The applicability of the Willems et al. model was verified on a collected sample of Malay (Malaysian nationality) children. This sample was split in a reference sample to develop a Malay-specific prediction model based on the Willems et al. method and in a test sample to validate this new developed model. Next, the incorporation of third molars into this model was analyzed. Panoramic radiographs (n = 1,403) of Malay children aged between 4 and 14.99 years (n = 702) and subadults aged between 15 and 23.99 years (n = 701) were collected. The left mandibular seven permanent teeth of the children were scored based on the staging technique described by Demirjian and converted to age using the Willems et al. method. Third molar development of all individuals was staged based on the technique described by Gleiser and Hunt modified by Kohler. Differences between dental age and chronological age were calculated and expressed in mean error (ME), mean absolute error (MAE), and root mean square error (RMSE). The Willems et al. model verified on the collected Malay children overestimated chronological age with a ME around 0.45 year. Small differences in ME, MAE, and RMSE between the verified Malay-specific prediction model and the Willems et al. model were observed. An overall neglected decrease in RMSE was detected adding third molar stages to the developed permanent teeth model.
We investigated 12 X-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms in 283 unrelated Malay individuals (160 males and 123 females) living in and around Kuala Lumpur using the Investigator Argus X-12 kit. Heterozygosity among the present 12 X-STRs showed a distribution of from 55.3 to 93.5 %. The diversity values of the haplotypes constructed using four closely linked groups were all higher than 0.9865. A comparison of allelic frequency in each system and haplotype variation indicated that the nature of these X-STRs in the Malay population differed from that in East Asian, European, or African populations. Several microvariant alleles found in the Malay population were characterized and compared with known sequence data. The present data may be helpful in forensic casework such as personal identification and kinship testing in the Malay population in Malaysia.
Control region polymorphisms in the mitochondrial DNA of 124 unrelated individuals from the Malay population living in or around Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia were investigated and phylogenetic haplogroup lineages were determined. The intergenic COII/tRNALys 9-bp deletion, 3010 and 5178 mutations, and several coding region polymorphisms were examined to discriminate some phylogenetic haplogroups. Sequence comparison of the control regions led to the identification of 117 mitochondrial haplotypes, in which 103 types were observed in only one individual and the other nine types were shared by more than two individuals. Gene diversity was estimated to be 0.997. Phylogenetic haplogroup determination revealed that the gene pool of the modern Malay population in Malaysia consisted mainly of southeast Asian, east Asian, unidentified and unique, and aboriginal southeast-specific haplogroups. These results suggest a multi-original nature for the modern Malay population. The present database may help not only in personal identification but also in determining geographic origin in forensic casework in Malaysian, Southeast Asian and East Asian populations.
The uniparentally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is in the limelight for the past two decades, in studies relating to demographic history of mankind and in forensic kinship testing. In this study, human mtDNA hypervariable segments 1, 2, and 3 (HV1, HV2, and HV3) were analyzed in 248 unrelated Malay individuals in Peninsular Malaysia. Combined analyses of HV1, HV2, and HV3 revealed a total of 180 mtDNA haplotypes with 149 unique haplotypes and 31 haplotypes occurring in more than one individual. The genetic diversity was estimated to be 99.47%, and the probability of any two individuals sharing the same mtDNA haplotype was 0.93%. The most frequent mtDNA haplotype (73, 146, 150, 195, 263, 315.1C, 16140, 16182C, 16183C, 16189, 16217, 16274, and 16335) was shared by 11 (4.44%) individuals. The nucleotide diversity and mean of pair-wise differences were found to be 0.036063 ± 0.020101 and 12.544022 ± 6.230486, respectively.
The D1S80 allele frequencies in 124 unrelated Malays from the Malaysian population were determined and 51 genotypes and 19 alleles were encountered. The D1S80 frequency distribution met Hardy-Weinberg expectations. The observed heterozygosity was 0.80 and the power of discrimination was 0.96.
Sexual assault samples are some of the most common samples encountered in forensic analysis. These samples can require a significant time investment due to differential extraction processes. We report on the first record of successful direct amplification of semen for STR analysis. Neat seminal fluid, dilutions ranging from 1:5 to 1:160 and GEDNAP samples were successfully amplified using a direct method. A mild differential isolation technique to enrich spermatozoa was developed and successfully implemented to separate and directly amplify a mixture of semen and female epithelial cells. Aliquots of samples subjected to the differential isolation protocol were stained with Haemotoxylin and Eosin for sperm scoring. Samples stained after PCR showed a complete lack of intact spermatozoa demonstrating that the cells are lysed during the PCR process. This paper demonstrates the potential to incorporate direct PCR in cases of sexual assault to more rapidly obtain results and achieve a higher sensitivity.
Peninsular Malaysia is populated by the Malays, Chinese, Indians, and Orang Asli. We have analyzed 17 Y-STRs loci for 243 randomly unrelated individuals, which include 153 Malays (7 Acheh, 13 Champa, 11 Rawa, 9 Kedah, 23 Minang, 15 Bugis, 43 Kelantan, 14 Jawa, and 18 Bugis) and 90 Orang Asli [54 Semang (16 Kensiu, 13 Lanoh, 25 Bateq); 30 Senoi (21 Semai, 9 Che Wong); and 6 Proto-Malay (6 Orang Kanaq)] from selected settlements in Peninsular Malaysia using the AmpFlSTR Yfiler™ kit (Applied Biosystems™). The overall haplotype diversity is 0.9966, i.e., 0.9984 for the Malays and 0.9793 for the Orang Asli. A total of 158 haplotypes (65.02%) were individually unique. The p value and pairwise Rst analysis was calculated to show the genetic structure of the samples with other world populations (from YHRD website). Based on the Y-STR data, Champa, Acheh, Kedah, Minang, and Kelantan are clustered together. Lanoh and Kensiu (Semang) are very closely related, suggesting similar paternal ancestry. Jawa Malays and Indonesian Java, plus the Bugis Malays and Australian Aborigines shared high degree of paternal lineage affinity. This study presents data for very precious relict groups, who are the earliest inhabitants of Peninsular Malaysia.
In this study, 268 samples for unrelated males belonging to the five major human subpopulation groups in Ghana (Akan, Ewe, Mole-Dagbon, Ga-Dangme and Guang) were genetically characterised for 23 Y chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) loci using the Powerplex® Y23 STR kit. A total of 263 complete haplotypes were recorded of which 258 were unique. The haplotype diversity, discriminating capacity and match probability for the pooled population data were 0.9998, 0.9627 and 0.0039, respectively. The pairwise genetic distance (RST) for the Ghanaian datasets and other reference populations deposited in the Y-STR Haplotype Reference Database (YHRD) were estimated and mapped using multidimensional scaling (MDS) plot. The Guang and Ewe were significantly different from the Akan, Mole-Dagbon and Ga-Dangme. However, the five Ghanaian datasets were all plotted close together with other African populations in the MDS data mapping.
The use of 21 autosomal STR loci for human identification has been gaining popularity throughout the world. It has been indicated that the forensic statistical parameters for supporting the use of 21 STR loci varied among different populations. Hitherto, such data for the diverse Malaysian populations remain unreported, rendering doubts in the court of law about its real ability for human identification in Malaysian population. Using the GlobalFiler™ Express PCR Amplification Kit, complete DNA profiles of 21 STR loci from buccal swabs of convicted Malaysian criminal (n = 570; 190 each for Malays, Chinese, and Indians) (by the year 2016-2017) were analyzed for their allele frequencies, exact test of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, observed and expected heterozygosity, power of discrimination, power of exclusion, match probability, and polymorphism information content. Most of the loci were found to be in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after the Bonferroni correction. Being the most informative locus, SE33 demonstrated the highest power of discrimination and power of exclusion, indicating its usefulness to discriminate individuals. In contrast, TPOX had the lowest power of discrimination and power of exclusion, as well as being the less informative genetic locus for all Malaysian population studied here. The probabilities that two individuals would share the same DNA profiles among the Malaysian Malays, Chinese, and Indians, as well as in general Malaysian population, were 1.3713 × 10-25, 2.8822 × 10-25, 7.5668 × 10-26, and 1.0385 × 10-26, respectively. The results obtained here were found comparable with similar studies reported in other populations. Hence, its robustness for forensic human identification among the Malaysian populations is, therefore, statistically supported.
Ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) can be used to infer the ancestry of an individual to minimize the inaccuracy of self-reported ethnicity in biomedical research. In this study, we describe three methods for selecting AIM SNPs for the Malay population (Malay AIM panel) using different approaches based on pairwise FST, informativeness for assignment (In), and PCA-correlated SNPs (PCAIMs). These Malay AIM panels were extracted from genotype data stored in SNP arrays hosted by the Malaysian node of the Human Variome Project (MyHVP) and the Singapore Genome Variation Project (SGVP). In particular, genotype data from a total of 165 Malay individuals were analyzed, comprising data on 117 individual genotypes from the Affymetrix SNP-6 SNP array platform and data on 48 individual genotypes from the OMNI 2.5 Illumina SNP array platform. The HapMap phase 3 database (1397 individuals from 11 populations) was used as a reference for comparison with the Malay genotype data. The accuracy of each resulting Malay AIM panel was evaluated using a machine learning "ancestry-predictive model" constructed by using WEKA, a comprehensive machine learning platform written in Java. A total of 1250 SNPs were finally selected, which successfully identified Malay individuals from other world populations with an accuracy of 90%, but the accuracy decreased to 80% using 157 SNPs according to the pairwise FST method, while a panel of 200 SNPs selected using In and PCAIMs could be used to identify Malay individuals with an accuracy of approximately 80%.
Genetic polymorphisms at 23 Y chromosome short tandem repeat (STRs) loci included in the Powerplex® Y23 PCR kit were successfully scored in 128 unrelated Kedayan individuals living in Sabah, East Malaysia. Complete haplotypes were recorded for all individuals and included 92 different types with 72 being unique to single male subjects. Three important forensic statistics were calculated from these data; haplotype diversity = 0.993, discriminating capacity = 0.719, and match probability = 0.015. The Kedayan appear to be most closely related to Malays and Filipinos in a multidimensional scaling plot and are separated from other mainland Asia populations including Thais and Hakka Han. These new data for Kedayan have been deposited in the YHRD database (accession number: YA004621). Our statistical analyses showed the reliability of Y-STR loci for geographically extended use in forensic casework and for studying human population history.