogenicity. To compete and survive within these different ecological niches, B. pseudomallei has evolved specialized pathways, including the Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs), that have a role in pathogenesis as well as interbacterial interactions. We examined the expression profile of B. pseudomallei T6SS six gene clusters during infection of U937 macrophage cells. T6SS-5 was robustly transcribed while the other five clusters were not significantly regulated proposing the utility of T6SS-5 as a potential biomarker of exposure to B. pseudomallei. Transcription of T6SS regulators VirAG and BprB was also not significant during infection when compared to bacteria grown in culture. Guided by these findings, three highly expressed T6SS genes, tssJ-4, hcp1 and tssE-5, were expressed as recombinant proteins and screened against melioidosis patient sera by western analysis and ELISA. Only Hcp1 was reactive by both types of analysis. The recombinant Hcp1 protein was further evaluated against a cohort of melioidosis patients (n = 32) and non-melioidosis individuals (n = 20) sera and the data clearly indicates a higher sensitivity (93.7%) and specificity (100%) for Hcp1 compared to bacterial lysate. The detection of anti-Hcp1 antibodies in patients' sera indicating the presence of B. pseudomallei highlights the potential of Hcp1 to be further developed as a serodiagnostic marker for melioidosis.
Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Chronically-infected individuals with a compromised immune system are at risk for reactivation of the disease. In-vivo induced antigen technology (IVIAT) is a promising method for the identification of antigens expressed in-vivo. The aim of the present study was to apply IVIAT to identify antigens which are expressed in-vivo during T. gondii infection using sera from individuals with chronic toxoplasmosis. Forty serum samples were pooled, pre-adsorped against three different preparations of antigens, from each in-vitro grown T. gondii and Escherichia coli XLBlue MRF', and then used to screen a T. gondii cDNA expression library. Sequencing of DNA inserts from positive clones showed eight open reading frames with high homology to T. gondii genes. Expression analysis using quantitative real-time PCR showed that SAG1-related sequence 3 (SRS3) and two hypothetical genes were up-regulated in-vivo relative to their expression levels in-vitro. These three proteins also showed high sensitivity and specificity when tested with individual serum samples. Five other proteins namely M16 domain peptidase, microneme protein, elongation factor 1-alpha, pre-mRNA-splicing factor and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein F had lower RNA expression in-vivo as compared to in-vitro. SRS3 and the two hypothetical proteins warrant further investigation into their roles in the pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis.
The Publisher regrets that this article is an accidental duplication of an article that has already been published, doi:10.1016/j.micpath.2012.05.010;. The duplicate article has therefore been withdrawn.
Roselle, or Jamaica sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is a popular vegetable in many tropical regions, cultivated for its leaves, seeds, stems and calyces which, the dried calyces are used to prepare tea, syrup, jams and jellies and as beverages. The main objectives of this study were to identify and characterise fungal pathogens associated with Roselle diseases based on their morphological and cultural characteristics and to determine the pathogenicity of four fungi infecting Roselle seedlings, namely Phoma exigua, Fusarium nygamai, Fusarium tgcq and Rhizoctonia solani in Penang. A total of 200 fungal isolates were obtained from 90 samples of symptomatic Roselle tissues. The isolates were identified based on cultural and morphological characteristics, as well as their pathogenicity. The fungal pathogen most frequently isolated was P. exigua (present in 45% of the samples), followed by F. nygamai (25%), Rhizoctonia solani (19%) and F. camptoceras (11%). Pathogenicity tests showed that P. exigua, F. nygamai, F. camptoceras and R. solani were able to infect both wounded and unwounded seedlings with different degrees of severity as indicated by the Disease severity (DS). R. solani was the most pathogenic fungus affecting both wounded and unwounded Roselle seedlings, followed by P. exigua that was highly pathogenic on wounded seedlings. F. nygamai was less pathogenic while the least pathogenic fungus was F. camptoceras, infecting only the unwounded seedlings but, surprisingly, not the wounded plants.
Cholera caused by the O139 serogroup still remains a public health concern in certain regions of the world and the existing O1 vaccines do not cross-protect cholera caused by this serogroup. An aminolevulinic acid (ALA) auxotroph vaccine candidate against the O139 serogroup, designated as VCUSM2, was recently developed. It was found to be immunogenic in animal model studies but showed mild reactogenic effects due to the presence of two intact copies of Vibrio cholerae toxin (CTX) genetic element. In the present study we have modified the ctx operon by systematic allelic replacement methodology to produce a mutant strain, designated as VCUSM14. This strain has two copies of chromosomally integrated and mutated ctxA gene, encoding immunogenic but not toxic cholera toxin A subunit (CT-A). The amino acids arginine and glutamic acid at position 7th and 112th, respectively, in CT-A of VCUSM14 were substituted with lysine (R7K) and glutamine (E112Q), respectively. Two copies of the ace and zot genes present in the ctx operon were also deleted. Cholera toxin-ELISA using GM1 ganglioside showed that the both wild type CT and mutated CT were recognized by anti-CT polyclonal antibodies. VCUSM14 produced comparatively less amount of antigenic cholera toxin when compared to the VCUSM2 and Bengal wild type strain. VCUSM14 did not elicit fluid accumulation when inoculated into rabbit ileal loops at doses of 10(6) and 10(8) CFU. The colonization efficiency of VCUSM14 was one log lower than the parent strain, VCUSM2, which can be attributed to the ALA auxotrophy and less invasive properties of VCUSM14. VCUSM14, thus a non-reactogenic auxotrophic vaccine candidate against infection by O139 V. cholerae.
To evaluate the potential role of extracellular proteins in the pathogenicity and virulence of Burkholderia pseudomallei, the activities of several enzymes in the culture filtrates of nine clinical and six environmental isolates were investigated in vitro and in vivo in ICR strain of mice. The production of protease, phosphatase, phospholipase C, superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase were detected in the culture filtrates of all the 15 isolates at different time points of growth 4-24h. Over time, activity of each enzyme at each time point varied. Profile of secretion was similar among the 15 isolates irrespective of source, that is clinical or environmental. Catalase, phosphatase and phospholipase C were found to be increased in 60-100% of the isolates post-passage in mice. In vivo inoculation studies in ICR mice demonstrated a wide difference in their ability to cause bacteraemia, splenic or external abscesses and mortality rate ranged from few days to several weeks.
Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes diarrheal disease. V. cholerae O1 and O139 serogroups are toxigenic and are known to cause epidemic cholera. These serogroups produce cholera toxin and other accessory toxins such as accessory cholera enterotoxin, zonula occludens toxin, and multifunctional, autoprocessing repeat in toxin (MARTX). In the present study, we incorporated mutated rtxA and rtxC genes that encode MARTX toxin into the existing aminolevulinic acid (ALA) auxotrophic vaccine candidate VCUSM2 of V. cholerae O139 serogroup. The rtxC mutant was named VCUSM9 and the rtxC/rtxA mutant was named VCUSM10. VCUSM9 and VCUSM10 were able to colonize intestinal cells well, compared with the parent vaccine strain, and produced no fluid accumulation in a rabbit ileal loop model. Cell rounding and western blotting assays indicated that mutation of the rtxC gene alone (VCUSM9 strain) did not abolish MARTX toxicity. However mutation of both the rtxA and rtxC genes (VCUSM10) completely abolished MARTX toxicity. Thus we have produced a new, less reactogenic, auxotrophic rtxC/rtxA mutated vaccine candidate against O139 V. cholerae.
Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute, septicaemic disease of cattle and buffalo of Asia and Africa caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2 or E:2. Buffaloes are believed to be more susceptible than cattle. In this study, 9 buffaloes of 8 months old were divided equally into 3 groups (Groups 1, 3, 5). Similarly, 9 cattle of 8 months old were equally divided into 3 groups (Groups 2, 4, 6). Animals of Groups 1 and 2 were inoculated with PBS while Groups 3 and 4 were inoculated subcutaneously with 10(5) cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2. Animals of Groups 5 and 6 were inoculated intranasally with the same inoculum. Both buffaloes and cattle that were inoculated subcutaneously succumbed to the infection at 16 h and 18 h, respectively. Two buffaloes that were inoculated intranasally (Group 5) succumbed at 68 h while the remaining cattle and buffaloes survived the 72-h study period. Endotoxin was detected in the blood of infected cattle (Group 4) and buffaloes (Groups 3 and 5) prior to the detection of P. multocida B:2 in the blood. The endotoxin was detected in the blood of buffaloes of Group 3 and cattle of Group 4 at 0.5 h post-inoculation while buffaloes of Group 5 and cattle of Group 6 at 1.5 h. On the other hand, bacteraemia was detected at 2.5 h in buffaloes of Group 3 and cattle of Group 4 and at 12 h in buffaloes of Group 5 and cattle of Group 6. Affected cattle and buffaloes showed lesions typical of haemorrhagic septicaemia. These included congestion and haemorrhages in the organs of respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts with evidence of acute inflammatory reactions. The severity of gross and histopathology lesions in cattle and buffalo calves that succumbed to the infection showed insignificant (p > 0.05) difference. However, inoculated buffalo and cattle that survived the infection showed significantly (p < 0.05) less severe gross and histopathological changes than those that succumbed. In general, cattle are more resistant to intranasal infection by P. multocida B:2 than buffaloes.
The completion of Escherichia coli K1 genome has identified several genomic islands that are present in meningitis-causing E. coli RS218 but absent in the non-pathogenic E. coli MG1655. In this study, the role of various genomic islands in E. coli K1 interactions with intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) and kidney epithelial cells (MA104) was determined. Using association assays, invasion assays, and intracellular survival assays, the findings revealed that the genomic island deletion mutants of RS218 related to P fimbriae, S fimbriae, F17-like fimbriae, non-fimbrial adhesins, Hek and hemagglutinin, protein secretion system (T1SS for hemolysin; T2SS; T5SS for antigen 43), Iro system and hmu system), invasins (CNF1, IbeA), toxins (α-hemolysin), K1 capsule biosynthesis, metabolism (d-serine catabolism, dihydroxyacetone, glycerol, and glyoxylate metabolism), prophage genes, showed reduced interactions with both cell types. Next, we determined the role of various genomic islands in E. coli K1 resistance to serum. When exposed to the normal human serum, the viability of the genomic island deletion mutants related to adhesins such as S fimbriae, P fimbriae, F17-like fimbriae, non-fimbrial adhesins, Hek and hemagglutinin, antigen 43 and T5SS for antigen 43, T2SS, and T1SS for hemolysin, Iro system and hmu system, prophage genes, metabolism (sugar metabolism and d-serine catabolism), K1 capsule biosynthesis, and invasins such as CNF1 was affected, suggesting their role in bacteremia. The characterization of these genomic islands should reveal mechanisms of E. coli K1 pathogenicity that could be of value as therapeutic targets.
Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute, fatal, septicaemic disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by one of two specific serotypes of Pasteurella multocida B:2 and E:2 in Asian and African, respectively. It is well known that HS affect mainly the respiratory and digestive tracts. However, involvement of the nervous system in pathogenesis of HS has been reported in previous studies without details. In this study, nine buffalo calves of 8 months old were distributed into three groups. Animals of Group 1 and 2 were inoculated orally and subcutaneously with 10 ml of 1 × 10(12) cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2, respectively, while animals of Group 3 were inoculated orally with 10 ml of phosphate buffer saline as a control. All calves in Group 1 and Group 3 were euthanised after 504 h (21 day) post-infection, while calves in Group 2 had to euthanise after 12 h post-infection as they develop sever clinical signs of HS. Significant differences were found in Group 2 in the mean scores of clinical signs, gross and histopathological changes which mainly affect different anatomic regions of the nervous system. In addition, successful bacterial isolation of P. multocida B:2 were obtained from different sites of the nervous system. On the other hand, less sever, clinical, gross and histopathological changes were found in Group 1. These results provide for the first time strong evidence of involving of the nervous system in pathogenesis of HS, especially in the peracute stage of the disease.
Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis due to Acanthamoeba is a chronic disease that almost always results in death. Hematogenous spread is a pre-requisite followed by amoebae invasion of the blood-brain barrier to enter the central nervous system. Given the systemic nature of this infection, a significant latent period of several months before the appearance of clinical manifestations is puzzling. Based on reported cases, here we propose pathogenetic mechanisms that explain the above described latency of the disease.
Brucella melitensis is one of the major zoonotic pathogens with significant economic implications worldwide. The pathogenicity is complex and not always well understood. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) remains the major virulent factor of B. melitensis and responsible for the mechanism by which the pathogen causes its deleterious effects. In this study, 84 mice of 6-8 weeks old of both sexes were divided equally into 3 groups; namely Brucella melitensis infected group, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infected group and control group. The former two groups contained 36 mice each with equal gender distribution. The control group consisted of 12 mice only. Animals in B. melitensis infected group, a single inoculum of 0.4 ml containing 10(9) of B. melitensis were intraperitoneally challenged while animals in LPS group, a single dose of 0.4 ml containing LPS extracted from the B. melitensis were intraperitoneally inoculated. Animals in control group received intraperitoneally, a single dose of 0.4 ml phosphate buffered saline (PBS) of pH7. Animals that were infected intraperitoneally with B. melitensis demonstrated significant clinical presentation; gross and histo-pathological evidence than LPS infected group. However, both infected groups showed elevated levels of interleukins (IL-1β and IL6), antibody levels (IgM an IgG) as early as 3 days post-infection with predominance in LPS infected group. In contrast, low levels of sex related hormonal changes in which LPS infected group showed the least concentration were also detected throughout the experimental period. In conclusion, B. melitensis can be transmitted via gastrointestinal, respiratory and reproductive tract. Moreover, LPS stimulated significantly the innate and acquired immune system without significant systemic dysfunction, suggesting potentiality of the protective properties of this component as alternative vaccine for brucellosis infection.
Cholera, a severe form of gastroenteritis, is one of the most widespread diseases in developing countries. The mechanism of intestinal infection caused by V. cholerae O139 remains unclear. In order to explore some morphological aspects of its infection in the intestine including Peyer's patches, we investigated the V. cholerae O139 infection at intestinal site of the rabbit gut-loop model. The electron microscopic analysis revealed denuded mucosal surface with loss of microvilli and integrity of the surface epithelium. Infection of the intestine with V. cholerae O139 induces destruction of villi, microvilli and lining epithelium with exposure of crypts of Lieberkuhn.
The aim of this study was to investigate the clinico-pathology and haemato-biochemistry alterations in buffaloes inoculated with Pasteurella multocida type B:2 immunogen outer membrane protein via subcutaneous and oral routes. Nine buffalo heifers were divided equally into 3 treatment groups. Group 1 was inoculated orally with 10 mL of phosphate buffer saline (PBS); Group 2 and 3 were inoculated with 10 mL of outer membrane protein broth subcutaneously and orally respectively. Group 2 buffaloes showed typical haemorrhagic septicaemia clinical signs and were only able to survive for 72 h of the experiment. However, Group 3 buffaloes were able to survive throughout the stipulated time of 21 days of experiment. There were significant differences (p 0.05) in edema between groups except for the lung. This study was a proof that oral route infection of Pasteurella multocida type B:2 immunogen outer membrane protein can be used to stimulate host cell.
Biofilms are aggregates of attached microbial organisms whose existence on tissues is often recognised as a mechanism for the establishment of most chronic diseases. Herein we investigated the ability of piscine Streptococcus agalactiae, an important aquatic pathogen, for adaptation to this sessile lifestyle in vitro and in the brain of a tilapia fish model. Piscine S. agalactiae exhibited a weak attachment to polystyrene plates and expressed a low biofilm phenotype under the study conditions. Furthermore, fluorescent in situ hybridization and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed discrete aggregates of attached S. agalactiae within brain tissues and around meningeal surfaces. They were embedded in an exopolysaccharide containing matrix, intractable to inflammatory response and showed some level of resistance to penicillin despite proven susceptibility on sensitivity test. Intracellular bacterial aggregates were also observed, moreover, antibody mediated response was not demonstrated during infection. Nucleated erythrocytes appear to facilitate brain invasion possibly via the Trojan horse mechanism leading to a granulomatous inflammation. We have demonstrated that biofilm is associated with persistence of S. agalactiae and the development of chronic meningoencephalitis in fish.
This study aimed to compare population dynamics, antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation of Aeromonas and Vibrio species from seawater and sediment collected from Northern Malaysia. Isolates with different colony morphology were characterized using both biochemical and molecular methods before testing for antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation. Results obtained from this study showed that in Kedah, the population of Aeromonas isolated from sediment was highest in Pantai Merdeka (8.22 log CFU/ml), Pulau Bunting recorded the highest population of Aeromonas from sediment (8.43 log CFU/g). It was observed that Vibrio species isolated from seawater and sediment were highest in Kuala Sanglang (9.21 log CFU/ml). In Kuala Perlis, the population of Aeromonas isolated from seawater was highest in Jeti (7.94 log CFU/ml). Highest population of Aeromonas from sediment was recorded in Kampong Tanah Baru (7.99 log CFU/g). It was observed that Vibrio species isolated from seawater was highest in Padang Benta (8.42 log CFU/g) while Jeti Kuala Perlis had highest population of Vibrio isolated from sediment. It was observed that location does not influence population of Aeromonas. The results of the independent t - test revealed that there was no significant relationship between location and population of Vibrio (df = 10, t = 1.144, p > 0.05). The occurrence of biofilm formation and prevalence of antibiotic resistant Aeromonas and Vibrio species in seawater and sediment pose danger to human and aquatic animals' health.
Orf disease is known to be enzootic among small ruminants in Asia, Africa, and some other parts of the world. The disease caused by orf virus is highly contagious among small ruminant species. Unfortunately, it has been neglected for decades because of the general belief that it only causes a self-limiting disease. On the other hand, in the past it has been reported to cause huge cumulative financial losses in livestock farming. Orf disease is characterized by localized proliferative and persistent skin nodule lesions that can be classified into three forms: generalized, labial and mammary or genitals. It can manifest as benign or malignant types. The later type of orf can remain persistent, often fatal and usually causes a serious outbreak among small ruminant population. Morbidity and mortality rates of orf are higher especially in newly infected kids and lambs. Application of antibiotics together with antipyretic and/or analgesic is highly recommended as a supportive disease management strategy for prevention of subsequent secondary microbial invasion. The presence of various exotic orf virus strains of different origin has been reported in many countries mostly due to poorly controlled cross-border virus transmission. There have been several efforts to develop orf virus vaccines and it was with variable success. The use of conventional vaccines to control orf is a debatable topic due to the concern of short term immunity development. Following re-infection in previously vaccinated animals, it is uncommon to observe the farms involved to experience rapid virus spread and disease outbreak. Meanwhile, cases of zoonosis from infected animals to animal handler are not uncommon. Despite failures to contain the spread of orf virus by the use of conventional vaccines, vaccination of animals with live orf virus is still considered as one of the best choice. The review herein described pertinent issues with regard to the development and use of potential effective vaccines as a control measure against orf virus infection.