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  1. Selamat R, Zain F, Raib J, Zakaria R, Marzuki MS, Ibrahim TF
    J Am Coll Nutr, 2011 Dec;30(6):522-8.
    PMID: 22331687
    OBJECTIVE: To study the validity of the visual clinical assessment of weight relative to length and length relative to age as compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 standard and National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) 1977 reference in asssessing the physical growth of children younger than 1 year.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study was carried out among 684 infants attending goverment health clinics in 2 states in Malaysia. Body weight, length, and clinical assessment were measured on the same day for 9 visits, scheduled every month until 6 months of age and every 2 months until 12 months of age. All of the 3 z-scores for weight for age (WAZ), length for age (HAZ), and weight for length (WHZ) were calculated using WHO Anthro for Personal Computers software.

    RESULTS: The average sensitivity and specificity for the visual clinical assessment for the detection of thinness were higher using the WHO 2006 standard as compared with using NCHS 1977. However, the overall sensitivity of the visual clinical assessment for the detection of thin and lean children was lower from 1 month of age until a year as compared with the WHO 2006 standard and NCHS 1977 reference. The positive predictive value (PPV) for the visual clinical assessment versus the WHO 2006 standard was almost doubled as compared with the PPV of visual clinical assessment versus the NCHS 1977 reference. The overall average sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and negative predictive value for the detection of stunting was higher for visual clinical assessment versus the WHO 2006 standard as compared with visual clinical assessment versus the NCHS 1977 reference.

    CONCLUSION: The sensitivity and specificity of visual clinical assessment for the detection of wasting and stunting among infants are better for the WHO 2006 standard than the NCHS 1977 reference.

  2. Karupaiah T, Tan CH, Chinna K, Sundram K
    J Am Coll Nutr, 2011 Dec;30(6):511-21.
    PMID: 22331686
    OBJECTIVE: Saturated fats increase total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and are linked to coronary artery disease risk. The effect of variance in chain length of saturated fatty acids (SFA) on coronary artery disease in human postprandial lipemia is not well elucidated.

    METHODS: A total of 20 healthy volunteers were challenged with 3 test meals, similar in fat content (~31% en) but varying in saturated SFA content and polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratios (P/S). The 3 meals were lauric + myristic acid-rich (LM), P/S 0.19; palmitic acid-rich (POL), P/S 0.31; and stearic acid-rich (STE), P/S 0.22. Blood was sampled at fasted baseline and 2, 4, 5, 6, and 8 hours. Plasma lipids (triacylglycerol [TAG]) and lipoproteins (TC, LDL-C, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C]) were evaluated.

    RESULTS: Varying SFA in the test meal significantly impacted postprandial TAG response (p < 0.05). Plasma TAG peaked at 5 hours for STE, 4 hours for POL, and 2 hours for LM test meals. Area-under-the-curve (AUC) for plasma TAG was increased significantly after STE treatment (STE > LM by 32.2%, p = 0.003; STE > POL by 27.9%, p = 0.023) but was not significantly different between POL and LM (POL > LM by 6.0%, p > 0.05). At 2 hours, plasma HDL-C increased significantly after the LM and POL test meals compared with STE (p < 0.05). In comparison to the STE test meal, HDL-C AUC was elevated 14.0% (p = 0.005) and 7.6% (p = 0.023) by the LM and POL test meals, respectively. The TC response was also increased significantly by LM compared with both POL and STE test meals (p < 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Chain length of saturates clearly mediated postmeal plasma TAG and HDL-C changes.

  3. Barakatun Nisak MY, Ruzita AT, Norimah AK, Gilbertson H, Nor Azmi K
    J Am Coll Nutr, 2010 Jun;29(3):161-70.
    PMID: 20833988 DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2010.10719830
    OBJECTIVES: This randomized controlled study was conducted to determine the effect of low glycemic index (GI) dietary advice on eating patterns and dietary quality in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM).

    METHODS: Asian patients with T2DM (N  =  104) were randomized into 2 groups that received either low GI or conventional carbohydrate exchange (CCE) dietary advice for 12 weeks. Nutritional prescriptions were based on the medical nutrition therapy for T2DM, with the difference being in the GI component of the carbohydrates. Dietary intake and food choices were assessed with the use of a 3-day food record.

    RESULTS: At week 12, both groups achieved the recommendations for carbohydrate (52 ± 4% and 54 ± 4% of energy) and fat (30 ± 4% and 28 ± 5% of energy) intake. There were no significant differences in the reported macronutrient intake in both groups. With the low GI diet, crude fiber and dietary calcium intake increased, while the dietary GI reduced. Subjects in the lowest dietary glycemic index/glycemic load (GI/GL) quartile consumed more parboiled/basmati rice, pasta, milk/dairy products, fruits, and dough, which are foods from the low GI category. There was a significant reduction in the hemoglobin A(1c) level at week 12 for patients in the lowest GI/GL quartile (Δ  =  -0.7 ± 0.1%) compared with those in the highest GI/GL quartile (Δ  =  -0.1 ± 0.2%).

    CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the ability of low GI dietary advice to improve the dietary quality of Asian patients with T2DM.
  4. Othman NA, Abdul Manaf M, Harith S, Wan Ishak WR
    J Am Coll Nutr, 2018 04 13;37(7):583-588.
    PMID: 29652576 DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2018.1451408
    OBJECTIVE: The feasibility of developing reduced-fat muffins with avocado is investigated by preparing muffins with 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% avocado purée as a fat (butter) replacer.

    METHODOLOGY: The resulting products were compared to the control muffin, which was made with 100% butter. Muffins were analyzed for nutritional content, fatty acid profiles, and sensory acceptability.

    RESULT: Muffins incorporated with avocado purée revealed a significant increase (p < 0.05) with respect to moisture, ash, and carbohydrate in comparison with the control sample. However, no significant changes (p > 0.05) were detected in all muffin formulations for protein and dietary fiber content. Both fat content and caloric value of muffins incorporated with avocado purée were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). The fatty acid profile showed that there was an increment in the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) content by 16.51% at full-fat substitution. The sensory evaluation test demonstrated that muffins had acceptability at up to 50% substitution. Fat substitution at higher than 50% lead to undesirable flavor and aftertaste, which was significant (p < 0.05) to the panelists.

    CONCLUSION: The findings indicated the feasibility of avocado purée in fat-reduced muffin preparation with an optimal level of 50% avocado purée substitution.

  5. Shokryazdan P, Faseleh Jahromi M, Liang JB, Ho YW
    J Am Coll Nutr, 2017 09 22;36(8):666-676.
    PMID: 28937854 DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2017.1337529
    Probiotics have become highly recognized as supplements for humans and animals because of their beneficial effects on health and well-being. The present review aims to provide an overview of different steps through which microbial strains become applicable probiotics in food and/or feed industries. Isolation of potential probiotic strains is the first step. Lactic acid bacteria are the most frequently used microorganisms as probiotics, which can be isolated from human, animal, plant, and environment. The next steps are identification of the isolates and characterization of them based on the main selection criteria for any potential probiotic microorganism, including resistance to gastric acidity and bile salt, adherence to mucus and/or intestinal epithelial cells and cell lines, and antimicrobial and antagonism activity against potentially pathogenic microbes. There are additional probiotic properties that may be considered for selection of probiotic strains with specific effects, such as cholesterol reduction ability, antioxidant activity, or cytotoxic effect against cancer cells. However, a potential probiotic does not need to fulfill all such selection criteria. As the last step, safety status of probiotics for humans is verified by taxonomy clarification, in vitro and in vivo tests, human trials, and genome sequencing.
  6. Ng TK, Hayes KC, DeWitt GF, Jegathesan M, Satgunasingam N, Ong AS, et al.
    J Am Coll Nutr, 1992 Aug;11(4):383-90.
    PMID: 1506599
    To compare the effects of dietary palmitic acid (16:0) vs oleic acid (18:1) on serum lipids, lipoproteins, and plasma eicosanoids, 33 normocholesterolemic subjects (20 males, 13 females; ages 22-41 years) were challenged with a coconut oil-rich diet for 4 weeks. Subsequently they were assigned to either a palm olein-rich or olive oil-rich diet followed by a dietary crossover during two consecutive 6-week periods. Each test oil served as the sole cooking oil and contributed 23% of dietary energy or two-thirds of the total daily fat intake. Dietary myristic acid (14:0) and lauric acid (12:0) from coconut oil significantly raised all the serum lipid and lipoprotein parameters measured. Subsequent one-to-one exchange of 7% energy between 16:0 (palm olein diet) and 18:1 (olive oil diet) resulted in identical serum total cholesterol (192, 193 mg/dl), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (130, 131 mg/dl), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (41, 42 mg/dl), and triglyceride (TG) (108, 106 mg/dl) concentrations. Effects attributed to gender included higher HDL in females and higher TG in males associated with the tendency for higher LDL and LDL/HDL ratios in men. However, both sexes were equally responsive to changes in dietary fat saturation. The results indicate that in healthy, normocholesterolemic humans, dietary 16:0 can be exchanged for 18:1 within the range of these fatty acids normally present in typical diets without affecting the serum lipoprotein cholesterol concentration or distribution. In addition, replacement of 12:0 + 14:0 by 16:0 + 18:1, but especially 16:0 or some component of palm olein, appeared to have a beneficial impact on an important index of thrombogenesis, i.e., the thromboxane/prostacyclin ratio in plasma.
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