Interests in the use of biodegradable polymers as biomaterials have grown. Among the different polymeric composites currently available, the blend of starch and polycaprolactone (PCL) has received the most attention since the 1980s. Novamont is the first company that manufactured a PCL/starch (SPCL) composite under the trademark Mater-Bi®. The properties of PCL (a synthetic, hydrophobic, flexible, expensive polymer with a low degradation rate) and starch (a natural, hydrophilic, stiff, abundant polymer with a high degradation rate) blends are interesting because of the composite components have completely different structures and characteristics. PCL can adjust humidity sensitivity of starch as a biomaterial; while starch can enhance the low biodegradation rate of PCL. Thus, by appropriate blending, SPCL can overcome important limitations of both PCL and starch components and promote controllable behavior in terms of mechanical properties and degradation which make it suitable for many biomedical applications. This article reviewed the different fabrication and modification methods of the SPCL composite; different properties such as structural, physical, and chemical as well as degradation behavior; and different applications as biomaterials.
The repair of osteochondral defects requires a tissue engineering approach that aims at mimicking the physiological properties and structure of two different tissues (cartilage and bone) using specifically designed scaffold-cell constructs. Biphasic and triphasic approaches utilize two or three different architectures, materials, or composites to produce a multilayered construct. This article gives an overview of some of the current strategies in multiphasic/gradient-based scaffold architectures and compositions for tissue engineering of osteochondral defects. In addition, the application of finite element analysis (FEA) in scaffold design and simulation of in vitro and in vivo cell growth outcomes has been briefly covered. FEA-based approaches can potentially be coupled with computer-assisted fabrication systems for controlled deposition and additive manufacturing of the simulated patterns. Finally, a summary of the existing challenges associated with the repair of osteochondral defects as well as some recommendations for future directions have been brought up in the concluding section of this article.
One of the novel applications of the nanostructures is the modification and development of membranes for hemocompatibility of hemodialysis. The toxicity and hemocompatibility of Ag nanoparticles and arginine-treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT-Arg) and possibility of their application in membrane technology are investigated here. MWNT-Arg is prepared by amidation reactions, followed by characterization by FTIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed a good hemocompatibility and the hemolytic rates in the presence of both MWNT-Arg and Ag nanoparticles. The hemolytic rate of Ag nanoparticles was lower than that of MWNT-Arg. In vivo study revealed that Ag nanoparticle and MWNT-Arg decreased Hematocrit and mean number of red blood cells (RBC) statistically at concentration of 100 µg mL(-1) . The mean decrease of RBC and Hematocrit for Ag nanoparticles (18% for Hematocrit and 5.8 × 1,000,000/µL) was more than MWNT-Arg (20% for Hematocrit and 6 × 1000000/µL). In addition, MWNT-Arg and Ag nanoparticles had a direct influence on the White Blood Cell (WBC) drop. Regarding both nanostructures, although the number of WBC increased in initial concentration, it decreased significantly at the concentration of 100 µg mL(-1) . It is worth mentioning that the toxicity of Ag nanoparticle on WBC was higher than that of MWNT-Arg. Because of potent antimicrobial activity and relative hemocompatibility, MWNT-Arg could be considered as a new candidate for biomedical applications in the future especially for hemodialysis membranes.
Extracellular environments can regulate cell behavior because cells can actively sense their mechanical environments. This study evaluated the adhesion, proliferation and morphology of endothelial cells on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/alumina (Al2 O3 ) composites and pure PDMS. The substrates were prepared from pure PDMS and its composites with 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 wt % Al2 O3 at a curing temperature of 50°C for 4 h. The substrates were then characterized by mechanical, structural, and morphological analyses. The cell adhesion, proliferation, and morphology of cultured bovine aortic endothelial (BAEC) cells on substrate materials were evaluated by using resazurin assay and 1,1'-dioctadecyl-1,3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate-acetylated LDL (Dil-Ac-LDL) cell staining, respectively. The composites (PDMS/2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 wt % Al2 O3 ) exhibited higher stiffness than the pure PDMS substrate. The results also revealed that stiffer substrates promoted endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation and also induced spread morphology in the endothelial cells compared with lesser stiff substrates. Statistical analysis showed that the effect of time on cell proliferation depended on stiffness. Therefore, this study concludes that the addition of different Al2 O3 percentages to PDMS elevated substrate stiffness which in turn increased endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation significantly and induced spindle shape morphology in endothelial cells.
Calcium silicate (CS, CaSiO3 ) is a bioactive, degradable, and biocompatible ceramic and has been considered for its potential in the field of orthopedic surgery. The objective of this study is the fabrication and characterization of the β-CS/poly(1.8-octanediol citrate) (POC) biocomposite, with the goals of controlling its weight loss and improving its biological and mechanical properties. POC is one of the most biocompatible polymers, and it is widely used in biomedical engineering applications. The degradation and bioactivity of the composites were determined by soaking the composites in phosphate-buffered saline and simulated body fluid, respectively. Human osteoblast cells were cultured on the composites to determine their cell proliferation and adhesion. The results illustrated that the flexural and compressive strengths were significantly enhanced by a modification of 40% POC. It was also concluded that the degradation bioactivity and amelioration of cell proliferation increased significantly with an increasing β-CS content.
Functionally graded material (FGM) is a heterogeneous composite material including a number of constituents that exhibit a compositional gradient from one surface of the material to the other subsequently, resulting in a material with continuously varying properties in the thickness direction. FGMs are gaining attention for biomedical applications, especially for implants, owing to their reported superior composition. Dental implants can be functionally graded to create an optimized mechanical behavior and achieve the intended biocompatibility and osseointegration improvement. This review presents a comprehensive summary of biomaterials and manufacturing techniques researchers employ throughout the world. Generally, FGM and FGM porous biomaterials are more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous biomaterials. Therefore, our discussion is intended to give the readers about successful and obstacles fabrication of FGM and porous FGM in dental implants that will bring state-of-the-art technology to the bedside and develop quality of life and present standards of care.
Human amniotic membrane (HAM) is an established biomaterial used in many clinical applications. However, its use for tissue engineering purposes has not been fully realized. A study was therefore conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using HAM as a chondrocyte substrate/carrier. HAMs were obtained from fresh human placenta and were process to produced air dried HAM (AdHAM) and freeze dried HAM (FdHAM). Rabbit chondrocytes were isolated and expanded in vitro and seeded onto these preparations. Cell proliferation, GAG expression and GAG/cell expression were measured at days 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 21, and 28. These were compared to chondrocytes seeded onto plastic surfaces. Histological analysis and scanning electron microscopy was performed to observe cell attachment. There was significantly higher cell proliferation rates observed between AdHAM (13-51%, P=0.001) or FdHAM (18-48%, p = 0.001) to chondrocytes in monolayer. Similarly, GAG and GAG/cell expressed in AdHAM (33-82%, p = 0.001; 22-60%, p = 0.001) or FdHAM (41-81%, p = 0.001: 28-60%, p = 0.001) were significantly higher than monolayer cultures. However, no significant differences were observed in the proliferation rates (p = 0.576), GAG expression (p = 0.476) and GAG/cell expression (p = 0.135) between AdHAM and FdHAM. The histology and scanning electron microscopy assessments demonstrates good chondrocyte attachments on both HAMs. In conclusion, both AdHAM and FdHAM provide superior chondrocyte proliferation, GAG expression, and attachment than monolayer cultures making it a potential substrate/carrier for cell based cartilage therapy and transplantation.
A three dimensional tissue-engineered human oral mucosal model (3D OMM) used in the investigation of implant-soft tissue interface was recently reported. The aim of this study was to examine the ultrastructural features of soft tissue attachment to various titanium (Ti) implant surfaces based on the 3D OMM. Two techniques, that is, focus ion beam (FIB) and electropolishing techniques were used to prepare specimens for transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis of the interface. The 3D OM consisting of both epithelial and connective tissue layers was constructed by co-culturing human oral keratinocytes and fibroblasts onto an acellular dermis scaffold. Four types of Ti surface topographies were tested: polished, machined (turned), sandblasted, and TiUnite. The specimens were then processed for TEM examination using FIB (Ti remained) and electropolishing (Ti removed) techniques. The FIB sections showed some artifact and lack of details of ultrastructural features. In contrast, the ultrathin sections prepared from the electropolishing technique showed a residual Ti oxide layer, which preserved the details for intact ultrastructural interface analysis. There was evidence of hemidesmosome-like structures at the interface on the four types of Ti surfaces, which suggests that the tissue-engineered oral mucosa formed epithelial attachments on the Ti surfaces.
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are naturally occurring biopolyesters that have great potential in the medical field. However, the leachables resulting from sterilization process of the biomaterials may exert toxic effect including genetic damage. Here, we demonstrate that although gamma-irradiation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-50 mol % 4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] did not cause any change in the morphology by scanning electron microscopy, there was a significant degradation of this copolymer where the molecular weight was reduced by 37% after sterilization indicating the generation of leachables. Therefore, further investigation on the ability of the extract of this poststerilized copolymer to induce mutagenic effect was performed using Ames test (S. typhimurium strains TA1535 and TA1537) and umu test (S. typhimurium strain TA1535/pSK1002). Additionally, the capability of the extract to induce clastogenic effect was determined using Chinese hamster lung V79 fibroblast cells. Our results showed that with and without the presence of S9 metabolic activation, no mutagenic effects were observed in both Ames and umu tests when treated with P(3HB-co-4HB) extract. Similarly, treatment of P(3HB-co-4HB) extract in V79 fibroblast cells showed no significant production of micronuclei when compared with the positive control (Mitomycin C). Together, these results indicate that leachables of poststerilized P(3HB-co-4HB) cause no mutagenic and clastogenic effects.
Biomaterial, an essential component of tissue engineering, serves as a scaffold for cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation; provides the three dimensional (3D) structure and, in some applications, the mechanical strength required for the engineered tissue. Both synthetic and naturally occurring calcium phosphate based biomaterial have been used as bone fillers or bone extenders in orthopedic and reconstructive surgeries. This study aims to evaluate two popular calcium phosphate based biomaterial i.e., hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (TCP/HA) granules as scaffold materials in bone tissue engineering. In our strategy for constructing tissue engineered bone, human osteoprogenitor cells derived from periosteum were incorporated with human plasma-derived fibrin and seeded onto HA or TCP/HA forming 3D tissue constructs and further maintained in osteogenic medium for 4 weeks to induce osteogenic differentiation. Constructs were subsequently implanted intramuscularly in nude mice for 8 weeks after which mice were euthanized and constructs harvested for evaluation. The differential cell response to the biomaterial (HA or TCP/HA) adopted as scaffold was illustrated by the histology of undecalcified constructs and evaluation using SEM and TEM. Both HA and TCP/HA constructs showed evidence of cell proliferation, calcium deposition, and collagen bundle formation albeit lesser in the former. Our findings demonstrated that TCP/HA is superior between the two in early bone formation and hence is the scaffold material of choice in bone tissue engineering.
Coral matrix of Porites sp. has the suitable properties for bone cell growth. This study was aimed to study the gene expression levels of osteoblast specific genetic markers; RUNX2, osteopontin, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin from osteoblasts seeded in coral scaffold, which are important in determining the feasibility of osteoblasts. Human osteoblasts were inoculated onto the processed coral in Dulbecco's Minimum Essential Medium. The cells were trypsinized on day 1, 7, 14, 18, and 21 and added with RNALater for preservation of RNA in cells. The RNA was extracted using commercial RNA extraction kit and the respective genes were amplified using RT-PCR kit and analyzed qualitatively on 1.5% agarose gel. The expressions were evaluated with the Integrated Density Value based on the intensity of band for different periods of cell harvest. Increased expressions of the RUNX2, osteopontin, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin genes in the present study proved that coral is a favorable carrier for osteogenetically competent cells to attach and remain viable.
Among the various biomaterials available for tissue engineering and therapeutic applications, microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates offer the most diverse range of thermal and mechanical properties. In this study, the biocompatibility of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB); containing 50 mol % of 4-hydroxybutyrate] copolymer produced by Delftia acidovorans was evaluated. The cytotoxicity, mode of cell death, and genotoxicity of P(3HB-co-4HB) extract against V79 and L929 fibroblast cells were assessed using MTT assay, acridine orange/propidium iodide staining, and alkaline comet assay, respectively. Our results demonstrate that P(3HB-co-4HB) treated on both cell lines were comparable with clinically-used Polyglactin 910, where more than 60% of viable cells were observed following 72-h treatment at 200 mg/mL. Further morphological investigation on the mode of cell death showed an increase in apoptotic cells in a time-dependent manner in both cell lines. On the other hand, P(3HB-co-4HB) at 200 mg/mL showed no genotoxic effects as determined by alkaline comet assay following 72-h treatment. In conclusion, our study indicated that P(3HB-co-4HB) compounds showed good biocompatibility in fibroblast cells suggesting that it has potential to be used for future medical applications.
Electrospinning of hydroxyapatite (HA)/polyvinyl butyral solution resulted in the formation of fibers with average diameter of 937-1440 nm. These fibers were converted into HA nanoparticles with size <100 nm after undergoing calcination treatment at 600°C. The diameter of the fiber was found to be influenced by applied voltage and spinning distance. The injection flowrate did not affect the diameter significantly. The electrospinning method successfully reduced the commercial HA particle size in the range of 400-1100 nm into <100 nm. The dispersion of the finally calcined HA nanoparticles was improved significantly after anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant was introduced. The experimental data of HA growth kinetics were subjected to the integral method of analysis, and the rate law of the reaction was found to follow the first order reaction.
The chief obstacle for reconstructing the bladder is the absence of a biomaterial, either permanent or biodegradable, that will function as a suitable scaffold for the natural process of regeneration. In this study, polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) plus collagen or fibrin was evaluated for its suitability as a scaffold for urinary bladder construct. Human adipose-derived stem cells (HADSCs) were cultured, followed by incubation in smooth muscle cells differentiation media. Differentiated HADSCs were then seeded onto PLGA mesh supported with collagen or fibrin. Evaluation of cell-seeded PLGA composite immersed in culture medium was performed under a light and scanning microscope. To determine if the composite is compatible with the urodynamic properties of urinary bladder, porosity and leaking test was performed. The PLGA samples were subjected to tensile testing was pulled until PLGA fibers break. The results showed that the PLGA composite is biocompatible to differentiated HADSCs. PLGA-collagen mesh appeared to be optimal as a cell carrier while the three-layered PLGA-fibrin composite is better in relation to its leaking/ porosity property. A biomechanical test was also performed for three-layered PLGA with biological adhesive and three-layered PLGA alone. The tensile stress at failure was 30.82 ± 3.80 (MPa) and 34.36 ± 2.57 (MPa), respectively. Maximum tensile strain at failure was 19.42 ± 2.24 (mm) and 23.06 ± 2.47 (mm), respectively. Young's modulus was 0.035 ± 0.0083 and 0.043 ± 0.012, respectively. The maximum load at break was 58.55 ± 7.90 (N) and 65.29 ± 4.89 (N), respectively. In conclusion, PLGA-Fibrin fulfils the criteria as a scaffold for urinary bladder reconstruction.
Extracellular matrices have drawn attention in tissue engineering as potential biomaterials for scaffold fabrication because of their bioactive components. Noninvasive techniques of scaffold fabrication and cross-linking treatments are believed to maintain the integrity of bioactive molecules while providing proper architectural and mechanical properties. Cartilage matrix derived scaffolds are designed to support the maintenance of chondrocytes and provide proper signals for differentiation of chondroinducible cells. Chondroinductive potential of bovine articular cartilage matrix derived porous scaffolds on human dermal fibroblasts and the effect of scaffold shrinkage on chondrogenesis were investigated. An increase in sulfated glycosaminoglycans production along with upregulation of chondrogenic genes confirmed that physically treated cartilage matrix derived scaffolds have chondrogenic potential on human dermal fibroblasts.
The osteogenic potential of human adipose-derived stem cells (HADSCs) co-cultured with human osteoblasts (HOBs) using selected HADSCs/HOBs ratios of 1:1, 2:1, and 1:2, respectively, is evaluated. The HADSCs/HOBs were seeded on electrospun three-dimensional poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid] (PHB) blended with bovine-derived hydroxyapatite (BHA). Monocultures of HADSCs and HOBs were used as control groups. The effects of PHB-BHA scaffold on cell proliferation and cell morphology were assessed by AlamarBlue assay and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Cell differentiation, cell mineralization, and osteogenic-related gene expression of co-culture HADSCs/HOBs were examined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay, alizarin Red S assay, and quantitative real time PCR, respectively. The results showed that co-culture of HADSCs/HOBs, 1:1 grown into PHB-BHA promoted better cell adhesion, displayed a significant higher cell proliferation, higher production of ALP, extracellular mineralization and osteogenic-related gene expression of run-related transcription factor, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, and osteocalcin compared to other co-culture groups. This result also suggests that the use of electrospun PHB-BHA in a co-culture HADSCs/HOBs system may serve as promising approach to facilitate osteogenic differentiation activity of HADSCs through direct cell-to-cell contact with HOBs.
The use of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) composites in the trauma plating system, total replacement implants, and tissue scaffolds has found great interest among researchers. In recent years (2008 afterward), this type of composites has been examined for suitability as substitute material over stainless steel, titanium alloys, ultra high molecular weight polyethylene, or even biodegradable materials in orthopedic implant applications. Biomechanical and bioactivity concepts were contemplated for the development of PEEK orthopedic implants and a few primary clinical studies reported the clinical outcomes of PEEK-based orthopedic implants. This study aims to review and discuss the recent concepts and contribute further concepts in terms of biomechanical and bioactivity challenges for the development of PEEK and PEEK composites in orthopedic implants.
Articular cartilage is a tissue specifically adapted to a specific niche with a low oxygen tension (hypoxia), and the presence of such conditions is a key factor in regulating growth and survival of chondrocytes. Zinc deficiency has been linked to cartilage-related disease, and presence of Zinc is known to provide antibacterial benefits, which makes its inclusion attractive in an in vitro system to reduce infection. Inclusion of 1% zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) in poly octanediol citrate (POC) polymer cultured in hypoxia has not been well determined. In this study we investigated the effects of ZnONP on chondrocyte proliferation and matrix synthesis cultured under normoxia (21% O2 ) and hypoxia (5% O2 ). We report an upregulation of chondrocyte proliferation and sulfated glycosaminoglycan (S-GAG) in hypoxic culture. Results demonstrate a synergistic effect of oxygen concentration and 1% ZnONP in up-regulation of anabolic gene expression (Type II collagen and aggrecan), and a down regulation of catabolic (MMP-13) gene expression. Furthermore, production of transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1A (HIF-1A) in response to hypoxic condition to regulate chondrocyte survival under hypoxia is not affected by the presence of 1% ZnONP. Presence of 1% ZnONP appears to act to preserve homeostasis of cartilage in its hypoxic environment.
The study aimed to determine the effects of parthenolide (PAR) on bone volume (BV) and bone surface resorption as assessed by live-animal microcomputed tomography (μCT) and possible osteocyte death as indicated by empty lacunae histologically in polyethylene (PE) particle-induced calvarial osteolysis in mice. Baseline μCT scans were conducted 7 days preimplantation of 2 × 10(8) PE particles/mL over the calvariae (day 0). PAR at 1 mg/kg/day was subcutaneously injected on days 0, 4, 7, and 10. At day 14, BV and surface resorption was analyzed with μCT. Calvarial tissue was processed for histomorphometric osteocyte evaluation. Serum was analyzed for type-1 carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX-1) and osteoclast associated receptor (OSCAR) levels by ELISA. PE significantly decreased BV (p = 0.0368), increased surface bone resorption area (p = 0.0022), and increased the percentage of empty lacunae (p = 0.0043). Interestingly, PAR significantly reduced the resorption surface area (p = 0.0022) and the percentage of empty osteocyte lacunae (p = 0.0087) in the PE-calvariae, but it did not affect BV, serum CTX-1 or OSCAR levels. The ability of PAR to inhibit PE-induced surface bone erosion may better reflect the in vivo situation, where bone resorption occurs on the surface at the bone-implant interface and may also be related to the role of osteocytes in this pathology.
The osteoprotegerin (OPG) system plays a critical role in bone remodelling by regulating osteoclast formation and activity. The study aimed to determine the physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of a newly formulated OPG-chitosan gel. The OPG-chitosan gel was formulated using human OPG protein and water-soluble chitosan. The physicochemical properties were determined using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Gel morphology was determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and then it was subjected to a protein release assay and biodegradability test. An in vitro cytotoxicity test on normal human periodontal ligament (NHPL) fibroblasts and normal human (NH) osteoblasts was carried out using the AlamarBlue assay. In vivo evaluation in a rabbit model involved creating critical-sized defects in calvarial bone, filling with the OPG-chitosan gel and sacrificing at 12 weeks. In vitro results demonstrated that the 25 kDa OPG-chitosan gel had the highest rate of protein release and achieved 90% degradation in 28 days. At 12 weeks, the defects filled with 25 kDa OPG-chitosan gel showed significant (p