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  1. Goh SY, Ang E, Bajpai S, Deerochanawong C, Hong EG, Hussein Z, et al.
    J Diabetes Complications, 2016 08;30(6):973-80.
    PMID: 27288201 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2016.05.019
  2. Abu Seman N, Anderstam B, Wan Mohamud WN, Östenson CG, Brismar K, Gu HF
    J Diabetes Complications, 2015 Nov-Dec;29(8):1234-9.
    PMID: 26255081 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2015.07.004
    Recent research has implicated that the inflammation may be a key pathophysiological mechanism in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is an acute phase marker of inflammation. In the present study, we carried out genetic, epigenetic and protein analyses of ICAM-1 in a Malaysian population, including normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects and type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients with or without DN in order to evaluate its role in DN.
  3. Ng ZX, Kuppusamy UR, Tajunisah I, Fong KC, Chua KH
    J Diabetes Complications, 2012 Sep-Oct;26(5):388-92.
    PMID: 22795339 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2012.05.014
    PURPOSE:
    In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible association between SLC2A1 26177A/G polymorphism and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes.

    METHODS:
    Genomic DNA was extracted from 211 Malaysian type 2 diabetic patients (100 without retinopathy [DNR], 111 with retinopathy) and 165 healthy controls. A high resolution melting assay developed in this study was used to detect SLC2A1 26177A/G polymorphism followed by statistical analysis.

    RESULTS:
    A statistically significant difference in 26177G minor allele frequency between healthy controls (19.7 %) and total patient group (26.1 %) (p<0.05, Odd ratio = 1.437, 95% Confidence interval = 1.015-2.035) as well as between healthy controls (19.7 %) and DNR patients (27.5%) (p<0.05, Odd ratio = 1.546, 95% Confidence interval = 1.024-2.336) was shown in this study. However, when compared between DR and DNR patients, there was no significant difference (p>0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS:
    This is the first study which shows that SLC2A1 26177G allele is associated with type 2 diabetes in Malaysian population but not with DR.
  4. Peyman M, Tajunisah I, Loo A, Chuah KC, Subrayan V
    J Diabetes Complications, 2012 May-Jun;26(3):210-3.
    PMID: 22520399 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2012.03.019
    To correlate Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) derived macular edema (DME) index with severity of diabetic retinopathy and systemic factors. A total of 300 diabetic patients were recruited for the study for each of them a value for the macular edema index was obtained using the HRT II. Patients' age, gender, duration and type of diabetes mellitus, latest HbA1c result and presence or absence of co-morbid factors (hypertension, ischemic heart disease, nephropathy) were recorded together with the stage of diabetic retinopathy. These were correlated with DME. Out of 300 patients, HRT defined macula edema was seen in 68 patients (22.6%). There is a wider and higher range (95% percentile) of macula edema index in the severe non proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) group. Independent samples t test showed significant difference between the severe NPDR group and no DR group (p<0.001), mild NPDR group (p<0.05) and moderate NPDR group (p<0.05). A higher macula edema index was also found to have a low degree of correlation with more advanced stages of retinopathy (r=0.310; p<0.001). Also nephropathy showed a strong and significant correlation with DME. Hypertension had moderately significant correlation with DME. This study found no correlation between ischemic heart disease and DME. HRT derived scanning laser edema index is a reliable objective tool to evaluate diabetic retinopathy and systemic risk factors.
  5. Lim LL, Tan AT, Moses K, Rajadhyaksha V, Chan SP
    J Diabetes Complications, 2017 Feb;31(2):494-503.
    PMID: 27866701 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2016.10.008
    The burden of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in East Asia is alarming. Rapid modernization and urbanization have led to major lifestyle changes and a tremendous increase in the prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. The development of T2DM at a younger age, with lower body mass index, higher visceral adiposity, and more significant pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction compared to Caucasians are factors responsible for the increased prevalence of T2DM in East Asians. Sodium-glucose Cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors (canagliflozin, dapaglifozin, empagliflozin, etc.) reduce renal glucose reabsorption, leading to favorable effects on glycemic, blood pressure, and weight control. The insulin-independent mechanism enables their use as monotherapy or combination therapy with insulin and other oral antidiabetic agents. The role of SGLT2 inhibitors in the management of T2DM among East Asians is an interesting area of research, given that East Asians have been proven to be uniquely different from Caucasians. This review provides comprehensive coverage of the available literature not only on the efficacy and safety, but also on the recent cardiovascular and renal outcomes of SGLT2 inhibitors, focusing among East Asians.
  6. Yang Y, Østbye T, Tan SB, Abdul Salam ZH, Ong BC, Yang KS
    J Diabetes Complications, 2011 Nov-Dec;25(6):382-6.
    PMID: 21983153 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2011.08.002
    BACKGROUND:
    Among other risk factors, renal disease and ethnicity have been associated with diabetic lower extremity amputation (LEA) in Western populations. However, little is known about risk factors for LEA among Asian patients.

    OBJECTIVE:
    The objective was to assess the proportion of hospitalized patients with diabetes who have a LEA among all hospital patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and to investigate risk factors for diabetic LEA (especially renal disease and ethnicity) using hospital discharge database.

    METHOD:
    A retrospective study of hospital discharge database (2004-2009) was performed to identify patients with DM, LEA and renal disease using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Ninth Revision, Australian Modification codes.

    RESULTS:
    Of 44 917 hospitalized patients with DM during the 6 years, 7312 (16.3%) patients had renal disease, and 1457 (3.2%) patients had LEA. DM patients with renal disease had significant higher rates of LEA (7.1%) compared to DM patients without renal disease (2.5%, P < .001). The differences were present for foot (2.7% vs. 1.2%), ankle or leg (2.8% vs. 0.9%), and knee or above amputation (1.6% vs. 0.4%, all P
  7. Craig ME, Jones TW, Silink M, Ping YJ
    J Diabetes Complications, 2007 Sep-Oct;21(5):280-7.
    PMID: 17825751 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2006.04.005
    AIMS: The incidence of type 1 diabetes is increasing in many parts of Asia, where resources may not enable targets for glycemic control to be achieved. The aims of this study were to describe glycemic control, diabetes care, and complications in youth with type 1 diabetes from the Western Pacific Region and to identify factors associated with glycemic control and hypoglycemia.
    METHODS: A cross-sectional clinic-based study on 2312 children and adolescents (aged <18 years; 45% males) from 96 pediatric diabetes centers in Australia, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand was conducted. Clinical and management details were recorded, and finger-pricked blood samples were obtained for central glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)).
    RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 12.5 years [interquartile range (IQR)=9.4-15.3 years]; diabetes duration, 4.4 years (IQR=2.5-7.2 years); and HbA(1c) level, 8.3% (IQR 7.4%-9.7%). Insulin treatment consisted of one or two daily injections in 61% of the patients (range=22%-90% by country), and home blood glucose monitoring (range=67%-100%) was practiced by 96%. HbA(1c) level was significantly associated with country, age, diabetes duration, sex, insulin dose per kilogram, insulin regimen, and frequency of home blood glucose measurement in multiple regression analysis. The incidence of severe hypoglycemia, defined as any episode requiring assistance in the previous 3 months, was 73 per 100 patient-years and was associated with country, male sex, higher HbA(1c) level, an insulin regimen with three or more injections, and more frequent home blood glucose testing. The incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis was 10 per 100 patient-years and was associated with country, higher HbA(1c) level, and higher insulin dose per kilogram.
    CONCLUSIONS: There is marked variability in glycemic control, hypoglycemia, complication rates, and diabetes care among children from the Western Pacific Region. Most are not achieving adequate glycemic control, placing them at high risk of microvascular complications.
  8. Wee HL, Li SC, Cheung YB, Fong KY, Thumboo J
    J Diabetes Complications, 2006;20(3):170-8.
    PMID: 16632237 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2005.06.010
    OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of ethnicity on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in diabetic participants using both profile [the Short-Form 36 (SF-36)] and single-index (the SF-6D) instruments and to evaluate the usefulness of the SF-6D as a summary measure for the SF-36.
    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using data from a cross-sectional, population-based survey of Chinese, Malay, and Indians in Singapore, we analyzed the influence of ethnicity and other variables on each SF-36 scale and SF-6D scores using linear regression models to adjust for the influence of known determinants of HRQoL.
    RESULTS: Data from 309 diabetic respondents were analyzed. Compared with other ethnicities, Indians were most likely to report impaired HRQoL. The unadjusted influence of ethnicity on HRQoL exceeded the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) for all SF-36 scales (MCID: 5 points) and the SF-6D (MCID: 0.033 points). After adjusting for gender, age, and education, the influence of Chinese ethnicity exceeded the MCID for all SF-36 scales, except vitality (VT) and mental health (MH), as well as for the SF-6D. The influence of Malay ethnicity exceeded the MCID only for the SF-36 MH scale and the SF-6D. The influence of ethnicity on HRQoL persisted after adjusting further for other determinants of HRQoL. The SF-6D reflected the ethnic trends for some but not all SF-36 scales.
    CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, and other factors known to influence HRQoL, ethnicity remained an important factor influencing HRQoL in this population-based multiethnic sample of diabetic Asians. Further studies to identify modifiable factors explaining the ethnic disparities in HRQoL among diabetic participants are needed. The SF-6D may be a useful summary measure for the SF-36.
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