Displaying all 15 publications

  1. Zhong Q, Gelaye B, Rondon M, Sánchez SE, García PJ, Sánchez E, et al.
    J Affect Disord, 2014 Jun;162:1-7.
    PMID: 24766996 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.03.028
    OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the psychometric properties of two widely used screening scales: the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) among pregnant Peruvian women.
    METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1517 women receiving prenatal care from February 2012 to March 2013. A structured interview was used to collect data using PHQ-9 and EPDS. We examined reliability, construct and concurrent validity between two scales using internal consistency indices, factor structures, correlations, and Cohen׳s kappa.
    RESULTS: Both scales had good internal consistency (Cronbach׳s alpha>0.8). Correlation between PHQ-9 and EPDS scores was fair (rho=0.52). Based on exploratory factor analysis (EFA), both scales yielded a two-factor structure. EFA including all items from PHQ-9 and EPDS yielded four factors, namely, "somatization", "depression and suicidal ideation", "anxiety and depression", and "anhedonia". The agreement between the two scales was generally fair at different cutoff scores with the highest Cohen׳s kappa being 0.46.
    CONCLUSIONS: Both the PHQ-9 and EPDS are reliable and valid scales for antepartum depression assessment. The PHQ-9 captures somatic symptoms, while EPDS detects depressive symptoms comorbid with anxiety during early pregnancy. Our findings suggest simultaneous administration of both scales may improve identification of antepartum depressive disorders in clinical settings.
  2. Bauer M, Glenn T, Alda M, Andreassen OA, Angelopoulos E, Ardau R, et al.
    J Affect Disord, 2014;167:104-11.
    PMID: 24953482 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.05.032
    The onset of bipolar disorder is influenced by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. We previously found that a large increase in sunlight in springtime was associated with a lower age of onset. This study extends this analysis with more collection sites at diverse locations, and includes family history and polarity of first episode.
  3. Chong SA, Vaingankar J, Abdin E, Subramaniam M
    J Affect Disord, 2012 Apr;138(1-2):128-36.
    PMID: 22209269 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.11.038
    Reports of rates of depression among different Asian ethnic groups within the same country using standardized assessments are rare in the extant literature.
  4. Norhayati MN, Hazlina NH, Asrenee AR, Emilin WM
    J Affect Disord, 2015 Apr 1;175:34-52.
    PMID: 25590764 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.12.041
    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of postpartum depression worldwide varies from 0.5% to 60.8% in the first 12 months postpartum using self-reported questionnaire. This review aims to update the current magnitude of postpartum depression based on self-reported questionnaire and clinical interview and explore its associated factors in developed and developing countries.
    METHODS: A literature search conducted between 2005 and 2014 identified 203 studies, of which 191 used self-reported questionnaire in 42 countries and 21 used structured clinical interview in 15 countries. Nine studies used a combination of self-reported questionnaire and clinical interview.
    RESULT: The prevalence of postpartum depression varies from 1.9% to 82.1% in developing countries and from 5.2% to 74.0% in developed countries using self-reported questionnaire. Structured clinical interview shows a much lower prevalence range from 0.1% in Finland to 26.3% in India. Antenatal depression and anxiety, previous psychiatric illness, poor marital relationship, stressful life events, negative attitude towards pregnancy, and lack of social support are significant contributors to postpartum depression.
    LIMITATION: All studies are included irrespective of the methodological quality, such as small sample size and their inclusion could affect the generalizability of the results.
    CONCLUSION: The current prevalence of postpartum depression is much higher than that previously reported, and similar risk factors are documented. A culturally sensitive cut-off score with adequate psychometric properties of the screening instruments should be available. In future studies, examining the physical, biological, and cultural factors in qualitative studies and in those with adequate methodological qualities is recommended.
    KEYWORDS:Epidemiology; Postpartum depression; Prevalence; Risk factors
  5. Srisurapanont M, Bautista D, Chen CH, Wang G, Udomratn P, Eurviriyanukul K
    J Affect Disord, 2015 Jan 15;171:105-10.
    PMID: 25303026 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.09.007
    BACKGROUND: Subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) in major depressive disorder (MDD) is prevalent and correlated with disability. This study aimed to examine the prevalence rates and correlates of subjective memory deficit (SMD) and subjective concentration deficit (SCD) in medication-free, non-elderly Asians with MDD.
    METHODS: The SMD and SCD were assessed by using two items of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Other measurements of interest included the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated.
    RESULTS: Of 515 participants from China, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand, 347 (67.4%) and 377 (73.2%) had SMD and SCD, respectively. In total, 420 participants (81.6%) had SMD alone, SCD alone, and both deficits. Severe depression and poor mental health were significant correlates of SMD. Severe depression, clinically significant disability, poor physical health, and poor mental health were significantly independent correlates of SCD. Compared with young adults (18-34 years), older adults aged 50-65 years had a significantly lower risk of SCD (OR=.33, 95% CI: .19-.57).
    LIMITATIONS: Only two SCL-90-R items were used to assess the SMD and SCD. The exclusion of MDD patients treated with psychotropic medications eliminated many patients commonly seen in typical clinic settings.
    CONCLUSION: SMD and SCD are prevalent in medication-free, non-elderly Asians with MDD. Both deficits are correlated with depression and mental health status. The independent correlation between SCD and disability underscores the crucial role of SCI in MDD.
    KEYWORDS: Asian; Cognitive impairment; Depressive disorders; SCL-90-R; Subjective
  6. Ho SC, Chong HY, Chaiyakunapruk N, Tangiisuran B, Jacob SA
    J Affect Disord, 2016 Mar 15;193:1-10.
    PMID: 26748881 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.12.029
    Medication non-adherence is one of the major challenges in treating patients with depression. This systematic review aims to determine the clinical and economic outcomes of non-adherence in depression.
  7. Srisurapanont M, Likhitsathian S, Chua HC, Udomratn P, Chang S, Maneeton N, et al.
    J Affect Disord, 2015 Nov 1;186:26-31.
    PMID: 26226430 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.06.032
    BACKGROUND: Little has been known regarding the correlates of severe insomnia in major depressive disorder (MDD). This post-hoc analysis aimed to examine the sociodemographic and clinical correlates of severe insomnia in psychotropic drug-free, Asian adult outpatients with MDD.
    METHODS: Participants were psychotropic drug-free patients with MDD, aged 18-65 years. By using the Symptom Checklist-90 Items, Revised (SCL-90-R), a score of 4 (severe distress) on any one of three insomnia items was defined as severe insomnia. Other measures included the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), the nine psychopathology subscales of SCL-90-R, the Physical and Mental Component Summaries of Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 PCS and SF-36 MCS), and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS).
    RESULTS: Of 528 participants, their mean age being 39.5 (SD=13.26) years, 64.2% were females, and 239 (45.3%) had severe insomnia. The logistic regression model revealed that low educational qualifications (less than secondary school completion), high SCL-90-R Depression scores, high SCL-90-R Anxiety scores, and low SF-36 PCS scores were independently correlated with severe insomnia (p's
  8. Halbreich U, Karkun S
    J Affect Disord, 2006 Apr;91(2-3):97-111.
    PMID: 16466664 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2005.12.051
    The prevalence of postpartum depression (PPD) is currently considered to be 10-15%. Most studies were performed with a brief unidimensional instruments (mostly the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale-EPDS) with focus on depression and not on other symptoms and disorders. Most cited studies were conducted in Western economically developed countries.

    We reviewed the literature on prevalence of postpartum depression and depressive symptoms in a wide range of countries.

    143 studies were identified reporting prevalence in 40 countries. It is demonstrated that there is a wide range of reported prevalence of PPD ranging from almost 0% to almost 60%. In some countries like Singapore, Malta, Malaysia, Austria and Denmark there are very few reports of PPD or postpartum depressive symptoms, whereas in other countries (e.g. Brazil, Guyana, Costa Rica, Italy, Chile, South Africa, Taiwan and Korea) reported postpartum depressive symptoms are very prevalent.

    We believe that the widely cited mean prevalence of PPD-10-15% is not representative of the actual global prevalence and magnitude of the problem, due to the wide range of reports. The variability in reported PPD might be due to cross-cultural variables, reporting style, differences in perception of mental health and its stigma, differences in socio-economic environments (e.g. poverty, levels of social support or its perception, nutrition, stress), and biological vulnerability factors. The elucidation of the underlying processes of this variability as well as the diversity of postpartum normal versus abnormal expressions of symptoms may contribute to better understanding of the diversified ante, peri- and postpartum phenomena.
  9. Hasanah CI, Khan UA, Musalmah M, Razali SM
    J Affect Disord, 1997 Nov;46(2):95-9.
    PMID: 9479613
    Forty-five hospitalised patients with DSM-III-R diagnosis of mania, were found to have a mean red-cell folate level of 193 nmol/l, as compared to 896 nmol/l in the control group (P < 0.00001). Assessment of serum folate in both groups showed no significant differences in the levels. Furthermore the manic patients and the controls were matched by the socio-economic status. This indicated that the reduced red-cell folate in mania is associated with the illness and not due to reduced absorption or dietary deficiency of folate. Considering previous studies that showed reduced red-cell folate in depression, our findings suggest that reduced red-cell folate occurred in both phases of bipolar disorders.
  10. Nicolosi A, Moreira ED, Villa M, Glasser DB
    J Affect Disord, 2004 Oct 15;82(2):235-43.
    PMID: 15488252 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2003.12.008
    Depression and erectile dysfunction (ED) have a complex and bi-directional relationship. We examined the relationships between erectile dysfunction and depressive symptoms or diagnosed depression, sexual activity and sexual satisfaction.

    A population survey of men aged 40-70 years was carried out in Brazil, Italy, Japan and Malaysia in 1997-1998. A questionnaire was used to collect life style, sexual behaviors and medical data. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. ED was classified as moderate or complete if the men reported they were "sometimes" or "never" able to achieve and maintain an erection satisfactory for sexual intercourse. Only men with a sexual partner and not taking psychoactive drugs were considered.

    Diagnosed depression was reported by 2.0% of the men, depressive symptoms by 21.0%. The prevalence of moderate or complete ED was 17.8%. Sexual satisfaction related to the frequency of sexual intercourse and inversely related to depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were positively associated with being single (odds ratio [OR] 1.7), widowed, separated or divorced (OR 2.2), moderate or complete ED (1.8), heart disease (1.6) and smoking (1.6), and negatively associated with age, physical activity and frequency of sexual intercourse.

    Cross-sectional studies cannot establish a temporal cause-effect relationship. However, the confirmation of known associations reassures about the validity of the original findings.

    The findings suggest that depressive symptoms are linked to ED by the mediation of decreased sexual activity and the dissatisfaction generated by the inability to have a healthy sexual life.
  11. Srisurapanont M, Mok YM, Yang YK, Chan HN, Della CD, Zainal NZ, et al.
    J Affect Disord, 2018 05;232:237-242.
    PMID: 29499506 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.02.014
    BACKGROUND: Several studies have described the presence of perceived cognitive dysfunction amongst Asian patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). To date, no study has been conducted investigating the predictors of perceived cognitive dysfunction amongst Asian MDD patients.

    METHODS: This was a post-hoc analysis of the Cognitive Dysfunction in Asian patients with Depression (CogDAD) study. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the most common cognitive complaints by patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine variables associated with perceived cognitive dysfunction (Perceived Deficit Questionnaire-Depression, PDQ-D).

    RESULTS: The CogDAD study population is comprised of MDD patients with mild-to-moderate depression (Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item [PHQ-9]: 11.3 ± 6.9) who reported perceived cognitive dysfunction (PDQ-D = 22.6 ± 16.2). The most common cognitive complaints were: mind drifting (42.3%), trouble making decision (39.6%) and trouble concentrating (38.0%). Predictors of perceived cognitive dysfunction were: being Southeast Asians (vs. Taiwanese) (p 

  12. Saravanan C, Alias A, Mohamad M
    J Affect Disord, 2017 10 01;220:108-116.
    PMID: 28618312 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.05.037
    BACKGROUND: Students who go to other countries for higher education face various psychological problems, particularly homesickness and depression. The objectives of this study were to: (a) identify differences between students who did and did not receive brief individual cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for depression to reduce homesickness; (b) identify whether brief individual CBT for depression reduces the level of homesickness in students between pre-, post- and follow-up assessment; and (c) compare the scores of students experiencing only homesickness and those experiencing both homesickness and depression.

    METHOD: The sample consisted of 520 first-year undergraduate international students. The experimental group contained students who were diagnosed with depression and homesickness and received seven sessions of brief individual CBT for depression to reduce homesickness. The control group contained students who were diagnosed with depression and homesickness and received one session of advice and suggestions. The comparison group contained students who experienced only homesickness and did not receive any interventions. The study used the comparison group to determine if an interaction effect existed between students experiencing only homesickness and students experiencing both homesickness and depression.

    RESULTS: Students who received brief individual CBT displayed a significant reduction in their homesickness and depression scores compared to the scores of students in the control group. Students who experienced only homesickness exhibited a significant reduction in the scores on homesickness in the post-assessment compared to the control group's post-assessment homesickness scores.

    LIMITATION: The results of this study cannot be generalized as data were collected from three universities in Malaysia. The follow-up assessment was conducted six months after the post-assessment, which also limits generalizability beyond six months.

    CONCLUSION: Overall, homesickness is considered a normal reaction. Brief individual CBT for depression is effective in reducing homesickness and depression among international students.

  13. Li Y, Roslan SB, Ahmad NAB, Omar ZB, Zhang L
    J Affect Disord, 2019 05 15;251:274-279.
    PMID: 30953892 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.12.051
    BACKGROUND: The objective of this randomized controlled experimental study was to determine the intervention effect of group interpersonal psychotherapy (G-IPT) for aggression and social support among Chinese first-grade university students.

    METHODS: Through stratified random sampling, 1469 students, aged 18-19 years, were enrolled. Participants whose score achieved the aggressive evaluation standard were selected and then 60 participants were randomly divided into 2 groups: G-IPT and control. The participants in the G-IPT group received 16 sessions of treatment, whereas the participants in the control group did not receive any intervention. All participants completed the assessment three times: before, after, and tracking.

    RESULTS: The results showed that the total score and the scores of all subscales of aggression dropped significantly (P 

  14. Song Y, Bai W, Wang M, Liu X, Zhang L, Yu W, et al.
    J Affect Disord, 2019 Aug 19;259:195-200.
    PMID: 31446380 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2019.08.042
    BACKGROUND: Suicide is a major global mental health problem among college students. The aim of the current study was to explore the association between the psychological strains of the strain theory of suicide and suicidal behaviors among college students.

    METHODS: Participants comprised 1912 college students (16-28 years old, 47.2% female) from three universities in Jilin Province, China, who completed the self-report assessments of psychological strains (40 items Psychological Strains Scale) and suicidal behaviors (Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised). The demographic characteristics included four variables: health status, psychological status, academic status and economic status.

    RESULTS: Approximately 15.0% (286/1912) of participants were classified as having suicide risk, based on the cut-off scores of the SBQ-R. The prevalence of suicidal behaviors among males and females was 11.9% (120/1009) and 18.4% (166/903), respectively. Value strain (OR = 1.075, 95%CI: 1.057-1.094), aspiration strain (OR = 1.082, 95%CI: 1.064-1.101), deprivation strain (OR = 1.073, 95%CI: 1.052-1.093), and coping strain (OR = 1.095, 95%CI: 1.075-1.116) were risk factors for suicidality in college students. Coping strain (OR = 1.050, 95%CI: 1.023-1.077) was still positively associated with suicide risk in multivariate logistic regression. Logistic regression analysis indicated that coping strain had the highest correlation with suicidal behaviors.

    LIMITATIONS: The directionality of the relationships cannot be deduced because this study is cross-sectional.

    CONCLUSION: This study confirms a strong association between psychological strains and suicidal behaviors in college students. Some measures can be taken to reduce psychological strains to mitigate suicide risk among college students. More studies investigating coping strain among college students are warranted.

  15. Zhao S, Zhang J, Liu Y, Ji H, Lew B
    J Affect Disord, 2020 Jan 01;260:105-110.
    PMID: 31494361 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2019.09.006
    BACKGROUND: Previous research on the relationship between life satisfaction and its influencing factors has mainly focused on the work domain. Psychological strains, which result from these stress-related outcomes, have not been paid enough attention to explain how it correlates negatively with life satisfaction.

    METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted, using questionnaires sent to selected medical staff in a public hospital in Shandong, China (N = 1012). Multiple regression analysis was used to investigate how psychological strains influencing life satisfactions among medical staff.

    RESULTS: The findings indicate that aspiration strain and deprivation strain have significantly negative impact on medical staff's life satisfaction even with other variables controlled for. Weekly working hour was a significant predictor for life satisfaction. Family factors, such as marital status and kids in the family as well as social support were important factors in influencing individuals' life satisfaction.

    CONCLUSION: The current study highlights the negative associations between aspiration strain, deprivation strain and life satisfaction. The result underlines the importance of actions taken to prevent and combat psychological strains. It also provides some evidence for policy makers to improve the work environment for medical staff, such as reduce weekly working hours and enhance social support in order to increase medical staff's life satisfaction.

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