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  1. Naik KN, Jhajharia K, Chaudhary R, Tatikonda A, Dhaliwal AS, Kaur RK
    J Indian Soc Periodontol, 2015 5 28;19(2):239-41.
    PMID: 26015682 DOI: 10.4103/0972-124X.145837
    Gingival enlargement comprises any clinical condition in which an increase in the size of the gingiva is observed. It is a side effect associated with some distinct classes of drugs, such as anticonvulsants, immunosuppressant, and calcium channel blockers. Among calcium channel blockers, nifedipine causes gingival enlargement in about 10% of patients, whereas the incidence of amlodipine, a third-generation calcium channel blocker, induced gingival enlargement is very limited. Because the calcium antagonists, albeit to a variable degree, act as inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the gene product of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1), and inflammation may modify P-gp expression. We hereby, report a case of amlodipine-induced gingival enlargement with MDR1 3435C/T polymorphism, associated with inflammatory changes due to plaque accumulation, in a 50-year-old hypertensive male patient. The genotype obtained for the polymorphism was a heteromutant genotype, thus supporting the contention that the MDR1 polymorphism may alter the inflammatory response to the drug.
  2. Donald PM, Renjith G, Arora A
    J Indian Soc Periodontol, 2018 2 15;21(3):249-251.
    PMID: 29440796 DOI: 10.4103/jisp.jisp_109_17
    Smokeless tobacco is used orally or nasally without burning tobacco. This is equally harmful as smokers due to the tobacco content and can cause oral cancer as well as systemic effects such as nicotinic dependence. Many other oral conditions have also been reported in association with smokeless tobacco. This paper presents features of tobacco pouch keratosis and aims to highlight the oral effects of smokeless tobacco, management, and guidelines for dentists in educating and counselling tobacco users.
  3. Rath A, Fernandes BA, Sidhu P, Ramamurthy P
    J Indian Soc Periodontol, 2018 2 15;21(3):245-248.
    PMID: 29440795 DOI: 10.4103/jisp.jisp_221_17
    New and innovative surgical techniques are necessary to help the clinician ensure the best results and satisfy patient's expectations. One such periodontal problem that has been challenging to the dental practitioners and impacts the oral health quality of life of patients has been gingival recession. When present anteriorly where esthetics is a major concern, patient centric parameters too become paramount. Root coverage esthetic score (RES) evaluation helps to keep the patient outcomes in mind. This case reports the successful treatment of a wide anterior mucogingival defect using epithelial embossed connective tissue graft which was evaluated for the first time using RES.
  4. Hosadurga R, Shanti T, Hegde S, Kashyap RS, Arunkumar SM
    J Indian Soc Periodontol, 2017 Jul-Aug;21(4):315-325.
    PMID: 29456307 DOI: 10.4103/jisp.jisp_139_17
    Background: In developing nations like India awareness and education about dental implants as a treatment modality is still scanty.

    Aim: The study was conducted to determine the awareness, knowledge, and attitude of patients toward dental implants as a treatment modality among the general population and to assess the influence of personality characteristics on accepting dental implants as a treatment modality in general and as well as treatment group.

    Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire-based survey was conducted on 500 randomly selected participants attending the outpatient department. The study was conducted in 2 parts. In the first part of the study, level of awareness, knowledge, and attitude was assessed. In the second part of the study, interactive educational sessions using audiovisual aids were conducted following which a retest was conducted. The participants who agreed to undergo implant treatment were followed up to assess their change in attitude towards dental implants posttreatment. Thus pain, anxiety, functional, and esthetic benefits were measured using visual analog scale. They were further followed up for 1 year to reassess awareness, knowledge, and attitude towards dental implants.

    Results: A total of 450 individuals completed the questionnaires. Only 106 individuals agreed to participate in the educational sessions and 83 individuals took the retest. Out of these, only 39 individuals chose implants as a treatment option. A significant improvement in the level of information, subjective and objective need for information, was noted after 1 year.

    Conclusion: In this study, a severe deficit in level of information, subjective and objective need for information towards, dental implants as a treatment modality was noted. In the treatment group, a significant improvement in perception of dental implant as a treatment modality suggests that professionally imparted knowledge can bring about a change in the attitude.
  5. Hari P, Kacharaju KR, Anumala N, Pathakota KR, Avula J
    J Indian Soc Periodontol, 2018 5 18;22(2):133-139.
    PMID: 29769768 DOI: 10.4103/jisp.jisp_320_17
    Context: Biofilms are known for their antimicrobial resistance, and so is the subgingival plaque biofilm, the primary etiologic factor for periodontal infections.

    Aims: The objective of this study is to investigate if the subgingival plaque biofilm resistance can be reduced using doxycycline in the presence of low-intensity electric field (bioelectric effect).

    Settings and Design: The study was an in vitro microbiological study.

    Materials and Methods: Subgingival plaque samples from chronic periodontitis patients were collected to grow subgingival plaque biofilms on hydroxyapatite disks. Hydroxyapatite disks with the plaque biofilms from each patient were divided into four groups: (i) No intervention - control, (ii) current alone - CU; (iii) doxycycline - AB, and (iv) combined treatment - CU + AB. After respective treatments, the disks were anaerobically incubated for 48 h, the biofilm was dispersed and subcultured and colony-forming unit/mL was estimated in all the four groups.

    Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests for intergroup comparisons. T-test was done to assess the difference in current flow between the groups CU and CU + AB.

    Results: All the three treatment modalities showed antibacterial effect. Application of current alone resulted in reduced bacterial growth than control group. Doxycycline alone resulted in reduction in bacterial counts better than control and current alone groups. The combination treatment showed greatest inhibition of bacterial colonies.

    Conclusion: The ability of doxycycline antibiotic in inhibiting plaque biofilm was significantly enhanced by application of a weak electric field (5 volts for 2 min).

  6. Gupta VV, Ramachandra SS
    J Indian Soc Periodontol, 2019 8 2;23(4):371-376.
    PMID: 31367137 DOI: 10.4103/jisp.jisp_654_18
    This report presents a 29-year-old aggressive periodontitis patient from Morocco with a history of orthodontic treatment. Despite all the first molars showing advanced bone loss, the maxillary anterior teeth did not show any periodontal destruction. The scientific literature rarely reports cases of aggressive periodontitis without involving maxillary anterior teeth. The treatment provided includes extraction of hopeless tooth, removal of overhanging restoration, scaling, root debridement, and regenerative periodontal therapy. The discussion highlights the dilemma during diagnosis of the case as either "iatrogenic periodontitis due to orthodontic treatment" or "localized aggressive periodontitis." The age group of 15-35 years is the common age group for patients' seeking orthodontic treatment and the occurrence of aggressive periodontitis. Sound knowledge of periodontitis and identification of early signs of aggressive periodontitis through meticulous periodontal examination may help in earlier identification and minimalistic treatment. Education regarding periodontitis, especially aggressive periodontitis, is essential among orthodontists and general dentists. This case report aims to discuss the dilemma involved during diagnosis of localized aggressive periodontitis.
  7. Jeyasree RM, Theyagarajan R, Sekhar V, Navakumar M, Mani E, Santhamurthy C
    J Indian Soc Periodontol, 2019 1 12;22(6):487-491.
    PMID: 30631226 DOI: 10.4103/jisp.jisp_133_18
    Background: The traditional method of diagnosing periodontitis includes the assessment of clinical parameters and radiographic aids to evaluate the periodontal tissue destruction. Saliva has the potential to be used as the diagnostic fluid for oral disease. This study aimed at comparing the quantitative levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in saliva and serum before and after scaling and root planing in patients with chronic generalized periodontitis.

    Materials and Methods: A total number of 50 participants (40 with chronic generalized periodontitis and 10 periodontally healthy volunteers) of 30-50 years were included in the study. Clinical parameters such as simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), gingival index, probing depth, and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were measured, and then, saliva and blood sample collection was done and analyzed for ALP levels by spectrometry. The clinical parameters along with saliva and serum ALP levels were reevaluated after 30 days following Phase I periodontal therapy. The results were statistically analyzed using paired t-test and one-way ANOVA.

    Results: The saliva and serum ALP levels were significantly increased in patients with chronic generalized periodontitis with an increase in clinical parameters such as OHI-S, gingival index, probing depth, and CAL when compared with periodontally healthy individuals. The saliva and serum ALP levels were significantly decreased following Phase I periodontal, therapy along with improvement in clinical parameters.

    Conclusion: With the limitations of the present study, it could be concluded that ALP levels in saliva can be used for the diagnosis of active phase of periodontal disease and also for evaluation of the treatment outcomes following Phase I periodontal therapy.

  8. Muniandy S
    J Indian Soc Periodontol, 2019 5 31;23(3):275-280.
    PMID: 31143010 DOI: 10.4103/jisp.jisp_479_18
    Background: The impact of smoking on oral health is directly related to the toxic tobacco fumes. The study aimed to investigate the awareness of the link between smoking and periodontal disease among the population seeking periodontal treatment.

    Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire constructed in local Malay language consisting of 13 questions on sociodemographic details and 10 questions on the knowledge domain was distributed to eligible respondents while they were waiting for their consultation in the periodontal clinic waiting hall. There were 330 study participants aged 16 years old and above, who participated in this study from all 12 dental clinics in the state of Perlis, Malaysia. Data were entered into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0 for analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sociodemographic data, whereas association between potential factor and the knowledge of awareness was found using the Pearson Chi-square test of independence or a Fisher's exact test, depending on the eligibility criteria.

    Results: Our study showed that 4.5% (n = 15) of the respondents were not aware that smoking did add risk for oral cancer, 14.5% (n = 48) were not aware that smoking could cause gum disease. Smoking status was significantly associated with the awareness of smoking effect on gum disease (P = 0.002). The proportion of the active smokers being aware that smoking could potentially cause gum disease was considerably less as compared to the nonsmokers (62.7% vs. 83.3%).

    Conclusions: Continuous dental health campaigns and awareness program are crucial to instil awareness and health-seeking behavior as well as to enforce public's knowledge.

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