Learning through game scene is considered a game-based learning approach. Teaching and learning process using game scene is deemed interesting and effective due to the nature for this approach which seems alive with asserted activities. Students experience their own game via narration through the virtual world they undertook. This investigation is targeted towards conceptual change and explanation for basic programming theorem through navigated game scene by evaluating motivation and student experience. 55 respondents consisted of semester three students from computer software application certification a program from a community college is selected for the undertaken study. Motivation and experience surveys are reference based on intrinsic motivation inventory instrument (IMI). Findings were tabulated based on t-test statistics and descriptive to get the frequency, mean, standard deviation and percentage. Initial results reflected student acknowledgement on utilizing game scenes in terms of elaborating basic game programming key points in providing elevated learning experience.
The purpose of this study is to compare the tensile strength between additional polystyrene into coconut meat husk reinforced fiber composite. Composite were produced by using hand layup technique. It is seen that with the additional of polystyrene into the coconut meat husk reinforced polyester composites showed the increment tensile strength value compared to the non-added polystyrene which indicates that effective stress transfer between the fiber, matrix and polystyrene.
Protease is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of peptide bond in polypeptide chain and hold a wide range of applications in industry. The aim of this study is to clone and to express several genes encoding proteases from alkalitolerant bacteria Bacillus lehensis strain G1. A total of 13 genes encoding proteases have been selected using bioinformatics approach. These genes were then amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Subsequently, the PCR product was cloned into cloning vector pGEM®T easy and transformed into competent cell E. coli DH5α. The transformants were further verified by sequencing. The positive cloned were subcloned into the expression vector and were then expressed in Luria Bertani medium in the present of IPTG using E. coli BL21. The expressions of recombinant proteases were optimized for several hours at different temperatures, 16-37°C. Furthermore, structural prediction was performed using Modeller v9.18 for BleG1_1940. Each generated model was verified for overall completeness and bias, using PROCHECK, ERRAT, and Verify 3D. The overall quality of the model was relatively good with percentage of Ramachandran plot is 96.3%, PROCHECK is 86.2% and ERRAT score is 95%,.
Exposure to any type of stressors either environmental, chemical or perceived stressors, results in a series of physiological responses in animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of thermal stress on physiological responses in red hybrid tilapia. Adult red hybrid tilapia were previously exposed to gradual increment of water temperature in thermoregulated recirculating tanks at a rate of 1oC/8 h from 28 to 31oC and kept for 1, 7 and 14 days. Cortisol, HMG-CoA reductase, total protein and osmolality were determined. Plasma cortisol and HMG-CoA levels were significantly increased in the heat-stressed groups compared to nonstressed groups. Osmolality was also significantly higher (p
Three types of binder PVA, PVC and PVA/PVC mixtures have been evaluated for PANi-TiO2 immobilized system. These binders have been varied to several weights of loading for optimization purposes. As a result, it shows that higher loading of binders improved the photodegradation of RR4 dye but the mechanical properties of each immobilized system started to decreases. This behavior occurs due to the immobilized particles coated on the plate easy to peel off despite weak attachment toward to the continuous photodegradation operation system. Therefore 4 times of dipping PVA and PVC layers was selected as the optimum loading of binders to the PANi/TiO2 system during photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Red 4 with the rate constant of 0.5568 K/min for PVA and 0.5742 K/min for PVC. Meanwhile for PVA/PVC mixture binder system at 4 times dipping showed the highest rate constant of photodegradation of RR4 dye with 0.6026 K/min. In addition, SEM analysis has also been carried out for further investigation.
The preparation technique during synthesizing process and heat treatment plays an important role in the properties of the ceramic materials. In this paper, ceramic perovskite-type oxide based on Ba (Ce,Zr)O3 was prepared by sol-gel method and sintered via two-step sintering (TSS) technique. In the TSS, the sintered pellet was undergoing twice heat treatment. The first temperature profile was set at T1= 1400°C and the second temperature were varied at T2 = 1150°C, 1200°C, 1300°C and 1350°C, respectively. XRD results showed that all samples TSS1 to TSS5 exhibit single-phase of cerate-zirconate ceramics except for the pellet sintered at 1300°C (TSS4). The crystalline peaks for single-phase sintered pellets were matched to the standard compound Ba(Ce,Zr)O3 . On the other hand, the presence of secondary phases of CeO2 , Ba2ZrO4 and BaCO3 along with the main phase of Ba(Ce,Zr)O3 were detected in TSS4. SEM analysis revealed that the samples formed clear and compact grains with submicron sizes whereby the size of grain decreased from 336.4 to 192 nm as the second sintering temperature increased. This paper attempts to show that the implementation of different sintering profile in TSS method was found to give significant effect on the phase and morphology of solid solution of Ba(Ce,Zr)O3 .
System Analysis and Design (SAD) is one of the core courses offered in Bachelor’s degree programme in Information Technology. However, it is observed that students are not grasping the details of the lessons, and this is affecting their employability and the productivity value in the software development chain. This experience is linked to the presently-used teaching method. In this regard, blended learning model, which improves students’ learning experience and reduces underachievement in computer science, is suggested. This study therefore aims to identify the effects of the identified success factors on academic success of SAD. To achieve these objectives, a quantitative research method was employed, involving administration of survey instruments distributed to 151 students, who took SAD as a course in UUM, using simple random sampling, and data collected were analysed with correlation and regression techniques. The study found that students’ attitude, students’ technology usage level, students’ access to technology, students’ courseware, curriculum, learning system interface quality, lecture quality, and e-learning system comprehensiveness positively influence students’ academic success in SAD.
This study was conducted to determine and compare the muscle activity during step forward lunge (SFL) and jump forward lunge (JFL) in badminton. Fifteen university badminton players (mean age = 22.07 ± 1.39 years old) were recruited and were assigned to perform SFL and JFL while holding a badminton racquet using their preferred hand. Muscle activation of vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), gluteus maximus (GM), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) were analysed and compared between SFL and JFL and also between dominant and non-dominant lower limb in each lunge protocol. Results showed for both the dominant and non-dominant lower limb, all the muscle activation was greater during JFL compared to SFL except for the MG muscle. All the muscle activation was also found to be greater in the dominant compared to non-dominant lower limb for both lunge protocols. Overall, findings demonstrated the existence of differences in muscle activation across difference protocols of movement and different site of limbs. This should be taken into consideration for developing training program in order to enhance performance and reduce the risk of injuries.
Being the most abundant element on earth, aluminium has become one of the major restricting factors that affect the growth and development of plants. The first target of aluminium toxicity is the root apex which would in turn affect the overall growth of the plants. In this study, the effect of various concentrations of aluminium (Al) on the growth of Lobelia chinensis was determined. Nodal explants of L. chinensis were cultured on MS medium containing various concentrations of aluminium chloride (AlCl3) (0, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 20 µM) with 1250.0 μM ion phosphate and pH was adjusted to 4.6. It was observed that both the growth of shoot and root decreased with the increasing concentrations of Al.
Mesona palustris, colloquially known as ‘Black Cincau’, can commonly be found in East and South East Asian regions. Traditionally, M. palustris extracts have been used as herbal drinks to promote vitality and health. With advancements in technology, M. palustris may now be processed into more nutraceutical options, including edible jellies. Studies have also come up with efficient extraction processes to better characterize its chemical constituents. Containing phenolic compounds like flavonoid and tannins, M. palustris has recently been reported to yield many exciting pre-clinical observations that are comparable to bioactive metabolites found in plants from the same genus, including Mesona procumbens and Mesona chinensis, alongside unrelated herbaceous plant species which have been utilized as natural remedy options. Thus, this review discusses the recently observed pre-clinical applications of M. palustris by highlighting its ability in promoting antidiabetic, anticancer, and antihypertensive properties, which are closely tied to its antioxidative nature. Given the developing nature of M. palustris utilization in pre-clinical and possibly clinical research, more thorough characterization, pharmacological, and molecular studies should be conducted not only to avoid adverse risks or derogatory interactions with existing drugs, but also to properly direct its use as a nutraceutical agent for specific indications.
The architectural physical appearances of shopping malls posed serious challenges to the development of shopping malls and attracting customers especially in developing countries. This study aimed at assessing the influences of the architectural features that attract customers’ to shop in the Malaysian shopping malls. Four architectural features namely: location of the mall, facilities and services installed, aesthetics and design and also quality of structures in the malls are the main constructs attracting customers to shop in the Malaysian shopping industry. Survey instruments were administered to the customers of major shopping malls in Penang Island of Malaysia. A Warp PLS-SEM software algorithm was used for the analysis of collected data. The results indicated that locations, facilities and services in malls contribute significantly to the attraction of customers’ to shop in a mall. The results also show positive substantial relationships between customers’ attraction and the architectural features and among the independent variables. The study recommended the developments of shopping malls close to residential houses where customers could easily walk a short distances for shopping. The facilities and services installed in shopping malls attract customers; the developers of shopping mall should consider the design and installation of modern facilities like conveyors, elevators, lifts etc. while designing and constructions of shopping malls.
A biological method was employed to synthesize silver nanoparticles through marine diatom Amphora sp. Antimicrobial efficacy test against different pathogenic bacteria were performed through synthesized silver nanoparticles. The physio-chemical properties of synthesized silver nanoparticles were studied using analytical techniques such as UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), EnergyDispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD). UV-Vis color intensity study and higher magnification of the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy image showed the synthesized silver nanoparticles were rod shaped with a size range from 42 nm to 46 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles exhibited antibacterial activities in varying magnitudes. About 10 mg/ml of silver nanoparticles were able to inhibit the growth of gram-negative bacteria while gram-positive bacteria were resistant towards similar concentrations of silver nanoparticles.
The world is facing a problem regarding the use of petroleum fuels that has led to a search for a suitable alternative fuel source. Researchers have come up with the idea of producing biofuel to overcome this problem. In this study, microalgae were explored as a high potential feedstock to produce biofuel. In order to produce a large quantity of biofuel with low cost at a short time, the manipulation of nutrients is a factor in microalgae cultivation. In this study, Iron (II) Chloride (FeCl2) was added to the nutrients to initiate a stressful condition during growth which contributes to the produce of lipid. Isolated microalgae species were identified as Scenedesmus sp. During mass cultivation, the microalgae cultures were scaled up to 2 L of culture. Three flasks of microalgae culture were labelled with S1, S2, and S3. Flask S1 acts as a control without the addition of FeCl2, while another two flasks acted as experimental flasks. Flask S2 was supplemented with 0.5 mg FeCl2 while Flask S3 was supplemented with 1.0 mg of FeCl2. With the addition of Iron (II) Chloride, microalgae entered a stationary phase at day 9 and day 10 as compared to the control flask which enters the stationary phase at day 7. This also affects the dry weight. Flask 3 produces 0.8658 g of microalgae powder compared to Flask 1 and 2 which produced 0.4649 g and 0.5357 g respectively. Lipid analysis was done by using GCMS and GCFID. Flask 3 produced various types of fatty acids which can be used for biodiesel production compared to other cultivates. In Flask 1, docosanoic acid which is a saturated fatty acid was detected. While in Flask 2 (S2), with the addition of 0.5 mg of FeCl2, docosapentaenoic acid was produced. In the last flask which involved the addition of 1.0 mg of FeCl2, more fatty acid was detected. In GC-FID data, 6 types of fatty acids were detected. Linolein acid, linolenic acid, stearidonic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and docosanoic acid were produced at different retention times. Most of the fatty acids produced are polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). In transesterification, the fatty acid reacts with methanol and acid catalyst. The reaction produces fatty acid methyl ester. In Flask 1, the control flask, without the addition of FeCl2, no fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was produced. However, in Flask 2 and 3 which were added 0.5 mg FeCl2 and 1.0 mg FeCl2, n-hexadecanoic acid methyl ester which is also known as palmitic acid was produced. Palmitic fatty acid can be used for biodiesel production.
Wireless communication is a technology that plays an important role in current technology transformation. wireless communication is a method of telecommunication that are available for transmitting large amounts of data, voice and video over long distance using different frequencies. Specifically, Low Noise Amplifier which is located at the first block of receiver system, makes it one of the important element in improving signal transmission. This study was aimed to design a microwave Low Noise Amplifier for Long Term Evolution (LTE) application that will work at 5.8 GHz using high-performance low noise superHEMT transistor FHX76LP manufactured by Eudyna Technologies. The low noise amplifier (LNA) produced gain of 17.2 dB and noise figure (NF) of 0.914 dB. The input reflection (S11) and output return loss (S22) are -17.8 dB and -19.6 dB respectively. The bandwidth of the amplifier recorded is 1.2 GHz. The input sensitivity is compliant with the Long Term Evolution (LTE) standards.
Layered double hydroxide (LDH)-based nanocomposite, created by interacting LDH with another nanoparticles usually applied in the area of environmental, catalytic, industrial and biomedical field. In this study, a new herbicide delivery system was developed through the intercalation of Magnesium Aluminiumlayered double hydroxide (MAN host) with 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA). This intercalation was done by using co-precipitation method at pH 10 with different concentration of 4-CPA which were 0.5 M and 0.7 M. The successful intercalation was obtained at 0.7 M Magnesium Aluminium-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MAC) and had been confirmed through several analysis. Firstly, the XRD pattern shows expansion of basal spacing shifted from 8.9 Å to 9.3 Å. This result supported by the FTIR-ATR spectrum that shows the disappearance nitrate peak (NO3 - ) and appearance of carboxylate ion (COO- ) peak at 1596 cm-1 . Furthermore, this intercalation was validated with the result of surface morphology by FESEM. The controlled release study of 4-CPA from 0.7 M MAC shown sodium carbonate solution released the percentage of 4-CPA higher than tap water. This study has signifies MAC as a safer agent of agrochemicals by reducing the dosage of herbicide in the agriculture field and protect the herbicide through encapsulation system.
Annual air temperature data obtained from twenty-two meteorological stations across Malaysia are modeled using multiple regression. A correlation test was conducted to find statistical relationship between each of the dependent variables: annual maximum and annual average air temperature and predictor variables: longitude, latitude, elevation and wind speed. Regression models using least square estimation method were developed relating the dependent variables to independent variables and the adequacy of the models is determined by the coefficient of determination. The result shows that the longitude and wind speed factors have a significant influence on the annual air temperature in Malaysia.
Wheelchair has been an important assistive device and the demand are ever rising because of the increasing physically handicapped and old age populations. The recent development in the robotics artificial intelligence extends vast scope for developing the more advanced and intelligent one to overcome limitations of the existing traditional wheelchairs. The prototype smart wheelchair were present on this paper using hardware implementation with the help of simple hand gesture which is comprises of an accelerometer mounted on the hand glove senses the tilt angle of the user hand movements and transmits control signal to the receiver mounted on wheelchair. This will interpret the movement accordingly required by user. The wheelchair control unit is developed by integration of ATMEGA328 microcontroller with Arduino UNO. The wheelchair is developed to allow peoples to move safely and put reliability in accomplishment of some important tasks in daily life.
Surface water is a quick impact of pollution because of their easy accessibility for disposal of wastewater. Natural processes and industrial activities determine the quality of surface water in a region. The study was done to evaluate the surface water quality of Gebeng industrial estate, Pahang, Malaysia. Ten stations were established along the Tunggak and Balok River to collect water samples. The data were calculated according to Water Quality Index which obtained by Department of Environment (WQI-DOE) and categorized to compare with National Water Quality Standard Malaysia (NWQS). Water quality of Gebeng was classified based on WQI Malaysia as class III (51.9 – 76.5), and IV (< 51.9) which are slightly polluted and polluted due to low levels of DO and pH, and high levels of AN, BOD, COD, and TSS. It is clear that stations IZ2, IZ3, HA1, HA2, DS are received the largest pollutants discharged from the industrial sector. Generally, the results of this study will be very useful for policy maker and future studies to control and management of pollution in the study area.
Protease is an enzyme that catalysed the hydrolysis of protein into peptide. Application of protease in industry has been linked with cost effective substrates and complex of enzyme-substrate stability. Molecular docking approach has identified casein as a preference substrates. However, lack of data on casein mode of binding to protease and enzyme stability represents a limitation for its production and structural optimization. In this study, we have used a molecular dynamic (MD) to examine the stability of complex enzyme-substrate of protease from Bacillus lehensis G1. The 3D structure of protease (BleG1_1979) was docked with substrate casein using AutoDock Vina. Structural analysis of the substrate-binding cleft revealed a binding site of casein was predominantly at the hydrophobic region of BleG1_1979. The MD of complex BleG1_1979-casein was tested with two temperatures; 298 K and 310 K using GROMACS v5.1.4. MD simulation showed a stable behaviour of BleG1_1979 over the 20 ns simulation period. The molecular docking and MD simulation suggested that the production of protease from B. lehensis G1 by utilization of casein and the stability of complex protease-casein could be a potential application to generate a cost effective enzyme to be develop for industrial use.
As a way to enhance performance in sports, apart from in-field or in court training, athletes are recommended to adopt resistance training into their training routine. As an exercise that needs the performer to split their legs, lunge is suggested to be included as an exercise in a training session. Various researches had been conducted on lunge and several findings showed different methods or protocols of lunge affect the kinematics, kinetics muscle activation and fascicle behaviour response during the exercise. Although not much study conducted on the chronic adaptations, the existing studies suggested that performers should well plan the training protocols as this will cause different training adaptations.