Analisis terhadap sistem sel bahan api 5kW ini merangkumi analisis eksergeokonomi iaitu mengkaji kebolehdapatan tenaganya dan seterusnya analisis kesan ekonominya diambil kira selepas kebolehdapatan tenaganya dilakukan. Sistem sel bahan api dalam kes kajian terdiri daripada unit pemperosesan hidrogen dan unit pemprosesan bahan api dengan unit pemprosesan haba terdiri daripada reaktor auto-terma (ATR), reaktor pemindahan gas air (WGS), satu modul seramik (TMC) dan penjerap tekanan berayun (PSA). Stek sel bahan api penukar proton membran (PEMFC) adalah sumber penjana kuasa yang utama. Didapati modul seramik TCM dan penjerap PSA mempunyai kecekapan kebolehdapatan tenaga yang sangat rendah iaitu 0.29% dan 0.09%. Reaktor auto-terma dan stek sel bahan api pula adalah lebih tinggi iaitu 22.44% dan 31.97%, dan nilai-nilai ini adalah lebih kurang sama dengan kajian lain. Daripada pengiraan, didapati eksergoekonomi bagi 5 kW keseluruhan sistem sel bahan api kajian ini adalah sebanyak RM4756.62 per GJ. Analisis eksergoekonomi juga menunjukkan bahawa sistem sel bahan api akan menjadi lebih berekonomi jika kos operasi dan penyelenggaraan dan kos bahan api dapat dikurangkan.
In this study, the proton dynamics of hydrogen bonds for two forms of crystalline aspirin was investigated by the Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) method. Analysis of the geometrical parameters of hydrogen bonds using BOMD reveals significant differences in hydrogen bonding between the two crystalline forms of aspirin, Form I and Form II. Analysis of the trajectory for Form I shows spontaneous proton transfer in cyclic dimers, which is absent in Form II. Quantization of the O-H stretching modes allows a detailed discussion on the strength of hydrogen-bonding interactions. The focal point of our study is examination of the hydrogen bond characteristics in the crystal structure and clarification of the influence of hydrogen bonding on the presence of the two crystalline forms of aspirin. In the BOMD method, thermal motions were taken into account. Solving the Schrödinger equation for the snapshots of 2D proton potentials, extracted from MD, gives the best agreement with IR spectra. The character of medium-strong hydrogen bonds in Form I of aspirin was compared with that of weaker hydrogen bonds in aspirin Form II. Two proton minima are present in the potential function for the hydrogen bonds in Form I. The band contours, calculated by using one- and two-dimensional O-H quantization, reflect the differences in the hydrogen bond strengths between the two crystalline forms of aspirin, as well as the strong hydrogen bonding in the cyclic dimers of Form I and the medium-strong hydrogen bonding in Form II.
Detailed geophysical investigations have been carried out using integrated geophysical methods with a view to characterising the subsurface lithologic features that might indicate suitable places for structural developments. An overview of the subsurface resistivity distribution has been achieved employing 8Vertical Electrical Soundings with the Schlumberger array and 4 2D resistivity imaging using Wenner array. In order to constrain the results of the electrical resistivity methods, we carried out a ground magnetic survey along E-W direction using the Proton precession magnetometer at 1m sampling interval. Analysis of well logs data available and VES results showed 4 to 5 geoelectric layers corresponding to sand, clayey sand, clay, silty sand and sandy clay. The 2D resistivity imaging sections showed relative decrease of apparent resistivity with depth implying a geological transition from sand with high resistivity value of about 508Ωm to clay with low resistivity value 16Ωm at depths of 0-20m and 25-50m respectively. The magnetic profiles showed that the study area was characterised by short wavelengths and amplitudes ranging from –3800 to 700 nT. The highs and lows of the magnetic responses occasioned by lithological variations and structural features were magnetically resolved. In view of the identified subsurface structures, the suggested depth to the competent layer is about 20m for low to medium structures while above 50m would be suitable for heavy or massive engineering structures. The use of integrated geophysical methods for the delineation, identification and imaging of the subsurface geological structures which could provide clues to the nature and type of foundation suitable for the development of the study area has been successfully achieved.
The flow distribution of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell within a manifold plays an important role on its performance. This study presents a numerical analysis of the flow distribution behavior within different manifold configurations. A two-dimensional model with 75 cells was employed to study the flow behavior. The variation in the stoichiometry and number of cells was also studied. Three different flow configurations were considered with different numbers of flow inlets and outlets. The flow characteristics, such as the pressure and velocity variations in the manifold and cells, were measured to determine the effects of the different flow configurations. The results indicated that the double inlet/outlet configuration had the best flow distribution when using 75 cells. Moreover, increasing the stoichiometry resulted in a better flow distribution to the cells in a stack.
Affordable and greener materials were extensively studied in electrode fabrication for Liion
based batteries but less interest was shown to proton battery. Hence, in this work,
a methodology on preparing a natural based binder for proton battery was reported. 2-
Hydroxyethyl Cellulose (2HEC) was chosen to replace PVDF commercial binder in electrode
for ZnSO4|MnO2 proton battery configuration. SEM image shows good surface formation
for both anode and cathode with good porous structure. OCV result shows that the cell
improved the stable voltage of reference cell of 0.7 V to 0.9 V after 24 hours. The first
discharge of the cell took 6 hours and 49 minutes at 0.005mA and shows good potential for
We studied the excitation functions of residual radionuclides produced via proton and deuteron bombardment on natural iridium in the energy ranges of 30-15 MeV and 50-15 MeV, respectively. A conventional stacked-foil activation technique combined with HPGe γ-ray spectrometry was used to measure the excitation functions for 189, 191Pt and 189, 190g, 192g, 194gIr radionuclide production. Theoretical thick target yields were estimated to be 172 MBq/µA h and 192 MBq/µA h via the 193Ir(p,3n)191Pt reaction at 29.6-17.5 MeV and the 193Ir(d,4n)191Pt reaction at 40.3-23.8 MeV, respectively. The feasibility of 191Pt production from an iridium target was discussed, and compared with previously reported methods for the production of 191Pt.
(80% hasil) disintesis melalui pembukaan gelang oksirana minyak sawit olein terepoksida
) secara alkoholisis. Hasil optimum pembukaan gelang oksirana (99.2%) dicapai dengan menggunakan asid
sulfurik 3% v/bt pada suhu tindak balas yang tinggi (80o
C) selama 30 minit masa tindak balas. Spektrum resonan
magnetik nukleus-proton (1
telah menunjukkan kehadiran puncak proton pada karbon eter
(3.2, 3.5 ppm) dan proton pada kumpulan hidroksil (4.8 ppm). Spektrum resonan magnetik nukleus-karbon (13C-NMR)
telah menunjukkan kehadiran puncak karbon yang terikat dengan kumpulan hidroksil (75 ppm) dan
karbon pada karbonil kumpulan eter (72 ppm). Kelikatan kinematik hidroksi-eter-POo
adalah 234.4 cSt (40o
C) dan 28.1
C) dengan indeks kelikatan 156.
Inactivation constant for V79 cells has been extracted from radiobiology experiments that utilize charged particles to irradiate mammal cells in vitro. Physical parameters such as effective charge, radiation mean free path and linear ionization which characterized protons and heluim-4 particles are determined using of standard values. The relationship between inactivation constant α and physical quality parameters have been determined, in this research, for protons and heluim-4 particles. This approach allows getting the characteristic biological response of inactivation of V79 cells in terms of each selected physical quality parameter. The best regression models are formulated for each obtained relationship.
Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transference number measurement (TNM) techniques were applied to investigate the complexation, structural, and ionic transport properties of and the dominant charge-carrier species in a solid biopolymer electrolyte (SBE) system based on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) doped with ammonium fluoride (NH4F), which was prepared via a solution casting technique. The SBEs were partially opaque in appearance, with no phase separation. The presence of interactions between the host polymer (CMC) and the ionic dopant (NH4F) was proven by FT-IR analysis at the C-O band. XRD spectra analyzed using Origin 8 software disclose that the degree of crystallinity (χc%) of the SBEs decreased with the addition of NH4F, indicating an increase in the amorphous nature of the SBEs. Analysis of the ionic transport properties reveals that the ionic conductivity of the SBEs is dependent on the ionic mobility (μ) and diffusion of ions (D). TNM analysis confirms that the SBEs are proton conductors.
In this report, a facile solution casting technique was used to fabricate polymer blend electrolytes of chitosan (CS):poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO):NH4SCN with high electrochemical stability (2.43V). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to investigate the polymer electrolyte formation. For the electrochemical property analysis, cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques were carried out. Referring to the FTIR spectra, a complex formation between the added salt and CS:PEO was deduced by considering the decreasing and shifting of FTIR bands intensity in terms of functional groups. The CS:PEO:NH4SCN electrolyte was found to be electrochemically stable as the applied voltage linearly swept up to 2.43V. The cyclic voltammogram has presented a wide potential window without showing any sign of redox peaks on the electrode surface. The proved mechanisms of charge storage in these fabricated systems were found to be double layer charging. The EIS analysis showed the existence of bulk resistance, wherein the semicircle diameter decreased with increasing salt concentration. The calculated maximum DC conductivity value was observed to be 2.11 × 10-4 S/cm for CS:PEO incorporated with 40 wt% of NH4SCN salt. The charged species in CS:PEO:NH4SCN electrolytes were considered to be predominantly ionic in nature. This was verified from transference number analysis (TNM), in which ion and electron transference numbers were found to be tion = 0.954 and tel = 0.045, respectively. The results obtained for both ion transference number and DC conductivity implied the possibility of fabricating electrolytes for electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC) device application. The specific capacitance of the fabricated EDLC was obtained from the area under the curve of the CV plot.
A non-cyclic tetrameric structure has been suggested for calcichrome (calcion). This structure is consistent with its mass spectrum, proton NMR spectrum, elemental composition and complexing ability with polyaromatic hydrocarbons in water. The stability constants of the 1:1 complexes formed between calcichrome and seven polyaromatic hydrocarbons in water at room temperature have been measured.
Measurements of inclusive isolated-photon and photon+jet production in proton-proton collisions at
are presented. The analysis uses data collected by the CMS experiment in 2015, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.26
. The cross section for inclusive isolated photon production is measured as a function of the photon transverse energy in a fiducial region. The cross section for photon+jet production is measured as a function of the photon transverse energy in the same fiducial region with identical photon requirements and with the highest transverse momentum jet. All measurements are in agreement with predictions from next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD.
A search for new physics in events with a Z boson produced in association with large missing transverse momentum at the LHC is presented. The search is based on the 2016 data sample of proton-proton collisions recorded with the CMS experiment at
, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9
. The results of this search are interpreted in terms of a simplified model of dark matter production via spin-0 or spin-1 mediators, a scenario with a standard-model-like Higgs boson produced in association with the Z boson and decaying invisibly, a model of unparticle production, and a model with large extra spatial dimensions. No significant deviations from the background expectations are found, and limits are set on relevant model parameters, significantly extending the results previously achieved in this channel.
Sebatian poliol minyak sawit olein (di-hidroksi-POo) (70% hasil) disintesis melalui pembukaan gelang oksirana minyak sawit olein terepoksida (EPOo) secara hidrolisis selanjar dan berkelompok. Hasil optimum pembukaan gelang oksirana (97.2%) bagi kedua-dua tindak balas selama 90 min (tindak balas selanjar) dan 75 min (tindak balas berkelompok) dengan menggunakan mangkin asid perklorik 3% v/wt. Spektrum transformasi Fourier inframerah (FTIR) di-hidroksi-POo menunjukkan kehadiran puncak lebar getaran regangan kumpulan hidroksil pada nombor gelombang 3429 cm-1, menunjukkan sebatian poliol telah berjaya dihasilkan. Spektrum resonan magnetik nukleus-karbon (13C-NMR) di-hidroksi-POo telah menunjukkan kehadiran puncak karbon yang terikat dengan kumpulan hidroksil (74.5 ppm). Spektrum resonan magnetik nukleus-proton (1H-NMR) di-hidroksi-POo telah menunjukkan kehadiran puncak proton yang terikat pada karbon poliol (3.4 ppm) dan proton pada kumpulan hidroksil (4.6 ppm). Kelikatan kinematik produk poliol (nilai hidroksil sebanyak 110.7 mgKOH/g minyak) adalah 1435.2 cSt (40oC) dan 55.2 cSt (100oC) dengan indeks kelikatan 78.
Most of the automotive companies use cast iron for their engine blocks. Restoration of obliterated number on these iron surfaces by chemical etching is known to be quite difficult. Heating of the obliterated surface using oxyacetylene flame is an alternative recovery treatment suggested in literature and used in practice. However chemical etching has been established to be the most sensitive technique for detection of metal deformation present under stamped serial numbers. Hence, the current work investigated the suitability of some common etchants on cast iron surfaces with a view to determining the most suitable one for revealing the obliterated marks. The reagents tested were mostly copper containing Fry's reagent and its modifications. Two cast iron engine blocks (3.29%C and 3.1%C) of two cars--a Proton Saga and a Toyota--were utilized for the experiments. The engine blocks were cut into several small plates and each plate was stamped with some numerical characters at 8 kN load using Instron Table Mounted Universal Testing Machine. The depth of stamping impression varied between 0.2 mm and 0.3 mm. The stamped number was completely ground off manually using a metal file. The grounded surface was then polished smooth using emery papers and etched with a few selected reagents mostly by swabbing. Experimental results showed that a modified Fry's composition consisting of 4 5g CuCl(2), 100 mL HCl, and 180 mL H(2)O restored the number with better contrast at a reasonably shorter time. The above reagent is a slightly modified form of one of the Fry's original compositions--45 g CuCl(2), 180 mL HCl, and 100 mL H(2)O. Quite importantly the proposed reagent restored the original stamped numbers of both Proton and Toyota cars and also a Mitsubishi car that had been obliterated. The most widely used Fry's composition (90 g CuCl(2), 120 mL HCl and 100 mL H(2)O), although recovered the obliterated number, did not cause the desired contrast.
Results are presented from a search for particle dark matter (DM), extra dimensions, and unparticles using events containing a jet and an imbalance in transverse momentum. The data were collected by the CMS detector in proton-proton collisions at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7[Formula: see text]at a centre-of-mass energy of 8[Formula: see text]. The number of observed events is found to be consistent with the standard model prediction. Limits are placed on the DM-nucleon scattering cross section as a function of the DM particle mass for spin-dependent and spin-independent interactions. Limits are also placed on the scale parameter [Formula: see text] in the Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali (ADD) model of large extra dimensions, and on the unparticle model parameter [Formula: see text]. The constraints on ADD models and unparticles are the most stringent limits in this channel and those on the DM-nucleon scattering cross section are an improvement over previous collider results.
Properties of the Higgs boson with mass near 125[Formula: see text] are measured in proton-proton collisions with the CMS experiment at the LHC. Comprehensive sets of production and decay measurements are combined. The decay channels include [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] pairs. The data samples were collected in 2011 and 2012 and correspond to integrated luminosities of up to 5.1[Formula: see text] at 7[Formula: see text] and up to 19.7[Formula: see text] at 8[Formula: see text]. From the high-resolution [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] channels, the mass of the Higgs boson is determined to be [Formula: see text]. For this mass value, the event yields obtained in the different analyses tagging specific decay channels and production mechanisms are consistent with those expected for the standard model Higgs boson. The combined best-fit signal relative to the standard model expectation is [Formula: see text] at the measured mass. The couplings of the Higgs boson are probed for deviations in magnitude from the standard model predictions in multiple ways, including searches for invisible and undetected decays. No significant deviations are found.
This research was focused on the thermoluminescence (TL) response of commercially produced single-mode telecommunication optical fibre manufactured by INOCORP (Canada). The fibres were either in the form of pure silica (SiO2) or as SiO2 doped with Ge or Al at concentrations appropriate for total internal reflection, as required for telecommunication purposes. Each of these INOCORP fibres had a core diameter of 125 ± 0.1 μm. It was noted that dopant concentration was not included among the data provided in the accompanying product data sheet. A particularly important parameter for obtaining the highest TL yield in this study was the dopant concentration of the SiO2 fibre. The dopants tended to diffuse during the production of the optical fibre. To obtain this parameter, proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis was utilised. PIXE while having limited depth resolution could unambiguously identify elements and analyse trace elements with a detection limit approaching μg g–1. For Al-doped fibres, dopant concentrations in the range of 0.98 – 2.93 mol% had been estimated, the equivalent range for Ge-doped fibres was 0.53 – 0.71 mol%. A linear dose response was observed following 2.5 MeV proton irradiation for Ge- and Al-doped fibres for up to 7 min exposure.
Monoazo and diazo dyes [New coccine (NC), Acid orange 7 (AO7), Reactive red 120 (RR120) and Reactive green 19 (RG19)] were employed as electron acceptors in the abiotic cathode of microbial fuel cell. The electrons and protons generated from microbial organic oxidation at the anode which were utilized for electrochemical azo dye reduction at the cathodic chamber was successfully demonstrated. When NC was employed as the electron acceptor, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and dye decolourisation efficiencies obtained at the anodic and cathodic chamber were 73±3% and 95.1±1.1%, respectively. This study demonstrated that the decolourisation rates of monoazo dyes were ∼50% higher than diazo dyes. The maximum power density in relation to NC decolourisation was 20.64mW/m2, corresponding to current density of 120.24mA/m2. The decolourisation rate and power output of different azo dyes were in the order of NC>AO7>RR120>RG19. The findings revealed that the structure of dye influenced the decolourisation and power performance of MFC. Azo dye with electron-withdrawing group at para substituent to azo bond would draw electrons from azo bond; hence the azo dye became more electrophilic and more favourable for dye reduction.