Protease is an enzyme that catalysed the hydrolysis of protein into peptide. Application of protease in industry has been linked with cost effective substrates and complex of enzyme-substrate stability. Molecular docking approach has identified casein as a preference substrates. However, lack of data on casein mode of binding to protease and enzyme stability represents a limitation for its production and structural optimization. In this study, we have used a molecular dynamic (MD) to examine the stability of complex enzyme-substrate of protease from Bacillus lehensis G1. The 3D structure of protease (BleG1_1979) was docked with substrate casein using AutoDock Vina. Structural analysis of the substrate-binding cleft revealed a binding site of casein was predominantly at the hydrophobic region of BleG1_1979. The MD of complex BleG1_1979-casein was tested with two temperatures; 298 K and 310 K using GROMACS v5.1.4. MD simulation showed a stable behaviour of BleG1_1979 over the 20 ns simulation period. The molecular docking and MD simulation suggested that the production of protease from B. lehensis G1 by utilization of casein and the stability of complex protease-casein could be a potential application to generate a cost effective enzyme to be develop for industrial use.
As a way to enhance performance in sports, apart from in-field or in court training, athletes are recommended to adopt resistance training into their training routine. As an exercise that needs the performer to split their legs, lunge is suggested to be included as an exercise in a training session. Various researches had been conducted on lunge and several findings showed different methods or protocols of lunge affect the kinematics, kinetics muscle activation and fascicle behaviour response during the exercise. Although not much study conducted on the chronic adaptations, the existing studies suggested that performers should well plan the training protocols as this will cause different training adaptations.
In this research, sago mill effluent was treated using anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR). Seven HRT from 10 to 1.5 days were tested to evaluate the methane production from sago mill effluent. The findings revealed the highest methane production rate was found at 1.288 L CH4/L reactor. d under HRT of 2 days The results showed that COD removals decreased from 70% to 47% as HRT was reduced from 10 to 2 days. The HRT 1.5 days was found critical for the studied system, which leads to decreased in methane production, yield and COD removal. Overall, ASBR was capable to treat sago mill effluent in producing methane by means of anaerobic digestion.
The aluminium-silicon (Al-Si) based on Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) is widely used in lightweight
constructions and transport applications requiring a combination of high strength and ductility. A grain
refinement plays a crucial role in improving characteristics and properties of Al alloys. In this investigation,
titanium diboride (TiB2) and scandium (Sc) inoculants were added to the Al-Si alloys for grain refinement of
an alloy. In this investigation, the corrosion resistance rate of Al-Si cast alloy reinforced by TiB2 and Sc were
measured by potentiostat (AUTOLAB) instrument. The aim of this research is to investigate the corrosion
rate for Al-Si-TiB2-Sc composites that immersed in different concentration of acidic solutions. Besides, the
immersion time of acidic solutions also was investigated. All the samples were prepared accordingly for
ASTM standard by the composition of 6.0 wt% TiB2 and 0.6wt% Sc. All the samples undergo cold mounting
technique for easy handling on corrosion tests. Then the samples were immersed in two different
concentrations acidic medium solutions, which were 0.1.and 1.0 M hydrochloric acids (HCl). The corrosion
rate also was investigated for immersion samples of 1.0 M HCl for 21 days. From the results obtained, added
TiB2 and Sc onto Al-Si alloy gave the better properties in corrosion resistance. Corrosion rates to reduce when
the samples were immersed in a lower concentration of acidic medium, 0.1 HCl. However, there are some
significant on the result but it still following the corrosion rates trend. Thus, improvements to reinforcement
content need to be done in further research to cover the lack of this corrosion rates trend.
The aim of this study is to predict the next day PM10 concentration using Bayesian Regression with noninformative
prior and conjugate prior models. The descriptive analysis of PM10, temperature, relative humidity,
nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) are also included. A case
study used two-years of air quality monitoring data at three (3) monitoring stations to predict the future PM10
concentration with seven parameters (PM10, temperature, relative humidity, NO2, SO2, CO, and O3). The descriptive
analysis showed that the highest mean PM10 concentration occurred at Klang station in 2011 (71.30 µg/m3
by 2012 (68.82 µg/m3
). The highest mean PM10 concentration was at Nilai in 2012 (68.86 µg/m3
) followed by 2011
) respectively. The results showed that the Bayesian regression model used a conjugate prior with a
normal-gamma prior which was a good model to predict the PM10 concentration for most study stations with (R2 =
0.67 at Jerantut station), (R2 = 0.61 at Nilai station) and (R2 = 0.66 at Klang station) respectively compared to a
his paper presents the structure and static model of engine camshaft analysis. For the purposes of this analysis, the finite element method is used. Camshaft is one of the critical components for effective and precise work of internal combustion engines. This camshaft rotates at high speed causing pressure and vibration in the system. Camshafts are also subject to varying fatigue burden due to cam plunger contact. These precise values are required to be determined to prevent failure in the camshaft. The objective of the project is to model and to perform pressure analysis on the camshaft machine. In this project the standard engine cam shafts are modeled and analyzed using the CATIA V5R21 software respectively. This model is created by the basic requirements of the engine. It is done with an existing background, such as the power of acting on cam by means of a valve while running at maxi mum speed. Here the approach becomes fully CAE based. CAE - based approaches enrich Research and limit the time span. A study was conducted to predict the behavior of the different camshafts structure of the material using the finite three - dimensional pressure of the element. Four types of materials such as Steel, Titanium, Aluminum and Magnesium are taken into account. FEA Stress and maximum displacement decisions are calculated and compared to all of the above materials. The conclusion is to focus on the material suitable for the camshaft to reduce the maximum displacement and weight. Titanium materials become the best material for camshaft manufacturing based on analysis.
Manufacturing systems, in pursuit of cost, time and flexibility optimisation are becoming more and more complex, exhibiting a dynamic and nonlinear behaviour. Unpredictability is a distinct characteristic of such behaviour and effects production planning significantly. Complexity continues to be a challenge in manufacturing systems, resulting in ever-inflating costs, operational issues and increased lead times to product realisation. This challenge must be met with appropriate decision-making by manufacturing companies to secure competitive advantage without compromising sustainability. Assessing complexity realises the reduction and management of complexity sources which contribute to lowering associated engineering costs and time, improves productivity and increases profitability. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the priority level and current achievement of manufacturing performance in Malaysia’s manufacturing industry and the complexity drivers on manufacturing productivity performance. The results showed that Malaysia’s manufacturing industry prioritised product quality and they managed achieved a good on-time delivery performance. However, for other manufacturing performance, there was a difference where the current achievement of manufacturing performances in Malaysia’s manufacturing industry is slightly lower than the priority given to them. The strong correlation of significant value for priority status was observed between efficient production levelling (finished goods) and finish product management while the strong correlation of significant value for current achievement was minimised the number of workstation and factory transportation system. This indicates that complexity drivers have an impact towards manufacturing performance. Consequently, it is necessary to identify complexity drivers to achieve well manufacturing performance.
The purpose of this paper is to prepare a conceptual framework of hybrid lean and ergonomics for assembly manufacturing process based. The research used PDCA approach as a basis in linking the relationship between lean manufacturing and ergonomics. Comprehensive literature review identify the lean ergonomics issues, best practices, and also the way to improve the ergonomic conditions in the workplace, especially those impacting employees on the assembly process. The findings show that the job design strategies for reducing extreme injuries influence by repetitive tasks. Selections of lean tools and technique, human factors analysis and lean performance measure are the key point on the stages of the PDCA conceptual framework for lean ergonomics in working assembly process. This paper also demonstrates by continuous improvement applied between the elimination of waste and increased productivity and the impacts on the ergonomic conditions to carry out operations and consequently by improving the productivity and well-being of its employees based on implementation of PDCA conceptual frameworks.
The purpose of this study is to compare the tensile strength between additional polystyrene into coconut meat husk reinforced fiber composite. Composite were produced by using hand layup technique. It is seen that with the additional of polystyrene into the coconut meat husk reinforced polyester composites showed the increment tensile strength value compared to the non-added polystyrene which indicates that effective stress transfer between the fiber, matrix and polystyrene.
Surface water is a quick impact of pollution because of their easy accessibility for disposal of wastewater. Natural processes and industrial activities determine the quality of surface water in a region. The study was done to evaluate the surface water quality of Gebeng industrial estate, Pahang, Malaysia. Ten stations were established along the Tunggak and Balok River to collect water samples. The data were calculated according to Water Quality Index which obtained by Department of Environment (WQI-DOE) and categorized to compare with National Water Quality Standard Malaysia (NWQS). Water quality of Gebeng was classified based on WQI Malaysia as class III (51.9 – 76.5), and IV (< 51.9) which are slightly polluted and polluted due to low levels of DO and pH, and high levels of AN, BOD, COD, and TSS. It is clear that stations IZ2, IZ3, HA1, HA2, DS are received the largest pollutants discharged from the industrial sector. Generally, the results of this study will be very useful for policy maker and future studies to control and management of pollution in the study area.
Learning through game scene is considered a game-based learning approach. Teaching and learning process using game scene is deemed interesting and effective due to the nature for this approach which seems alive with asserted activities. Students experience their own game via narration through the virtual world they undertook. This investigation is targeted towards conceptual change and explanation for basic programming theorem through navigated game scene by evaluating motivation and student experience. 55 respondents consisted of semester three students from computer software application certification a program from a community college is selected for the undertaken study. Motivation and experience surveys are reference based on intrinsic motivation inventory instrument (IMI). Findings were tabulated based on t-test statistics and descriptive to get the frequency, mean, standard deviation and percentage. Initial results reflected student acknowledgement on utilizing game scenes in terms of elaborating basic game programming key points in providing elevated learning experience.
Protease is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of peptide bond in polypeptide chain and hold a wide range of applications in industry. The aim of this study is to clone and to express several genes encoding proteases from alkalitolerant bacteria Bacillus lehensis strain G1. A total of 13 genes encoding proteases have been selected using bioinformatics approach. These genes were then amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Subsequently, the PCR product was cloned into cloning vector pGEM®T easy and transformed into competent cell E. coli DH5α. The transformants were further verified by sequencing. The positive cloned were subcloned into the expression vector and were then expressed in Luria Bertani medium in the present of IPTG using E. coli BL21. The expressions of recombinant proteases were optimized for several hours at different temperatures, 16-37°C. Furthermore, structural prediction was performed using Modeller v9.18 for BleG1_1940. Each generated model was verified for overall completeness and bias, using PROCHECK, ERRAT, and Verify 3D. The overall quality of the model was relatively good with percentage of Ramachandran plot is 96.3%, PROCHECK is 86.2% and ERRAT score is 95%,.
Exposure to any type of stressors either environmental, chemical or perceived stressors, results in a series of physiological responses in animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of thermal stress on physiological responses in red hybrid tilapia. Adult red hybrid tilapia were previously exposed to gradual increment of water temperature in thermoregulated recirculating tanks at a rate of 1oC/8 h from 28 to 31oC and kept for 1, 7 and 14 days. Cortisol, HMG-CoA reductase, total protein and osmolality were determined. Plasma cortisol and HMG-CoA levels were significantly increased in the heat-stressed groups compared to nonstressed groups. Osmolality was also significantly higher (p
Three types of binder PVA, PVC and PVA/PVC mixtures have been evaluated for PANi-TiO2 immobilized system. These binders have been varied to several weights of loading for optimization purposes. As a result, it shows that higher loading of binders improved the photodegradation of RR4 dye but the mechanical properties of each immobilized system started to decreases. This behavior occurs due to the immobilized particles coated on the plate easy to peel off despite weak attachment toward to the continuous photodegradation operation system. Therefore 4 times of dipping PVA and PVC layers was selected as the optimum loading of binders to the PANi/TiO2 system during photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Red 4 with the rate constant of 0.5568 K/min for PVA and 0.5742 K/min for PVC. Meanwhile for PVA/PVC mixture binder system at 4 times dipping showed the highest rate constant of photodegradation of RR4 dye with 0.6026 K/min. In addition, SEM analysis has also been carried out for further investigation.
The preparation technique during synthesizing process and heat treatment plays an important role in the properties of the ceramic materials. In this paper, ceramic perovskite-type oxide based on Ba (Ce,Zr)O3 was prepared by sol-gel method and sintered via two-step sintering (TSS) technique. In the TSS, the sintered pellet was undergoing twice heat treatment. The first temperature profile was set at T1= 1400°C and the second temperature were varied at T2 = 1150°C, 1200°C, 1300°C and 1350°C, respectively. XRD results showed that all samples TSS1 to TSS5 exhibit single-phase of cerate-zirconate ceramics except for the pellet sintered at 1300°C (TSS4). The crystalline peaks for single-phase sintered pellets were matched to the standard compound Ba(Ce,Zr)O3 . On the other hand, the presence of secondary phases of CeO2 , Ba2ZrO4 and BaCO3 along with the main phase of Ba(Ce,Zr)O3 were detected in TSS4. SEM analysis revealed that the samples formed clear and compact grains with submicron sizes whereby the size of grain decreased from 336.4 to 192 nm as the second sintering temperature increased. This paper attempts to show that the implementation of different sintering profile in TSS method was found to give significant effect on the phase and morphology of solid solution of Ba(Ce,Zr)O3 .
Synthetic fibers such as glass fiber and carbon fiber are traditionally used as reinforcement in engineering composites. The increasing of environmental concerns has led to the use of natural fibers as renewable alternatives reinforcement. Among them, coconut meat husk fiber which abundant availability can be used as reinforcement fiber. However, the coconut meat husk fiber, same as other natural fibers, has the issues of fiber/matrix bonding and moisture absorption. Chemical treatments are needed to modify the surface of fiber, aiming at improving the adhesion with polymer matrix and reducing the hydrophilicity of the fiber. Alkalization was used in this study to treat the coconut meat husk fiber. The effects of chemical treatments for 1hr and 24 hr treatment time on the coconut meat husk fibers reinforced composites were investigated. A result showed that the 24 hr alkali treatment gave the highest tensile stenght compared to the 1hr treatment and RO water.
Natural fiber reinforced composites are recognized as better materials for structural components due to their inherent properties. However, milling these materials presents a number of problems, such as surface delamination, which appeared during the machining process, associated with the characteristics of the material and the cutting parameters. Therefore, in this study, machining parameters and the influence of the banana fibers under delamination were investigated. Result showed that machining parameters has a significance effect on the delamination of banana fiber reinforced polyester composites.
System Analysis and Design (SAD) is one of the core courses offered in Bachelor’s degree programme in Information Technology. However, it is observed that students are not grasping the details of the lessons, and this is affecting their employability and the productivity value in the software development chain. This experience is linked to the presently-used teaching method. In this regard, blended learning model, which improves students’ learning experience and reduces underachievement in computer science, is suggested. This study therefore aims to identify the effects of the identified success factors on academic success of SAD. To achieve these objectives, a quantitative research method was employed, involving administration of survey instruments distributed to 151 students, who took SAD as a course in UUM, using simple random sampling, and data collected were analysed with correlation and regression techniques. The study found that students’ attitude, students’ technology usage level, students’ access to technology, students’ courseware, curriculum, learning system interface quality, lecture quality, and e-learning system comprehensiveness positively influence students’ academic success in SAD.
This study was conducted to determine and compare the muscle activity during step forward lunge (SFL) and jump forward lunge (JFL) in badminton. Fifteen university badminton players (mean age = 22.07 ± 1.39 years old) were recruited and were assigned to perform SFL and JFL while holding a badminton racquet using their preferred hand. Muscle activation of vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), gluteus maximus (GM), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) were analysed and compared between SFL and JFL and also between dominant and non-dominant lower limb in each lunge protocol. Results showed for both the dominant and non-dominant lower limb, all the muscle activation was greater during JFL compared to SFL except for the MG muscle. All the muscle activation was also found to be greater in the dominant compared to non-dominant lower limb for both lunge protocols. Overall, findings demonstrated the existence of differences in muscle activation across difference protocols of movement and different site of limbs. This should be taken into consideration for developing training program in order to enhance performance and reduce the risk of injuries.
Being the most abundant element on earth, aluminium has become one of the major restricting factors that affect the growth and development of plants. The first target of aluminium toxicity is the root apex which would in turn affect the overall growth of the plants. In this study, the effect of various concentrations of aluminium (Al) on the growth of Lobelia chinensis was determined. Nodal explants of L. chinensis were cultured on MS medium containing various concentrations of aluminium chloride (AlCl3) (0, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 20 µM) with 1250.0 μM ion phosphate and pH was adjusted to 4.6. It was observed that both the growth of shoot and root decreased with the increasing concentrations of Al.