In teleradiology, image contents may be altered due to noisy communication channels and hacker manipulation. Medical image data is very sensitive and can not tolerate any illegal change. Illegally changed image-based analysis could result in wrong medical decision. Digital watermarking technique can be used to authenticate images and detect as well as recover illegal changes made to teleradiology images. Watermarking of medical images with heavy payload watermarks causes image perceptual degradation. The image perceptual degradation directly affects medical diagnosis. To maintain the image perceptual and diagnostic qualities standard during watermarking, the watermark should be lossless compressed. This paper focuses on watermarking of ultrasound medical images with Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) lossless-compressed watermarks. The watermark lossless compression reduces watermark payload without data loss. In this research work, watermark is the combination of defined region of interest (ROI) and image watermarking secret key. The performance of the LZW compression technique was compared with other conventional compression methods based on compression ratio. LZW was found better and used for watermark lossless compression in ultrasound medical images watermarking. Tabulated results show the watermark bits reduction, image watermarking with effective tamper detection and lossless recovery.
Standard X-ray images using conventional screen-film technique have a limited field of view that is insufficient to show the full bone structure of large hands on a single frame. To produce images containing the whole hand structure, digitized images from the X-ray films can be assembled using image stitching. This paper presents a new medical image stitching method that utilizes minimum average correlation energy filters to identify and merge pairs of hand X-ray medical images. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated in the experiments involving two databases which contain a total of 40 pairs of overlapping and non-overlapping hand images. The experimental results are compared with that of the normalized cross-correlation (NCC) method. It is found that the proposed method outperforms the NCC method in classifying and merging the overlapping and non-overlapping medical images. The efficacy of the proposed method is further indicated by its average execution time, which is about five times shorter than that of the other method.
Diabetic retinopathy has become an increasingly important cause of blindness. Nevertheless, vision loss can be prevented from early detection of diabetic retinopathy and monitor with regular examination. Common automatic detection of retinal abnormalities is for microaneurysms, hemorrhages, hard exudates, and cotton wool spot. However, there is a worse case of retinal abnormality, but not much research was done to detect it. It is neovascularization where new blood vessels grow due to extensive lack of oxygen in the retinal capillaries. This paper shows that various combination of techniques such as image normalization, compactness classifier, morphology-based operator, Gaussian filtering, and thresholding techniques were used in developing of neovascularization detection. A function matrix box was added in order to classify the neovascularization from natural blood vessel. A region-based neovascularization classification was attempted as a diagnostic accuracy. The developed method was tested on images from different database sources with varying quality and image resolution. It shows that specificity and sensitivity results were 89.4% and 63.9%, respectively. The proposed approach yield encouraging results for future development.
Tamper localization and recovery watermarking scheme can be used to detect manipulation and recover tampered images. In this paper, a tamper localization and lossless recovery scheme that used region of interest (ROI) segmentation and multilevel authentication was proposed. The watermarked images had a high average peak signal-to-noise ratio of 48.7 dB and the results showed that tampering was successfully localized and tampered area was exactly recovered. The usage of ROI segmentation and multilevel authentication had significantly reduced the time taken by approximately 50 % for the tamper localization and recovery processing.
This paper focuses on the detection of retinal blood vessels which play a vital role in reducing the proliferative diabetic retinopathy and for preventing the loss of visual capability. The proposed algorithm which takes advantage of the powerful preprocessing techniques such as the contrast enhancement and thresholding offers an automated segmentation procedure for retinal blood vessels. To evaluate the performance of the new algorithm, experiments are conducted on 40 images collected from DRIVE database. The results show that the proposed algorithm performs better than the other known algorithms in terms of accuracy. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm being simple and easy to implement, is best suited for fast processing applications.
Authenticating medical images using watermarking techniques has become a very popular area of research, and some works in this area have been reported worldwide recently. Besides authentication, many data-hiding techniques have been proposed to conceal patient's data into medical images aiming to reduce the cost needed to store data and the time needed to transmit data when required. In this paper, we present a new hybrid watermarking scheme for DICOM images. In our scheme, two well-known techniques are combined to gain the advantages of both and fulfill the requirements of authentication and data hiding. The scheme divides the images into two parts, the region of interest (ROI) and the region of non-interest (RONI). Patient's data are embedded into ROI using a reversible technique based on difference expansion, while tamper detection and recovery data are embedded into RONI using a robust technique based on discrete wavelet transform. The experimental results show the ability of hiding patient's data with a very good visual quality, while ROI, the most important area for diagnosis, is retrieved exactly at the receiver side. The scheme also shows some robustness against certain levels of salt and pepper and cropping noise.
This paper presents the development of kidney TeleUltrasound consultation system. The TeleUltrasound system provides an innovative design that aids the acquisition, archiving, and dissemination of medical data and information over the internet as its backbone. The system provides data sharing to allow remote collaboration, viewing, consultation, and diagnosis of medical data. The design is layered upon a standard known as Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM). The DICOM standard defines protocols for exchanging medical images and their associated data. The TeleUltrasound system is an integrated solution for retrieving, processing, and archiving images and providing data storage management using Structured Query Language (SQL) database. Creating a web-based interface is an additional advantage to achieve global accessibility of experts that will widely open the opportunity of greater examination and multiple consultations. This system is equipped with a high level of data security and its performance has been tested with white, black, and gray box techniques. And the result was satisfactory. The overall system has been evaluated by several radiologists in Malaysia, United Arab Emirates, and Sudan, the result is shown within this paper.
This paper presents an automatic region of interest (ROI) segmentation method for application of watermarking in medical images. The advantage of using this scheme is that the proposed method is robust against different attacks such as median, Wiener, Gaussian, and sharpening filters. In other words, this technique can produce the same result for the ROI before and after these attacks. The proposed algorithm consists of three main parts; suggesting an automatic ROI detection system, evaluating the robustness of the proposed system against numerous attacks, and finally recommending an enhancement part to increase the strength of the composed system against different attacks. Results obtained from the proposed method demonstrated the promising performance of the method.
The ever-growing numbers of medical digital images and the need to share them among specialists and hospitals for better and more accurate diagnosis require that patients' privacy be protected. As a result of this, there is a need for medical image watermarking (MIW). However, MIW needs to be performed with special care for two reasons. Firstly, the watermarking procedure cannot compromise the quality of the image. Secondly, confidential patient information embedded within the image should be flawlessly retrievable without risk of error after image decompressing. Despite extensive research undertaken in this area, there is still no method available to fulfill all the requirements of MIW. This paper aims to provide a useful survey on watermarking and offer a clear perspective for interested researchers by analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of different existing methods.
In this paper, an automatic computer-aided detection system for breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tumour segmentation will be presented. The study is focused on tumour segmentation using the modified automatic seeded region growing algorithm with a variation of the automated initial seed and threshold selection methodologies. Prior to that, some pre-processing methodologies are involved. Breast skin is detected and deleted using the integration of two algorithms, namely the level set active contour and morphological thinning. The system is applied and tested on 40 test images from the RIDER breast MRI dataset, the results are evaluated and presented in comparison to the ground truths of the dataset. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test shows that there is a statistically significance in the performance compared to the previous segmentation approaches that have been tested on the same dataset where ANOVA p values for the evaluation measures' results are less than 0.05, such as: relative overlap (p = 0.0002), misclassification rate (p = 0.045), true negative fraction (p = 0.0001) and sum of true volume fraction (p = 0.0001).
The demand for automatically classification of medical X-ray images is rising faster than ever. In this paper, an approach is presented to gain high accuracy rate for those classes of medical database with high ratio of intraclass variability and interclass similarities. The classification framework was constructed via annotation using the following three techniques: annotation by binary classification, annotation by probabilistic latent semantic analysis, and annotation using top similar images. Next, final annotation was constructed by applying ranking similarity on annotated keywords made by each technique. The final annotation keywords were then divided into three levels according to the body region, specific bone structure in body region as well as imaging direction. Different weights were given to each level of the keywords; they are then used to calculate the weightage for each category of medical images based on their ground truth annotation. The weightage computed from the generated annotation of query image was compared with the weightage of each category of medical images, and then the query image would be assigned to the category with closest weightage to the query image. The average accuracy rate reported is 87.5 %.
This article proposes a set-up for a 3-dimensional ultrasound system using visual probe localization on the conventional 2-dimensional ultrasound machines readily available in most hospitals. A calibrated digital camera is used for probe-tracking (localization) purposes, whereas ultrasound probe calibration is implemented using a purpose-built phantom. The calibration steps and results are detailed here. The overall system is proven effective in clinical trials through scanning of human organs. Results obtained show successful, accurate 3-dimensional representations using this simple cost-effective set-up.
Image retrieval at the semantic level mostly depends on image annotation or image classification. Image annotation performance largely depends on three issues: (1) automatic image feature extraction; (2) a semantic image concept modeling; (3) algorithm for semantic image annotation. To address first issue, multilevel features are extracted to construct the feature vector, which represents the contents of the image. To address second issue, domain-dependent concept hierarchy is constructed for interpretation of image semantic concepts. To address third issue, automatic multilevel code generation is proposed for image classification and multilevel image annotation. We make use of the existing image annotation to address second and third issues. Our experiments on a specific domain of X-ray images have given encouraging results.
Automated computer analysis of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) (a focused magnetic resonance imaging sequence for the pancreatobiliary region of the abdomen) images for biliary diseases is a difficult problem because of the large inter- and intrapatient variations in the images, varying acquisition settings, and characteristics of the images, defeating most attempts to produce computer-aided diagnosis systems. This paper proposes a system capable of automated preliminary diagnosis of several diseases affecting the bile ducts in the liver, namely, dilation, stones, tumor, and cyst. The system first identifies the biliary ductal structure present in the MRCP images, and then proceeds to determine the presence or absence of the diseases. Tested on a database of 593 clinical images, the system, which uses visual-based features, has shown to be successful in delivering good performance of 70-90% even in the presence of multiple diseases, and may be useful in aiding medical practitioners in routine MRCP examinations.
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is increasing progressively pushing the demand of automatic extraction and classification of severity of diseases. Blood vessel extraction from the fundus image is a vital and challenging task. Therefore, this paper presents a new, computationally simple, and automatic method to extract the retinal blood vessel. The proposed method comprises several basic image processing techniques, namely edge enhancement by standard template, noise removal, thresholding, morphological operation, and object classification. The proposed method has been tested on a set of retinal images. The retinal images were collected from the DRIVE database and we have employed robust performance analysis to evaluate the accuracy. The results obtained from this study reveal that the proposed method offers an average accuracy of about 97 %, sensitivity of 99 %, specificity of 86 %, and predictive value of 98 %, which is superior to various well-known techniques.
Computed tomography laser mammography (Eid et al. Egyp J Radiol Nucl Med, 37(1): p. 633-643, 1) is a non-invasive imaging modality for breast cancer diagnosis, which is time-consuming and challenging for the radiologist to interpret the images. Some issues have increased the missed diagnosis of radiologists in visual manner assessment in CTLM images, such as technical reasons which are related to imaging quality and human error due to the structural complexity in appearance. The purpose of this study is to develop a computer-aided diagnosis framework to enhance the performance of radiologist in the interpretation of CTLM images. The proposed CAD system contains three main stages including segmentation of volume of interest (VOI), feature extraction and classification. A 3D Fuzzy segmentation technique has been implemented to extract the VOI. The shape and texture of angiogenesis in CTLM images are significant characteristics to differentiate malignancy or benign lesions. The 3D compactness features and 3D Grey Level Co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) have been extracted from VOIs. Multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN) pattern recognition has developed for classification of the normal and abnormal lesion in CTLM images. The performance of the proposed CAD system has been measured with different metrics including accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity and area under receiver operative characteristics (AROC), which are 95.2, 92.4, 98.1, and 0.98%, respectively.
Tampering on medical image will lead to wrong diagnosis and treatment, which is life-threatening; therefore, digital watermarking on medical image was introduced to protect medical image from tampering. Medical images are divided into region of interest (ROI) and region of non-interest (RONI). ROI is an area that has a significant impact on diagnosis, whereas RONI has less or no significance in diagnosis. This paper has proposed ROI-based tamper detection and recovery watermarking scheme (ROI-DR) that embeds ROI bit information into RONI least significant bits, which will be extracted later for authentication and recovery process. The experiment result has shown that the ROI-DR has achieved a good result in imperceptibility with peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) values approximately 48 dB, it is robust against various kinds of tampering, and the tampered ROI was able to recover to its original form. Lastly, a comparative table with the previous research (TALLOR and TALLOR-RS watermarking schemes) has been derived, where these three watermarking schemes were tested under the same testing conditions and environment. The experiment result has shown that ROI-DR has achieved speed-up factors of 22.55 and 26.65 in relative to TALLOR and TALLOR-RS watermarking schemes, respectively.
Preoperative planning for liver surgical treatments is an essential planning tool that aids in reducing the risks of surgical resection. Based on the computed tomography (CT) images, the resection can be planned before the actual tumour resection surgery. The computer-aided system provides an overview of the spatial relationships of the liver organ and its internal structures, tumours, and vasculature. It also allows for an accurate calculation of the remaining liver volume after resection. The aim of this paper was to review the main stages of the computer-aided system that helps to evaluate the risk of resection during liver cancer surgical treatments. The computer-aided system assists with surgical planning by enabling physicians to get volumetric measurements and visualise the liver, tumours, and surrounding vasculature. In this paper, it is concluded that for accurate planning of tumour resections, the liver organ and its internal structures should be segmented to understand the clear spatial relationship between them, thus allowing for a safer resection. This paper presents the main proposed segmentation techniques for each stage in the computer-aided system, namely the liver organ, tumours, and vessels. From the reviewed methods, it has been found that instead of relying on a single specific technique, a combination of a group of techniques would give more accurate segmentation results. The extracted masks from the segmentation algorithms are fused together to give the surgeons the 3D visualisation tool to study the spatial relationships of the liver and to calculate the required resection planning parameters.
Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) technology is evolving leading to improvements in the PACS functionality. However, the needs and expectations of PACS users are increasing to cope with the rising demands for improving the workflow and enhancing efficiency in healthcare. The aim was to study the limitations in the current generation of PACS and solutions for improving PACS functionality. This was a longitudinal online observational study of the perspectives of PACS professionals accessed through four online discussion groups on PACS using the LinkedIn network. In this exploratory study, the methodology involved a thematic analysis of qualitative data comprising 250 online posts/comments made by 124 unique PACS professionals collected between January 2014 and December 2015. Participants were mostly male (n = 119, 96%) from the North America (n = 88, 71%). Key themes on limitations in the current generation of PACS were image transmission problems, network and hardware issues, difficulties in changing specific settings, issues in hardcoded Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine attributes, and problems in implementing open source PACS. Main themes on solutions for improving PACS functionality were the integration of multisite PACS, multimedia for PACS, web-based PACS, medical image viewer, open source PACS, PACS on mobile phones, vendor neutral archives for PACS, speech recognition and integration in PACS, PACS backup and recovery, and connecting PACS with other hospital systems. Despite ongoing technological developments, the current generation of PACS has limitations that affect PACS functionality leading to unmet needs and requirements of PACS users, which could impact workflow and efficiency in healthcare.