• 1 a Institute of Tropical Agriculture , Universiti Putra Malaysia , Serdang , Selangor , Malaysia
  • 2 c Institute of Bioscience , Universiti Putra Malaysia , Serdang , Selangor , Malaysia
J Am Coll Nutr, 2017 09 22;36(8):666-676.
PMID: 28937854 DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2017.1337529


Probiotics have become highly recognized as supplements for humans and animals because of their beneficial effects on health and well-being. The present review aims to provide an overview of different steps through which microbial strains become applicable probiotics in food and/or feed industries. Isolation of potential probiotic strains is the first step. Lactic acid bacteria are the most frequently used microorganisms as probiotics, which can be isolated from human, animal, plant, and environment. The next steps are identification of the isolates and characterization of them based on the main selection criteria for any potential probiotic microorganism, including resistance to gastric acidity and bile salt, adherence to mucus and/or intestinal epithelial cells and cell lines, and antimicrobial and antagonism activity against potentially pathogenic microbes. There are additional probiotic properties that may be considered for selection of probiotic strains with specific effects, such as cholesterol reduction ability, antioxidant activity, or cytotoxic effect against cancer cells. However, a potential probiotic does not need to fulfill all such selection criteria. As the last step, safety status of probiotics for humans is verified by taxonomy clarification, in vitro and in vivo tests, human trials, and genome sequencing.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.