METHODS: Systematic literature searches in accordance with PRISMA guidelines found 51 eligible studies that met inclusion criteria. Eight studies utilized both Waves 1 and 2 NESARC data, and selection of sample sizes varied from 185 to 43,093 individuals, consistent with specified research objectives of each study.
RESULTS: The prevalence of lifetime pathological gambling was 0.42% (0.64% among men, 0.23% among women), while past-year prevalence was 0.16%. Pathological gambling rates were generally higher in populations with substance-use disorders and other psychiatric diagnoses. Rates of adverse childhood experiences and suicidal attempts were higher among individuals with problem or pathological gambling. Early-onset gamblers were more likely to be male, be never married, have incomes below $70,000, belong to younger cohorts and have Cluster B personality disorders, but less likely to be diagnosed with mood disorders. While pathological gambling was related to obesity, increased stress, and poorer physical health among general age groups, recreational gambling was linked with improved physical and mental functioning in older adults.
CONCLUSIONS: The NESARC has provided important information on the correlates of pathological gambling and subdiagnostic patterns of gambling behaviors. Additional studies should examine these relationships in the current gambling environment and longitudinally with aims of implementing policies to improve the public health.
METHODS: A total of 13 805 non-US-born persons at high risk of TB infection or progression to TB disease were screened for LTBI at 16 clinical sites located across the United States with a tuberculin skin test, QuantiFERON Gold In-Tube test, and T-SPOT.TB test. Bayesian latent class analysis was applied to test results to estimate LTBI prevalence and associated credible intervals (CrIs) for each country or world region of birth.
RESULTS: Among the study population, the estimated LTBI prevalence was 31% (95% CrI, 26%-35%). Country-of-birth-level LTBI prevalence estimates were highest for persons born in Haiti, Peru, Somalia, Ethiopia, Vietnam, and Bhutan, ranging from 42% to 55%. LTBI prevalence estimates were lowest for persons born in Colombia, Malaysia, and Thailand, ranging from 8% to 13%.
CONCLUSIONS: LTBI prevalence in persons born outside the US varies widely by country. These estimates can help target community outreach efforts to the highest-risk groups.
METHODS: This study used data from the Global COVID-19 Index provided by PEMANDU Associates. The sample, representing 161 countries, comprised the number of confirmed cases, deaths, stringency indices, population density and GNI per capita (USD). Correlation matrices were computed to reveal the association between the variables at three time points: day-30, day-60 and day-90. Three separate principal component analyses were computed for similar time points, and several standardized plots were produced.
RESULTS: Confirmed cases and deaths due to COVID-19 showed positive but weak correlation with stringency and GNI per capita. Through principal component analysis, the first two principal components captured close to 70% of the variance of the data. The first component can be viewed as the severity of the COVID-19 surge in countries, whereas the second component largely corresponded to population density, followed by GNI per capita of countries. Multivariate visualization of the two dominating principal components provided a standardized comparison of the situation in the161 countries, performed on day-30, day-60 and day-90 since the first confirmed cases in countries worldwide.
CONCLUSION: Visualization of the global spread of COVID-19 showed the unequal severity of the pandemic across continents and over time. Distinct patterns in clusters of countries, which separated many European countries from those in Africa, suggested a contrast in terms of stringency measures and wealth of a country. The African continent appeared to fare better in terms of the COVID-19 pandemic and the burden of mortality in the first 90 days. A noticeable worsening trend was observed in several countries in the same relative time frame of the disease's first 90 days, especially in the United States of America.