MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study was carried out among 684 infants attending goverment health clinics in 2 states in Malaysia. Body weight, length, and clinical assessment were measured on the same day for 9 visits, scheduled every month until 6 months of age and every 2 months until 12 months of age. All of the 3 z-scores for weight for age (WAZ), length for age (HAZ), and weight for length (WHZ) were calculated using WHO Anthro for Personal Computers software.
RESULTS: The average sensitivity and specificity for the visual clinical assessment for the detection of thinness were higher using the WHO 2006 standard as compared with using NCHS 1977. However, the overall sensitivity of the visual clinical assessment for the detection of thin and lean children was lower from 1 month of age until a year as compared with the WHO 2006 standard and NCHS 1977 reference. The positive predictive value (PPV) for the visual clinical assessment versus the WHO 2006 standard was almost doubled as compared with the PPV of visual clinical assessment versus the NCHS 1977 reference. The overall average sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and negative predictive value for the detection of stunting was higher for visual clinical assessment versus the WHO 2006 standard as compared with visual clinical assessment versus the NCHS 1977 reference.
CONCLUSION: The sensitivity and specificity of visual clinical assessment for the detection of wasting and stunting among infants are better for the WHO 2006 standard than the NCHS 1977 reference.
METHODS: A total of 20 healthy volunteers were challenged with 3 test meals, similar in fat content (~31% en) but varying in saturated SFA content and polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratios (P/S). The 3 meals were lauric + myristic acid-rich (LM), P/S 0.19; palmitic acid-rich (POL), P/S 0.31; and stearic acid-rich (STE), P/S 0.22. Blood was sampled at fasted baseline and 2, 4, 5, 6, and 8 hours. Plasma lipids (triacylglycerol [TAG]) and lipoproteins (TC, LDL-C, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C]) were evaluated.
RESULTS: Varying SFA in the test meal significantly impacted postprandial TAG response (p < 0.05). Plasma TAG peaked at 5 hours for STE, 4 hours for POL, and 2 hours for LM test meals. Area-under-the-curve (AUC) for plasma TAG was increased significantly after STE treatment (STE > LM by 32.2%, p = 0.003; STE > POL by 27.9%, p = 0.023) but was not significantly different between POL and LM (POL > LM by 6.0%, p > 0.05). At 2 hours, plasma HDL-C increased significantly after the LM and POL test meals compared with STE (p < 0.05). In comparison to the STE test meal, HDL-C AUC was elevated 14.0% (p = 0.005) and 7.6% (p = 0.023) by the LM and POL test meals, respectively. The TC response was also increased significantly by LM compared with both POL and STE test meals (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Chain length of saturates clearly mediated postmeal plasma TAG and HDL-C changes.
METHODOLOGY: The resulting products were compared to the control muffin, which was made with 100% butter. Muffins were analyzed for nutritional content, fatty acid profiles, and sensory acceptability.
RESULT: Muffins incorporated with avocado purée revealed a significant increase (p < 0.05) with respect to moisture, ash, and carbohydrate in comparison with the control sample. However, no significant changes (p > 0.05) were detected in all muffin formulations for protein and dietary fiber content. Both fat content and caloric value of muffins incorporated with avocado purée were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). The fatty acid profile showed that there was an increment in the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) content by 16.51% at full-fat substitution. The sensory evaluation test demonstrated that muffins had acceptability at up to 50% substitution. Fat substitution at higher than 50% lead to undesirable flavor and aftertaste, which was significant (p < 0.05) to the panelists.
CONCLUSION: The findings indicated the feasibility of avocado purée in fat-reduced muffin preparation with an optimal level of 50% avocado purée substitution.