Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 62 in total

  1. Lee YL, Wu LL
    J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc, 2019;34(1):22-28.
    PMID: 33442133 DOI: 10.15605/jafes.034.01.05
    Objectives: Diagnosis of Turner syndrome in Malaysia is often late. This may be due to a lack of awareness of the wide clinical variability in this condition. In our study, we aim to examine the clinical features of all our Turner patients during the study period and at presentation.

    Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study. Thirty-four (34) Turner patients were examined for Turner-specific clinical features. The karyotype, clinical features at presentation, age at diagnosis and physiologic features were retrieved from their medical records.

    Results: Patients with 45,X presented at a median age of 1 month old with predominantly lymphoedema and webbed neck. Patients with chromosome mosaicism or structural X abnormalities presented at a median age of 11 years old with a broader clinical spectrum, short stature being the most common presenting clinical feature. Cubitus valgus deformity, nail dysplasia and short 4th/5th metacarpals or metatarsals were common clinical features occurring in 85.3%-94.1% of all Turner patients. Almost all patients aged ≥2 years were short irrespective of karyotype.

    Conclusion: Although short stature is a universal finding in Turner patients, it is usually unrecognised till late. Unlike the 45,X karyotype, non-classic Turner syndrome has clinical features which may be subtle and difficult to discern. Our findings underscore the importance of proper serial anthropometric measurements in children. Awareness for the wide spectrum of presenting features and careful examination for Turner specific clinical features is crucial in all short girls to prevent a delay in diagnosis.

  2. Hussein Z, Bidin ML, Alias A, Thiagarajan M, Latif KA, Ratnasingam J, et al.
    J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc, 2019;34(1):8-14.
    PMID: 33442131 DOI: 10.15605/jafes.034.01.03
    In Malaysia, acromegaly is under-recognised with only 10-15% of the expected number of cases from prevalence estimates, having been diagnosed and managed in established endocrine centres with access to multidisciplinary care. This is mainly due to lack of awareness and standardised approach in diagnosing this disease resulting in delay in diagnosis and management with suboptimal treatment outcomes. This first Malaysian consensus statement on the diagnosis and management of acromegaly addresses these issues and is based on current best practices and latest available evidence so as to reduce the disease burden on acromegaly patients managed in the Malaysian healthcare system.
  3. Krishnan GD, Yahaya N
    J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc, 2018;33(2):199-201.
    PMID: 33442128 DOI: 10.15605/jafes.033.02.14
    An apparently well 27-year-old phenotypically male adult was seen at the endocrine clinic for gender assignment. Patient had been raised as a male and identifies as such. Abdominal CT scan showed a unilateral left adrenal mass and karyotyping revealed 46 XX female karyotype. She was diagnosed to have simple virilizing CAH and needed thorough counselling with subsequent management by a multidisciplinary team.
  4. Ooi CP, Kamarruddin NA, Mustafa N, Kew TY
    J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc, 2018;33(1):69-73.
    PMID: 33442114 DOI: 10.15605/jafes.033.01.12
    A 58-year-old male presented with persistent severe headache, lethargy, decline libido and no neurological deficits. Besides quadruple anterior pituitary hormonal deficiencies, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated an enlarged ring-enhanced non-homogenous pituitary. Following hormonal replacement, these symptoms improved but empty sella evolved. The challenges of diagnosis and management were discussed. Awareness of the unclear etiology and uncertain clinical course of autoimmune hypophysitis in a man in this age group is essential for prompt and appropriate management.
  5. Lim KP, Kok WH, Kamaruddin NA
    J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc, 2018;33(1):63-68.
    PMID: 33442113 DOI: 10.15605/jafes.033.01.11
    A 69-year-old female complained of intermittent left hip pain for the past 3 years. Biochemical tests revealed normal serum calcium and phosphorus with markedly raised alkaline phosphatase. MRI of the hip revealed extensive marrow signal abnormalities at the left pelvic bone, while CT of the thorax revealed a spiculated lung nodule at the left lower lung lobe. In order to diagnose either primary, metastatic bone tumour or Paget's disease of the bone (PDB), an open biopsy of the left iliac bone was performed. The histopathology of bone biopsy of the left iliac bone was consistent with PDB. A CT guided biopsy of the lung mass done later revealed adenocarcinoma of the lung. She had 18F-FDG PETCECT Scan for staging evaluation and result was suggestive of new bony metastases. Patient was started on IV Zoledronic acid for treatment of the PDB. In view of the stage 4 lung adenocarcinoma with bony metastases, patient was scheduled for palliative chemotherapy.
  6. Seman WJW, Nasruddin AB, Noor NM
    J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc, 2018;33(1):53-56.
    PMID: 33442111 DOI: 10.15605/jafes.033.01.09
    We present a case of a 27-year-old female with T2 DM who developed allergic reactions after commencement of insulin therapy. Trial with different types of insulin resulted in a series of allergic reactions ranging from urticarial rash to development of angioedema, bronchospasm and anaphylactic shock. She was successfully treated with a modified insulin desensitization protocol using rapid-acting insulin.
  7. Ooi CP, Mustafa N, Kew TY
    J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc, 2018;33(1):49-52.
    PMID: 33442110 DOI: 10.15605/jafes.033.01.08
    We present the rare case of a 47-year-old woman with protracted primary hyperparathyroidism complicated by communicating hydrocephalus and cerebellar tonsillar herniation secondary to calvarial thickening. The parathyroid glands remained elusive, despite the use of advanced preoperative imaging modalities and three neck explorations. The serum calcium was optimally controlled with cinacalcet and alfacalcidol. Awareness of this rare complication is essential for early diagnosis and prompt intervention to prevent fatal posterior brain herniation.
  8. Pathan F, Goh SY, Rudijanto A, Gadekar A, Jain A, Nicodemus N
    J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc, 2018;33(1):28-36.
    PMID: 33442108 DOI: 10.15605/jafes.033.01.05
    Objective: To provide real-world data on hypoglycaemia incidence in patients with type 1 (T1D) or type 2 diabetes (T2D) from the Southeast Asian cohort of the International Operations Hypoglycaemia Assessment Tool (IO HAT) study.

    Methodology: IO HAT was a non-interventional, multicentre, 6-month retrospective and 4-week prospective study of hypoglycaemic events among insulin-treated adults with T1D or T2D, including four countries in Southeast Asia (Singapore, Philippines, Indonesia, and Bangladesh). Data were collected using a two-part self-assessment questionnaire (SAQ1 for retrospective and SAQ2 for prospective). The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients experiencing at least one hypoglycaemic event during the 4-week prospective observational period (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02306681).

    Results: A total of 2594 patients completed SAQ1. Nearly all patients reported experiencing any hypoglycaemic event in the 4-week prospective period (T1D, 100%; T2D, 97.3%), with all patients reporting higher rates in the prospective versus retrospective period. Severe hypoglycaemia was also reported higher prospectively (57.2% and 76.9%) than retrospectively (33.9% and 12.2%) in both T1D and T2D, respectively. Nocturnal hypoglycaemia was reported higher retrospectively than prospectively.

    Conclusion: Incidence of any and severe hypoglycaemia in the Southeast Asian cohort of IO HAT was higher prospectively versus retrospectively, suggesting hypoglycaemia has previously been under-reported in this region.

  9. Lim KP, Nasruddi AB, Rani NM
    J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc, 2018;33(1):22-27.
    PMID: 33442107 DOI: 10.15605/jafes.033.01.04
    Objective: To evaluate the association of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) reduction and wound healing in patients with diabetic foot ulcer (DFU).

    Methodology: A 12-week prospective, non-controlled, interventional study in suboptimal-controlled T2DM patients with DFU was conducted. Antidiabetic medications were adjusted with the aim of at least 1% in relation to patient's individualised HbA1c target. The wound area was determined by using specific wound tracing. The daily wound area healing rate in cm2 per day was calculated as the difference between wound area at first visit and the subsequent visit divided by the number of days between the two visits.

    Results: 19 patients were included in the study. There was a significant HbA1c reduction from 10.33 %+1.83% to 6.89%+1.4% (p<0.001) with no severe hypoglycaemia. The median daily wound area healing rate was 0.234 (0.025,0.453) cm2/day. There was a strong positive correlation between these two variables (r=0.752, p=0.01). After dividing the patients into four quartiles based on final HbA1c and comparing the first quartile vs fourth quartile, there was a significant difference in daily wound area healing rates (0.597 vs 0.044 cm2/day, p=0.012).

    Conclusion: There was a positive correlation between HbA1c reduction and wound healing rate in patients with DFU. Although this is an association study, the study postulated the benefits of achieving lower HbA1c on wound healing rate in DFU which require evidence from future randomised controlled studies.

  10. Mirasol R, Nicodemus N, Jain A, Gadekar AV, Yu-Gan S
    J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc, 2018;33(1):12-21.
    PMID: 33442106 DOI: 10.15605/jafes.033.01.03
    Objective: To determine the frequency of hypoglycemia in insulin-treated patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the non-interventional International Operations Hypoglycemia Assessment Tool (IO HAT) study.

    Methodology: This sub-analysis included Filipino patients with T1DM or T2DM, aged 18 years and older, treated with insulin for more than 12 months, who completed the two-part self-assessment questionnaires (SAQ1 and SAQ2) and patient diaries that recorded hypoglycemia during retrospective (6 months/4 weeks before baseline) and prospective period (4 weeks after baseline) (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02306681).

    Results: A total of 671 patients were enrolled and completed the SAQ1 (62 patients with T1DM and 609 patients with T2DM). Almost all patients (100% in T1DM and 99.3% in T2DM) experienced at least 1 hypoglycemic event prospectively. The incidence of any hypoglycemia was also high in the prospective period compared to retrospective period (72.6 [95% CI: 64.8, 80.9] events PPY and 43.6 [95% CI: 37.8, 49.9] events PPY; p=0.001, respectively) in T1DM patients.

    Conclusion: Among insulin-treated patients, higher rates of hypoglycemia were reported prospectively than retrospectively. This indicates that the patients in real-life setting often under-report hypoglycemia. Patient education can help in accurate reporting and appropriate management of hypoglycemia and diabetes.

  11. Dharan SS, Kamaruddin NA
    J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc, 2017;32(2):169-172.
    PMID: 33442102 DOI: 10.15605/jafes.032.02.12
    Acromegaly is a rare disease with an annual incidence of 3 to 4 cases in a million.1 Diagnosis is often delayed due to the slow progression of the disease. Persistent elevation of growth hormone (GH) in acromegaly causes a reduction in life expectancy by 10 years. Aside from multiple cardiovascular, respiratory and metabolic co-morbidities, it has also been proven to cause an increased incidence of cancer. The main treatment of acromegaly is surgical excision of the functioning pituitary adenoma. Multiple comorbidities, including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and soft tissue swelling, make surgery complicated, if not impossible. Medical therapy to reduce comorbidities may be indicated in certain situations. Somatostatin receptor ligands (SRL) are able to reduce, and possibly normalize, IGF-1 levels.2 Reduction of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), the main mediator of GH, is able to resolve headache, sweating, fatigue and soft tissue swelling, and also reduce ventricular hypertrophy. This case report illustrates the successful use of the SRL octreotide LAR in treating acromegaly. It also confirms the observation from several case series that thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy in acromegaly.
  12. Abdul Murad NA, Abdullah N, Kamaruddin MA, Abd Jalal N, Ismail N, Yusof NAM, et al.
    J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc, 2021;36(2):127-132.
    PMID: 34966195 DOI: 10.15605/jafes.036.02.02
    Objective: In this present study, we aim to evaluate the accuracy of the HbA1c relative to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in the diagnosis of diabetes and pre-diabetes among The Malaysian Cohort (TMC) participants.
    Methodology: FPG and HbA1c were taken from 40,667 eligible TMC participants that have no previous history of diabetes, aged between 35-70 years and were recruited from 2006 - 2012. Participants were classified as normal, diabetes and pre-diabetes based on the 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Statistical analyses were performed using ANOVA and Chi-square test, while Pearson correlation and Cohen's kappa were used to examine the concordance rate between FPG and HbA1c.
    Results: The study samples consisted of 16,224 men and 24,443 women. The prevalence of diabetes among the participants was 5.7% and 7.5% according to the FPG and HbA1c level, respectively. Based on FPG, 10.6% of the participants had pre-diabetes but this increased to 14.2% based on HbA1c (r=0.86; P<0.001). HbA1c had a sensitivity of 58.20 (95% CI: 56.43, 59.96) and a specificity of 98.59 (95% CI: 98.46, 98.70).
    Conclusion: A higher prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes was observed when using HbA1c as a diagnosis tool, suggesting that it could possibly be more useful for early detection. However, given that HbA1c may also have lower sensitivity and higher false positive rate, several diagnostic criteria should be used to diagnose diabetes accurately.
  13. Teng CL, Chan CW, Wong PS
    J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc, 2022;37(1):75-82.
    PMID: 35800597 DOI: 10.15605/jafes.037.01.14
    OBJECTIVE: This is a scoping review of Malaysian scientific studies on medication adherence among persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

    METHODOLOGY: We conducted a bibliographic search of PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar using the following keywords: "medication adherence," "drug compliance," "DMTAC" and "Malaysia." The search covered all publications up to 31 December 2021. Eligible articles were original studies conducted in Malaysia that measured or quantified medication adherence among persons with T2DM.

    RESULTS: We identified 64 eligible studies published between 2008 to 2021. Most studies included patients with T2DM in ambulatory facilities. Five studies were qualitative research. The quantitative research publications included clinical trials, and cross-sectional, validation, retrospective and prospective cohort studies. Thirty-eight studies used medication adherence scales. The Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8, used in 20 studies) and Malaysian Medication Adherence Scale (MALMAS, used in 6 studies) were the most commonly used tools. There were 6 validation studies with 4 medication adherence scales. A meta-analysis of 10 studies using MMAS-8 or MALMAS revealed that the pooled prevalence of low medication adherence is 34.2% (95% CI: 27.4 to 41.2, random effects model). Eighteen publications evaluated various aspects of the Diabetes Medication Therapy Adherence Clinics (DMTAC).

    CONCLUSION: This scoping review documented extensive research on medication adherence among persons with diabetes in Malaysia. The quantitative meta-analysis showed a pooled low medication adherence rate.

  14. Soundarajan T, Bidin MBL, Rajoo S, Yunus R
    J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc, 2022;37(1):87-90.
    PMID: 35800596 DOI: 10.15605/jafes.037.01.10
    Ganglioneuromas (GNs) are benign tumors that originate from neural crest cells, composed mainly of mature ganglion cells. These tumors, which are usually hormonally silent, tend to be discovered incidentally on imaging tests and occur along the paravertebral sympathetic chain, from the neck to the pelvis and occasionally in the adrenal medulla. Rarely, GNs secrete catecholamines.1 Adrenal GNs occur most frequently in the fourth and fifth decades of life, whereas GNs of the retroperitoneum and posterior mediastinum are usually encountered in younger adults.2 Adrenal GNs are commonly hormonally silent and asymptomatic; even when the lesion is of substantial size.3 We report an incidentally detected asymptomatic case of an adrenal ganglioneuroma with mildly elevated urinary catecholamine levels in an elderly male. After preoperative alpha blockade, the patient underwent open right adrenalectomy. Upon microscopic examination, the right adrenal mass proved to be a ganglioneuroma, maturing type and the immunohistochemistry examination showed immunoreactivity to synaptophysin, chromogranin, and CD 56, while S100 was strongly positive at the Schwannian stroma. Following resection, catecholamine levels normalized, confirming the resected right adrenal ganglioneuroma as the source of the catecholamine excess. This case represents a rare presentation of catecholamine-secreting adrenal ganglioneuroma in the elderly.
  15. Wan Mahmud Sabri WMN, Mohamed RZ, Yaacob NM, Hussain S
    J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc, 2022;37(1):24-30.
    PMID: 35800595 DOI: 10.15605/jafes.037.01.05
    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the factors associated with metabolic syndrome among obese children.

    METHODOLOGY: We recruited 175 subjects, aged 7 to 18 years old, referred for obesity. We studied their demography (age, gender, ethnicity, family background), performed clinical/auxological examinations [weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP)], and analyzed their biochemical risks associated with metabolic syndrome [fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting lipid profile (FLP), fasting insulin, liver function tests (LFT)]. MetS was identified according to the criteria proposed by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) for pediatric obesity. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between risk variables and MetS.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among children with obesity was 56% (95% CI: 48.6 to 63.4%), with a mean age of 11.3 ± 2.73 years. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed age [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.27, 95% CI: 1.15 to 1.45] and sedentary lifestyle (adjusted OR 3.57, 95% CI: 1.48 to 8.59) were the significant factors associated with metabolic syndrome among obese children.

    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among obese children referred to our centers was 56%. Older age group, male gender, birth weight, sedentary lifestyle, puberty and maternal history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were found to be associated with MetS. However, older age group and sedentary lifestyle were the only significant predictors for metabolic syndrome.

  16. Tong CV, Hussein Z
    J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc, 2017;32(1):54-56.
    PMID: 33442086 DOI: 10.15605/jafes.032.01.10
    For ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome (EAS), when surgery is not feasible, or in cases of severe biochemical disturbances, immunosuppression or mental instability, medical therapy with agents such as etomidate is indicated. We present our experience in using etomidate for a 41-year old female with EAS secondary to a malignant mediastinal paraganglioma. We were able to demonstrate that etomidate can be used effectively to control severe hypercortisolism in a lower dose than previously described.
  17. Abdullah NRA, Akbar RZA
    J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc, 2017;32(1):50-53.
    PMID: 33442085 DOI: 10.15605/jafes.032.01.09
    Autoimmune thyroiditis in the course of other autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is common because these disorders are attributed to the production of autoantibodies against various autoantigens. Beyond this association, autoimmune thyroiditis can occur before, during or after the development of SLE. In this report, we describe a female who presented with facial puffiness, lethargy and progressive abdominal distension. She was diagnosed with autoimmune thyroiditis followed by the diagnosis of SLE complicated by a massive ascites, a rare form of lupus peritonitis, which is sterile ascites that results from severe serositis. Her presentation was complex and posed a diagnostic challenge and dilemma to the physicians involved in her care.
  18. Mirasol R, Thai AC, Salahuddin AA, Tan K, Deerochanawong C, Mohamed M, et al.
    J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc, 2017;32(1):6-12.
    PMID: 33442078 DOI: 10.15605/jafes.032.01.02
    The Asia-Pacific region carries a high disease burden, with over half of the global diabetic population residing in this region. Increasing evidence shows that without targeted intervention, the progression from impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 diabetes occurs more frequently in Asians compared with Caucasians. Furthermore, IGT is independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and should be managed as early as possible. Because diabetes is now a major public health issue, strategies aimed at prevention and treatment are urgently required. Lifestyle modification, including weight loss, dietary changes and increased physical activity, play a major role in controlling the disease. Significant evidence also supports the effectiveness of a combination of lifestyle modification and pharmacologic therapy, such as metformin, in delaying the onset of diabetes. Although the importance of lifestyle interventions is well recognized throughout Asia, many countries do not have formal recommendations to guide the diagnosis and management of individuals at risk of progression to diabetes. At a recent regional meeting, experts from the Asian region convened to develop consensus recommendations to guide clinicians in the management of Asian patients with pre-diabetes. These consensus recommendations provide a clear and concise approach to the management of individuals with IGT based on the available evidence and current best clinical practice.
  19. Anuar Zaini A, Feng Tung Y, Ahmad Bahuri NF, Yazid Jalaludin M
    J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc, 2020;35(1):62-67.
    PMID: 33790495 DOI: 10.15605/jafes.035.01.11
    Introduction: The causes of congenital hypothyroidism (CHT) are thyroid dysgenesis (TD), dyshormonogenesis (TDH) or transient hypothyroidism (TH).

    Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study looking at data over a period of 16 years (2000-2016). Confirmed cases had thyroid scan at the age of 3-years-old and repeated TFT (after 6 weeks off medications). Relevant data was collected retrospectively.

    Results: Forty (60% female) children with CHT were included in the study. Thirty (75%) children presented with high cord TSH. Nine (23%) presented after 2 weeks of life. Majority were diagnosed with TDH (42.5%) with TD and TH of 40% and 17.5% respectively. Median cord TSH of children with TD was significantly higher compared to TDH and TH (p=0.028 and p=0.001 respectively). L-thyroxine doses were not significantly different between TD, TDH and TH at diagnosis or at 3 years.

    Conclusions: TDH is highly prevalent in our population. TD may present after 2 weeks of life. One in five children treated for CHT had TH. Differentiating TD, TDH and TH before initiating treatment remains a challenge in Malaysia. This study provides clinicians practical information needed to understand the possible aetiologies from a patient's clinical presentation, biochemical markers and treatment regime. Reassessing TH cases may be warranted to prevent unnecessary treatment.

  20. Jasul G, Paz-Pacheco E, Jimeno C, Suastika K, Hussein Z, Mustafa N, et al.
    J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc, 2020;35(1):5-13.
    PMID: 33790494 DOI: 10.15605/jafes.035.01.10
    Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic has made a major impact on hospital services globally, including the care of persons with diabetes and endocrine disorders. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology of COVID-19 in the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies (AFES) member countries; to describe challenges, changes and opportunities in caring for patients with endocrine diseases, as well as in fellowship training programs, and endocrinerelated research in the AFES countries.

    Methodology: The AFES ASEAN Survey Of Needs in Endocrinology (AFES A.S.-O.N.E.) was an open-ended questionnaire that was sent to the presidents and representatives of the AFES member countries by email. Responses from Societies were collated and synthesized to obtain perspectives on the emergent issues in endocrinology in the Southeast Asian region during this pandemic.

    Results: The burden of COVID-19 cases varied widely across the AFES member countries, with the least number of cases in Vietnam and Myanmar, and the greatest number of cases in either the most populous countries (Indonesia and the Philippines), or a country with the highest capability for testing (Singapore). The case fatality rate was also the highest for Indonesia and the Philippines at around 6%, and lowest for Vietnam at no fatalities. The percentage with diabetes among patients with COVID-19 ranged from 5% in Indonesia to 20% in Singapore, approximating the reported percentages in China and the United States. The major challenges in managing patients with endocrine diseases involved inaccessibility of health care providers, clinics and hospitals due to the implementation of lockdowns, community quarantines or movement control among the member countries. This led to disruptions in the continuity of care, testing and monitoring, and for some, provision of both preventive care and active management including surgery for thyroid cancer or pituitary and adrenal tumors, and radioactive iodine therapy. Major disruptions in the endocrine fellowship training programs were also noted across the region, so that some countries have had to freeze hiring of new trainees or to revise both program requirements and approaches to training due to the closure of outpatient endocrine clinics. The same observations are seen for endocrine-related researches, as most research papers have focused on the pandemic. Finally, the report ends by describing innovative approaches to fill in the gap in training and in improving patient access to endocrine services by Telemedicine.

    Conclusion: The burden of COVID-19 cases and its case fatality rate varies across the AFES member countries but its impact is almost uniform: it has disrupted the provision of care for patients with endocrine diseases, and has also disrupted endocrine fellowship training and endocrine-related research across the region. Telemedicine and innovations in training have been operationalized across the AFES countries in an attempt to cope with the disruptions from COVID-19, but its over-all impact on the practice of endocrinology across the region will only become apparent once we conquer this pandemic.

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