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  1. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Bergauer T, Dragicevic M, et al.
    Phys Rev Lett, 2020 Oct 09;125(15):152001.
    PMID: 33095627 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.152001
    Using a data sample of proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s]=13  TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 140  fb^{-1} collected by the CMS experiment in 2016-2018, the B_{s}^{0}→X(3872)ϕ decay is observed. Decays into J/ψπ^{+}π^{-} and K^{+}K^{-} are used to reconstruct, respectively, the X(3872) and ϕ. The ratio of the product of branching fractions B[B_{s}^{0}→X(3872)ϕ]B[X(3872)→J/ψπ^{+}π^{-}] to the product B[B_{s}^{0}→ψ(2S)ϕ]B[ψ(2S)→J/ψπ^{+}π^{-}] is measured to be [2.21±0.29(stat)±0.17(syst)]%. The ratio B[B_{s}^{0}→X(3872)ϕ]/B[B^{0}→X(3872)K^{0}] is found to be consistent with one, while the ratio B[B_{s}^{0}→X(3872)ϕ]/B[B^{+}→X(3872)K^{+}] is two times smaller. This suggests a difference in the production dynamics of the X(3872) in B^{0} and B_{s}^{0} meson decays compared to B^{+}. The reported observation may shed new light on the nature of the X(3872) particle.
    Matched MeSH terms: United States
  2. Naing NN
    Malays J Med Sci, 2000 Jan;7(1):10-5.
    PMID: 22844209
    In direct age-adjustment, a common age-structured population is used as standard. This population may actually exist (e.g., United States population, 1999) or may be fictitious (e.g., two populations may be combined to create a standard). In indirect age-adjustment, a common set of age-specific rates is applied to the populations whose rates are to be standardized. The simplest and most useful form of indirect adjustment is the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) (5).
    Matched MeSH terms: United States
  3. Bucy PC
    Surg Neurol, 1975 Sep;4(3):343-4.
    PMID: 1179253
    Matched MeSH terms: United States
  4. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Phys Rev Lett, 2018 May 18;120(20):202005.
    PMID: 29864318 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.202005
    A search for resonancelike structures in the B_{s}^{0}π^{±} invariant mass spectrum is performed using proton-proton collision data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC at sqrt[s]=8  TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7  fb^{-1}. The B_{s}^{0} mesons are reconstructed in the decay chain B_{s}^{0}→J/ψϕ, with J/ψ→μ^{+}μ^{-} and ϕ→K^{+}K^{-}. The B_{s}^{0}π^{±} invariant mass distribution shows no statistically significant peaks for different selection requirements on the reconstructed B_{s}^{0} and π^{±} candidates. Upper limits are set on the relative production rates of the X(5568) and B_{s}^{0} states times the branching fraction of the decay X(5568)^{±}→B_{s}^{0}π^{±}. In addition, upper limits are obtained as a function of the mass and the natural width of possible exotic states decaying into B_{s}^{0}π^{±}.
    Matched MeSH terms: United States
  5. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Phys Rev Lett, 2019 Mar 29;122(12):121803.
    PMID: 30978057 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.121803
    This Letter describes a search for Higgs boson pair production using the combined results from four final states: bbγγ, bbττ, bbbb, and bbVV, where V represents a W or Z boson. The search is performed using data collected in 2016 by the CMS experiment from LHC proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s]=13  TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9  fb^{-1}. Limits are set on the Higgs boson pair production cross section. A 95% confidence level observed (expected) upper limit on the nonresonant production cross section is set at 22.2 (12.8) times the standard model value. A search for narrow resonances decaying to Higgs boson pairs is also performed in the mass range 250-3000 GeV. No evidence for a signal is observed, and upper limits are set on the resonance production cross section.
    Matched MeSH terms: United States
  6. El-Sabban F, Reid KH, Edmonds HL
    JUMMEC, 1997;2:95-98.
    Matched MeSH terms: United States
  7. Lee YY, Medford AR, Halim AS
    J R Coll Physicians Edinb, 2015;45(2):104-7.
    PMID: 26181523 DOI: 10.4997/JRCPE.2015.203
    Increasing numbers of doctors are experiencing burnout now more than ever before and the worrying part is that what we see is just the tip of the iceberg. Burnout, a state of mental exhaustion caused by the doctor's professional life, is characterised by emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and a reduced sense of accomplishment or success. Burnout has been largely ignored or under-recognised previously. This paper provides a perspective on burnout among doctors, including an overview of symptoms, the scale of the problem, the implications and causes of burnout and, finally, a strategic framework to provide a basis for managing it. Most importantly, professional bodies are urged to start taking steps to help troubled doctors. Medical Colleges should provide essential assistance, support and guidance as well as ensuring fair management and promotion policies.
    Matched MeSH terms: United States/epidemiology
  8. Syahrul, A.S., Jaafar, M.S., Al-Halemi, Ahmed, Hamouda, S.A.
    MyJurnal
    The purpose of this study is to measure and monitor the radon concentration from fabricated foamed light concrete, made of Portland cement, mine sand and granite. The concentration of radon released was measured using Radon Monitor Model 1027 from Sun Nuclear. The results of this research showed that the avearge radon concentration from foamed light concrete was 2.2 pCiL-1 L. Higher radon concentrations were detected after three days of measurements. Environment Protection Agency stated in its guidelines that radon concentration must lower than 4 pCiL-1 for a healthy environment. Thus, the use of foamed light concrete can be one of the alternatives to reduce radon concentration levels in human environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: United States; United States Environmental Protection Agency
  9. Mah, D.Y.S., Lau, J.T.
    MyJurnal
    Urbanisation increases the level of imperviousness in a catchment, and more runoff is converted from rainfall in urban areas. To mitigate this adverse situation, dispensed green infrastructure presents the best solution for delivering results in reducing stormwater impact. Green roofs and rain gardens are extensively studied and widely available in the literature, but this is not the case for green walls, which more often than not, are treated as ornaments. Thus, this study developed a computer-aided stormwater model that incorporates a green wall to investigate its effectiveness as an urban drainage system. The effectiveness of employing a green wall as a stormwater component is tested using USEPA SWMM 5.1 and the embedded bioretention cell interface. Four simulation models according to different conditions and precipitation input are tested, compared and discussed. The conditions include investigation of different soil types, average recurrence interval (ARI) and storm duration with design and observed rainfall. The results reveal that synthesis precipitation data, used in Scenario 1, 2 and 3, decreased runoff by more than half, at 55% on condition of one-year ARI and 5 minutes of storm duration. Meanwhile, Scenario 4 also shows a repetition of runoff reduction by half after the integration of the green wall using the observed rainfall data. Thus, it is verified that a green wall can be effectively used as an urban drainage system in reducing surface runoff.
    Matched MeSH terms: United States; United States Environmental Protection Agency
  10. Loo JMY, Kraus SW, Potenza MN
    J Behav Addict, 2019 Dec 01;8(4):625-648.
    PMID: 31830810 DOI: 10.1556/2006.8.2019.64
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This systematic review analyzes and summarizes gambling-related findings from the nationally representative US National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) data.

    METHODS: Systematic literature searches in accordance with PRISMA guidelines found 51 eligible studies that met inclusion criteria. Eight studies utilized both Waves 1 and 2 NESARC data, and selection of sample sizes varied from 185 to 43,093 individuals, consistent with specified research objectives of each study.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of lifetime pathological gambling was 0.42% (0.64% among men, 0.23% among women), while past-year prevalence was 0.16%. Pathological gambling rates were generally higher in populations with substance-use disorders and other psychiatric diagnoses. Rates of adverse childhood experiences and suicidal attempts were higher among individuals with problem or pathological gambling. Early-onset gamblers were more likely to be male, be never married, have incomes below $70,000, belong to younger cohorts and have Cluster B personality disorders, but less likely to be diagnosed with mood disorders. While pathological gambling was related to obesity, increased stress, and poorer physical health among general age groups, recreational gambling was linked with improved physical and mental functioning in older adults.

    CONCLUSIONS: The NESARC has provided important information on the correlates of pathological gambling and subdiagnostic patterns of gambling behaviors. Additional studies should examine these relationships in the current gambling environment and longitudinally with aims of implementing policies to improve the public health.

    Matched MeSH terms: United States/epidemiology
  11. Collins JM, Stout JE, Ayers T, Hill AN, Katz DJ, Ho CS, et al.
    Clin Infect Dis, 2021 11 02;73(9):e3468-e3475.
    PMID: 33137172 DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa1662
    BACKGROUND: Most tuberculosis (TB) disease in the United States (US) is attributed to reactivation of remotely acquired latent TB infection (LTBI) in non-US-born persons who were likely infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in their countries of birth. Information on LTBI prevalence by country of birth could help guide local providers and health departments to scale up the LTBI screening and preventive treatment needed to advance progress toward TB elimination.

    METHODS: A total of 13 805 non-US-born persons at high risk of TB infection or progression to TB disease were screened for LTBI at 16 clinical sites located across the United States with a tuberculin skin test, QuantiFERON Gold In-Tube test, and T-SPOT.TB test. Bayesian latent class analysis was applied to test results to estimate LTBI prevalence and associated credible intervals (CrIs) for each country or world region of birth.

    RESULTS: Among the study population, the estimated LTBI prevalence was 31% (95% CrI, 26%-35%). Country-of-birth-level LTBI prevalence estimates were highest for persons born in Haiti, Peru, Somalia, Ethiopia, Vietnam, and Bhutan, ranging from 42% to 55%. LTBI prevalence estimates were lowest for persons born in Colombia, Malaysia, and Thailand, ranging from 8% to 13%.

    CONCLUSIONS: LTBI prevalence in persons born outside the US varies widely by country. These estimates can help target community outreach efforts to the highest-risk groups.

    Matched MeSH terms: United States/epidemiology
  12. Protti D, Groen P
    Healthc Q, 2008;11(4):83-9.
    PMID: 19068935
    The success story of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) within the US Department of Veterans Affairs has been well documented and is generally well known. What is generally not known is that the VHA's clinical information system, known as VistA, and the computerized patient record system clinical user interface front end have been successfully transported and implemented to a number of non-VHA healthcare organizations across the United States. Moreover, VistA software modules have been installed, or are being considered for installation, in healthcare institutions around the world in countries such as Mexico, Finland, Jordan, Germany, Nigeria, Egypt, Malaysia, India, Brazil, Pakistan and Samoa.
    Matched MeSH terms: United States; United States Department of Veterans Affairs*
  13. Ng HW, Doughty SW, Luo H, Ye H, Ge W, Tong W, et al.
    Chem Res Toxicol, 2015 Dec 21;28(12):2343-51.
    PMID: 26524122 DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.5b00358
    Some chemicals in the environment possess the potential to interact with the endocrine system in the human body. Multiple receptors are involved in the endocrine system; estrogen receptor α (ERα) plays very important roles in endocrine activity and is the most studied receptor. Understanding and predicting estrogenic activity of chemicals facilitates the evaluation of their endocrine activity. Hence, we have developed a decision forest classification model to predict chemical binding to ERα using a large training data set of 3308 chemicals obtained from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Estrogenic Activity Database. We tested the model using cross validations and external data sets of 1641 chemicals obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ToxCast project. The model showed good performance in both internal (92% accuracy) and external validations (∼ 70-89% relative balanced accuracies), where the latter involved the validations of the model across different ER pathway-related assays in ToxCast. The important features that contribute to the prediction ability of the model were identified through informative descriptor analysis and were related to current knowledge of ER binding. Prediction confidence analysis revealed that the model had both high prediction confidence and accuracy for most predicted chemicals. The results demonstrated that the model constructed based on the large training data set is more accurate and robust for predicting ER binding of chemicals than the published models that have been developed using much smaller data sets. The model could be useful for the evaluation of ERα-mediated endocrine activity potential of environmental chemicals.
    Matched MeSH terms: United States; United States Environmental Protection Agency; United States Food and Drug Administration
  14. Navarro MA, Atlas EL, Saiz-Lopez A, Rodriguez-Lloveras X, Kinnison DE, Lamarque JF, et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2015 Nov 10;112(45):13789-93.
    PMID: 26504212 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1511463112
    Very short-lived brominated substances (VSLBr) are an important source of stratospheric bromine, an effective ozone destruction catalyst. However, the accurate estimation of the organic and inorganic partitioning of bromine and the input to the stratosphere remains uncertain. Here, we report near-tropopause measurements of organic brominated substances found over the tropical Pacific during the NASA Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment campaigns. We combine aircraft observations and a chemistry-climate model to quantify the total bromine loading injected to the stratosphere. Surprisingly, despite differences in vertical transport between the Eastern and Western Pacific, VSLBr (organic + inorganic) contribute approximately similar amounts of bromine [∼6 (4-9) parts per trillion] [corrected] to the stratospheric input at the tropical tropopause. These levels of bromine cause substantial ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere, and any increases in future abundances (e.g., as a result of aquaculture) will lead to larger depletions.
    Matched MeSH terms: United States; United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration
  15. Ahmed, Al-Halemi, Jaafar, M.S.
    MyJurnal
    Radon-222 emanation from selected locally produced samples of building materials, used in Malaysia were measured using the Professional Continuous Radon Monitor Model 1027, which is a patented electronic detecting-junction photodiode sensor to measure the concentration of radon gas. Each sample was placed for 72 hours inside a 3.11 x 10 -2 m 3 sealed container. It was found that the average radon concentration Bqm -3 of air for concrete bricks, concrete brick with cemented coatings, concrete brick with cemented coatings and paint samples were, 303.7 Bq/m 3, 436.6 Bqm -3, and 410.7 Bqm -3, respectively. (Bqm -3 ) for brown clay brick, brown clay brick with cemented coatings, brown clay brick with cemented coatings and paint were 166.5 Bqm -3, 166.5 Bqm -3, and 148 Bqm -3, respectively. (Bqm -3 ) for sample of compact ceramic tile was 0 Bqm -3. The findings show that concrete brick samples are important source of radon emanation, while brown clay brick have been accepted as the recommendation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and ceramic tiles had no emanation of radon gas due to their compact surface, or the glazed layer created on the tile surface during the manufacturing process, which blocks radon emanation. A positive correlation between radon emanation and radium content has been observed for both brown clay brick and concrete brick samples whereas a negative correlation for ceramic tile has been observed. Consequently from the findings, in order to reduce radon emanation and radon exposure in house dwellings and in addition to EPA recommendation of sealed cracks and established good ventilation, we recommend concrete walls to be painted and concrete floors to be paved with ceramic tiles.
    Matched MeSH terms: United States; United States Environmental Protection Agency
  16. Ahmad Saat, Zaini Hamzah, Zaharidah Abu Bakar, Zuraidah A. Munir, Siti Mariam Sumari, Misbah Hassan
    MyJurnal
    A study was carried out to determine short term diurnal radon concentration at five locations in Malaysia. Two locations (KG & AP) are former tin mining areas that has been converted to housing area and training centre respectively, one a relatively new city (SA), that was formerly a rubber and oil palm plantation area, one older cities (KB) and one housing complex by the sea (LP). The study was carried out in 2005, 2006 and 2007 using a diffused-junction photodiode sensor continuous radon monitor. The monitor is recognized by the USEPA. In each location, measurements were carried out on at least ten sites. Former tin mining areas of KG and AP shows up to seven times higher indoor average than the average in the other three locations. However the indoor average in all locations is still below the action level of 4 pCiL-1. For outdoor, the former tin mining areas average concentration was higher than the global average of 0.4 pCiL-1. For the twenty four hours temporal variation the trend indicated that former tin mining areas concentration are always higher, and at time up to six fold higher. The hourly variation of all locations follows an identical trend of high concentration during early to late morning and drop in the afternoon till evening. The outdoor twenty four hour temporal average of former tin mining areas is consistently higher than the outdoor global average of 0.4 pCiL-1. The strong correlation between indoor and outdoor concentration at AP, indicates that indoor radon might originates from outdoor environment. The study was also extended to estimate the effective dose (mSvyr-1) of Rn-222 to the public.
    Matched MeSH terms: United States; United States Environmental Protection Agency
  17. Hoe TW
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 May;25(3):1-6.
    PMID: 30899182 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.3.1
    The use of serious games as digital medicine started in recent years as the United States Food and Drug Administration granted Class 1 or 2 device clearance to serious games or game-like technologies. This encouraging trend motivates interdisciplinary cooperation between experts in the medical sciences and the game industry because the Northern American pharmaceutical revenues have exceeded USD1 trillion globally since 2014. The potential of this lucrative business opportunity may attract fund providers and venture capitalists to support game-related research and development projects. The author elaborates his activities and experiences in the United States in FY2017/2018 as a Humphrey fellow from Malaysia. Specifically, the research and development trend of serious games for cognitive function in the academic and the game industry has positive impact on how medical doctors and practitioners in low- and middle-income countries may use or develop games as digital medicine.
    Matched MeSH terms: United States; United States Food and Drug Administration
  18. Mohammad Razaul Karim, Sumiani Yusoff, Hashim Abdul Razak, Faisal I. Chowdhury, Hossain Zabed
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:523-530.
    Technical benefit of incorporation of Palm Oil Clinker (POC) in cement-based applications has been proven in recent
    studies. The aim of this work was to assess the heavy metal leaching behavior to ensure environmental safety of using
    POC in cement-based applications. The chemical composition, morphology, total organic carbon (TOC) and mineralogy
    were determined using XRF, FESEM, TOC analyzers and XRD to select appropriate chemical reagents for complete digestion.
    HNO3
    , HF and HClO4
    were used for digestion of POC to measure heavy metal content using ICP-MS. The chemical reagents
    CH3
    COOH, NH2
    OH-HCl, H2
    O2
    +CH3
    COONH4
    and HF+HNO3
    +HCl were used for extraction of acid soluble, reducible,
    oxidizable and residual fractions of heavy metals in POC, respectively. The leaching toxicity of the POC was investigated
    by the USEPA 1311 TCLP method. The result showed the presence of Be, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Ag, Cd, Ba and Pb with
    levels of 5.13, 11.02, 2.65, 1.93, 45.43, 11.84, 15.07, 0, 0, 81.97 and 1.76 mg/kg, respectively, in POC. The leaching value
    in mg/L of As (4.56), Cu(1.05), Be (0.89), Zn(0.51), Ba(0.26), Ni (0.17), V(0.15), Cr(0.001) and Se (0.001) is found well
    below the standard limit of risk. Risk assessment code (RAC) analysis confirms the safe incorporation of POC in cementbased
    applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: United States; United States Environmental Protection Agency
  19. Teh JKL, Bradley DA, Chook JB, Lai KH, Ang WT, Teo KL, et al.
    PLoS One, 2021;16(5):e0252273.
    PMID: 34048477 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0252273
    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to visualize the global spread of the COVID-19 pandemic over the first 90 days, through the principal component analysis approach of dimensionality reduction.

    METHODS: This study used data from the Global COVID-19 Index provided by PEMANDU Associates. The sample, representing 161 countries, comprised the number of confirmed cases, deaths, stringency indices, population density and GNI per capita (USD). Correlation matrices were computed to reveal the association between the variables at three time points: day-30, day-60 and day-90. Three separate principal component analyses were computed for similar time points, and several standardized plots were produced.

    RESULTS: Confirmed cases and deaths due to COVID-19 showed positive but weak correlation with stringency and GNI per capita. Through principal component analysis, the first two principal components captured close to 70% of the variance of the data. The first component can be viewed as the severity of the COVID-19 surge in countries, whereas the second component largely corresponded to population density, followed by GNI per capita of countries. Multivariate visualization of the two dominating principal components provided a standardized comparison of the situation in the161 countries, performed on day-30, day-60 and day-90 since the first confirmed cases in countries worldwide.

    CONCLUSION: Visualization of the global spread of COVID-19 showed the unequal severity of the pandemic across continents and over time. Distinct patterns in clusters of countries, which separated many European countries from those in Africa, suggested a contrast in terms of stringency measures and wealth of a country. The African continent appeared to fare better in terms of the COVID-19 pandemic and the burden of mortality in the first 90 days. A noticeable worsening trend was observed in several countries in the same relative time frame of the disease's first 90 days, especially in the United States of America.

    Matched MeSH terms: United States/epidemiology
  20. Chia YC, Turana Y, Sukonthasarn A, Zhang Y, Shin J, Cheng HM, et al.
    J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich), 2021 03;23(3):422-434.
    PMID: 33634570 DOI: 10.1111/jch.14226
    Guidelines on the management of hypertension have been developed by various professional bodies and institutions to primarily address the issues of diagnosis, treatment, and control in order to rationalize and improve the management of hypertension. Hypertension guidelines across the world have recently been updated following the new and controversial lower blood pressure threshold of ≥130/80 mmHg for the diagnosis of hypertension adopted by the Americans. While there are differences between the major as well as between the Asian national guidelines, there were also many similarities. This paper discusses and highlights the differences and similarities between the major international guidelines of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association, of the European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Hypertension, and of the International Society of Hypertension and also compares them with the Asian guidelines.
    Matched MeSH terms: United States/epidemiology
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