Three polycentric rumen fungi, LL, LC2 and Ruminomyces elegans (C2), isolated from the rumen of cattle were grown in six culture media. LL and LC2 were morphologically similar. Their characteristics resembled those of Orpinomyces and Neocallimastix joyonii, and they grew well and produced sporangia after 3-4 d growth in all the media. R. elegans differed morphologically from LL and LC2, but although it also grew well in all media, abundant sporangia occurred only after 2-3 d growth in media containing cellulose. Undifferentiated sporangia were produced by all three isolates; differentiation of the sporangia did not occur in the spent growth media. However, if thalli possessing recently-formed sporangia were transferred to, or flooded with, fresh liquid medium or rumen fluid, zoosporogenesis and liberation of zoospores occurred within 17-20 min for isolates LL and LC2 and 30 min for R. elegans. Procedures for inducing zoosporogenesis by polycentric anaerobic fungi are described.
Five strains of phytase-producing, gram-negative, non-spore-forming, non-motile, small, stout, rod-shaped, strictly anaerobic, fermentative bacteria were isolated from the rumens of cattle in Malaysia. All five strains had morphological, physiological and biochemical features in common. Although these strains had many physiological and biochemical characteristics that were identical to those of the Mitsuokella multacida type strain (ATCC 27723T), they could be distinguished from this species by means of the following characteristics: a smaller cell size (1.2-2.4 microm long and 0.6-0.8 microm wide); a lower final pH value (3.8-4.0) in peptone/yeast extract/glucose broth; inhibition by 0.001% brilliant green; insensitivity to kanamycin (100 microg ml(-1)) and penicillin (10 microg ml(-1)); a higher optimum growth temperature (approx. 42 degrees C); the ability to grow at 45 and 47 degrees C; the ability to ferment glycerol, sorbitol and amidon; and the inability to ferment mannitol, rhamnose, D-tagatose and melezitose. The G+C content of the type strain (M 9T) of these five strains was 56.9 mol%. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of type strain M 9T indicated that the strain falls within the genus Mitsuokella. The sequence similarity between type strain M 9T and Mitsuokella multacida was 98.7%. The DNA-DNA relatedness between type strain M 9T and Mitsuokella multacida type strain DSM 20544T (= ATCC 27723T) was 63.8%, indicating that, in spite of a high level of similarity for the 16S rRNA gene sequence, type strain M 9T is independent of Mitsuokella multacida at the species level. On the basis of these results, a new species, Mitsuokella jalaludinii sp. nov., is proposed for these strains. The type strain is M 9T (= DSM 13811T = ATCC BAA-307T).
Heat production (HP) of male and female mouse deer during eating, standing and sitting was determined using the open circuit respiration chamber (RC). The time taken for similar activities was also determined in an outdoor enclosure (OD). The animals were fed kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and rabbit pellet ad libitum. Male mouse deer consumed more dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and gross energy (GE) than female. The time for each activity of male and female mouse deer kept in RC and OD was similar. The average time spent in RC and OD for both male and female, respectively, for sitting (956 and 896 min/day) was significantly (P<0.01) longer than standing (463 and 520 min/day) and eating (21 and 24 min/day). Heat production for male and female mouse deer, respectively, during eating was the highest (0.44 and 0.43 kJ/kg W(0.75)/min) followed by standing (0.37 and 0.33 kJ/kgW(0.75)/min) and sitting (0.26 and 0.26 kJ/kg W(0.75)/min). The difference in HP per min during standing between male and female was significant (P<0.05). The HP for 08.00-14.00 h and 14.00-20.00 h periods were higher than 20.00-02.00 h and 02.00-08.00 h periods. The overall HP for males during 08.00-14.00 h and 14.00-20.00 h periods were significantly (P<0.05) higher (114.8 and 119.2 kJ/kg W(0.75)) than female (107.5 and 110.4 kJ/kg W(0.75)), respectively.
We evaluated the efficacy of supplementation of active Mitsuokella jalaludinii culture (AMJC) on the growth performance, nutrient use, and mineral concentrations in tibia bone and plasma of broiler chickens fed corn-soybean meal diets. Dietary treatments included low-nonphytate P (NPP) feed (containing 0.24% and 0.232% NPP for chicks from 1 to 21 and 22 to 42 d of age, respectively), low-NPP feed added with different levels of AMJC (equivalent to 250, 500, 750, and 1,000 U phytase/kg of feed), and normal-NPP feed (containing 0.46 and 0.354% NPP for chicks from 1 to 21 and 22 to 42 d of age, respectively). Supplementation of AMJC to low-NPP feed increased (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed intake and decreased (P < 0.05) feed:gain ratio of chickens during the whole experiment (Days 1 to 42). Supplementation of AMJC increased (P < 0.05) the AME value, digestibility of DM and CP, and retention of P, Ca, and Cu. Mn retention in broilers was only increased (P < 0.05) by AMJC supplementation from 18 to 20 d of age, and Zn retention was improved (P < 0.05) only at a high level of AMJC (equivalent to 1,000 U phytase/kg of feed) supplementation. Chicks fed low-NPP feed added with AMJC had similar tibia ash percentages as those fed the normal-NPP diet. Generally, supplementing AMJC to low-NPP feed increased (P < 0.05) Ca, decreased significantly (P < 0.05) Mn and Cu, but did not affect Zn and P concentrations in tibia ash. Supplementing AMJC also increased (P < 0.05) plasma P but had no effect on plasma Ca or Mn. Plasma Zn concentration was increased only when a high level of AMJC (equivalent to 1,000 U phytase/kg of feed) was used. In conclusion, AMJC supplementation to low-NPP feed improved growth performance; AME value; digestibility of CP and DM; use of Ca, P, and Cu; and bone mineralization.
A study was conducted to determine the effects of adherent Lactobacillus culture on growth performance, intestinal microbial population, and serum cholesterol level of broilers. Four dietary treatments, consisting of the basal diet (control), basal diet + 0.05, 0.10, or 0.15% Lactobacillus culture (LC), were fed to 2,000 Arbor Acres broiler chicks from 1 to 42 d of age (DOA). The chicks were randomly assigned to 40 cages (50 chicks per cage, 10 cages per diet). The experimental period was 42 d. Body weights and feed to gain ratio were measured at 21 and 42 DOA. The intestinal microbial populations and serum cholesterol levels were determined at 10, 20, 30, and 40 DOA. The results showed that body weights and feed to gain ratios were improved significantly (P < 0.05) when compared to control broilers for broilers fed diets containing 0.05 or 0.10% LC, but not 0.15% LC, at 21 and 42 DOA. Coliform counts in the cecum of birds receiving 0.05% LC at 10, 20, and 30 DOA, and 0.10% at 10 and 20 DOA were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of the control birds. The total aerobes, total anaerobes, lactobacilli, and streptococci in the small intestines and ceca of the control birds were not significantly different from those of the treated groups. Serum cholesterol levels were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in broilers fed the three diets containing LC at 30 DOA, and in the birds fed 0.05 or 0.10% LC at 20 DOA.
1. The effects of a mixture of 12 Lactobacillus strains (LC) on the growth performance, abdominal fat deposition, serum lipids and weight of organs of broiler chickens were studied from 1 to 42 d of age. 2. One hundred and thirty-six 1-d-old male broiler chicks were assigned at random to two dietary treatments: a basal diet (control), and a basal diet with 0.1% LC. 3. The supplementation of LC in broiler diets improved the body weight gain and feed conversion rate from 1 to 42 d of age and was effective in reducing abdominal fat deposition but only after 28 d of age. 4. The LC diets reduced serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides in broilers from 21 to 42 d of age. However, there was no significant difference in serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol between control and LC-fed broilers. There was also no significant difference in the weights of organs of control and LC-fed broilers. 5. The results indicated that the mixture of 12 Lactobacillus strains have a hypolipidaemic effect on broilers.
1. Hubbard x Hubbard (HH) and Shaver x Shaver (SS) chicks given a dietary supplement of either 50 mg/kg oxytetracycline (OTC) or 1 g/kg Lactobacillus culture (LC) were exposed to 36 +/- 1 degrees C for 3 h daily from day (d) 21 to 42. 2. Prior to heat treatment, body weight (d 21) and weight gain (d 1 to d 21) of OTC and LC birds were greater than those fed the control diet. Chicks given LC had the best food efficiency followed by OTC and control birds during d 1 to d 21. Body weight (d 1 and d 21) and weight gain (d 1 to d 21) were greater for HH tlhan SS chicks. 3. After 3 weeks of heat exposure, birds receiving the LC diet had greater body weight and weight gain, higher food intake and lower food efficiency than OTC and control chicks. 4. Antibody production against Newcastle discase vaccine on d 21 was not affected by strain or diet. On d 42, while diet had negligible effect on this variable among the SS broilers, HH birds fed LC had higher antibody production than those on the control diet. 5. Neither strain nor diet had a significant effect on mortality.
Twelve Lactobacillus strains isolated from chicken intestine were used to investigate acid and bile tolerance in vitro. Ten out of the 12 strains were slightly affected by 0.3% bile salts, showing a delay of growth (d) of 0.6-37.2 min compared with growth in control cultures. Two strains were not affected by the bile salts. Of the 12 strains, seven could be arbitrarily classified as resistant (d < 15 min) and five as tolerant (15 min < d < or = 40 min). Lactobacillus strains from the caecum showed better tolerance to acid than those from the ileum. Generally, the survival of the ileal strains was very low at pH 1.0 and 2.0, and moderate at pH 3.0. In contrast, caecal Lactobacillus strains could survive at pH 1.0 for up to 2 h of incubation; growth was moderate at pH 2.0 and good at pH 3.0 and 4.0.
In view of a worldwide attempt to restrict or ban the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal production, probiotics, prebiotics and combinations of both, as synbiotics, have been suggested as potential alternatives. In this study, the effects of a prebiotic (isomalto-oligosaccharides, IMO), a multi-strain probiotic (consisting of 11 Lactobacillus strains), and a combination of these dietary additives as a synbiotic on the performance, caecal bacterial populations and concentrations of caecal volatile fatty acids and non-volatile fatty acids of broiler chickens were evaluated.
This study examined whether pre-treating palm kernel expeller (PKE) with exogenous enzyme would degrade its fiber content; thus improving its metabolizable energy (ME), growth performance, villus height and digesta viscosity in broiler chickens fed diets containing PKE. Our results showed that enzyme treatment decreased (p<0.05) hemicellulose and cellulose contents of PKE by 26.26 and 32.62%, respectively; and improved true ME (TME) and its nitrogen corrected value (TMEn) by 38% and 33%, respectively, compared to the raw sample. Average daily gain (ADG), feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of chickens fed on different dietary treatments in the grower period were not significantly different. Although there was no difference in feed intake (p>0.05) among treatment groups in the finisher period, ADG of chickens in the control (PKE-free diet) was higher (p<0.05) than in all treatment groups fed either 20 or 30% PKE, irrespective of with or without enzyme treatment. However, ADG of birds fed with 20% PKE was higher than those fed with 30% PKE. The FCR of chickens in the control was the lowest (2.20) but not significantly different from those fed 20% PKE diets while birds in the 30% PKE diets recorded higher (p>0.05) FCR. The intestinal villus height and crypt depth (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) were not different (p>0.05) among treatments except for duodenal crypt depth. The villus height and crypt depth of birds in enzyme treated PKE diets were higher (p<0.05) than those in the raw PKE groups. Viscosity of the intestinal digesta was not different (p>0.05) among treatments. Results of this study suggest that exogenous enzyme is effective in hydrolyzing the fiber (hemicellulose and cellulose) component and improved the ME values of PKE, however, the above positive effects were not reflected in the growth performance in broiler chickens fed the enzyme treated PKE compared to those received raw PKE. The results suggest that PKE can be included up to 5% in the grower diet and 20% in the finisher diet without any significant negative effect on FCR in broiler chickens.
Colibacillosis is one of the main causes of economic loss in the poultry industry worldwide. Although antibiotics have been used to control this infection, the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria poses a threat to animal and human health. Phage therapy has been reported as one of the potential alternative methods to control bacterial infections. However, efficient phage therapy is highly dependent on the characteristics of the phage isolated. In the present study the characteristics of a lytic phage, ØEC1, which was found to be effective against the causative agent of colibacillosis in chickens in a previous in vivo study, are reported.
Phytate-bound phosphorus (P) in poultry diets is poorly available to chickens. Hence exogenous phytase is often added to their diets. Mitsuokella jalaludinii is a rumen bacterial species that produces high phytase activity. In this study the effects of freeze-dried active M. jalaludinii culture (FD-AMJC) and Natuphos(®) phytase (phytase N) supplementations on the growth performance and nutrient utilisation of broiler chickens fed a low-available P (aP) diet were evaluated.
Bile salt deconjugation by Lactobacillus strains is often closely linked to bile tolerance and survival of the strains in the gut and lowering of cholesterol in the host. The present study investigated the deconjugation of bile salts and removal of cholesterol by 12 Lactobacillus strains in vitro. The 12 strains were previously isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of chickens.
The copy numbers of 16S rRNA genes in 12 probiotic Lactobacillus strains of poultry origin were analyzed. Genomic DNA of the strains was digested with restriction endonucleases that do not cut within the 16S rRNA gene of the strains. This was followed by Southern hybridization with a biotinylated probe complementary to the 16S rRNA gene. The copy number of the 16S rRNA gene within a Lactobacillus species was found to be conserved. From the hybridization results, Lactobacillus salivarius I 24 was estimated to have seven copies of the 16S rRNA gene, Lactobacillus panis C 17 to have five copies and Lactobacillus gallinarum strains I 16 and I 26 four copies. The 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of L. gallinarum and L. panis reported in the present study are the first record. Lactobacillus brevis strains I 12, I 23, I 25, I 211, I 218 and Lactobacillus reuteri strains C 1, C 10, C 16 were estimated to have at least four copies of the 16S rRNA gene. In addition, distinct rRNA restriction patterns which could discriminate the strains of L. reuteri and L. gallinarum were also detected. Information on 16S rRNA gene copy number is important for physiological, evolutionary and population studies of the bacteria.
Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of beta-glucanase produced by transformed Lactobacillus strains on the intestinal characteristics and feed passage rate of broiler chickens fed barley-based diets. Supplementation of transformed Lactobacillus strains to the diet of chickens significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the intestinal fluid viscosity by 21 to 46% compared with chickens fed an unsupplemented diet or a diet supplemented with parental Lactobacillus strains. The relative weights of pancreas, liver, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ceca, and colon were reduced (P < 0.05) by 6 to 27%, and the relative length of duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and ceca was reduced (P < 0.05) by 8 to 15%. Histological examination of the intestinal tissues showed that the jejunal villus height of chickens fed a diet supplemented with transformed Lactobacillus strains was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of chickens fed other dietary treatments. The transformed Lactobacillus strains were found to reduce (P < 0.05) the time of feed passage rate by 2.2 h. Supplementation of transformed Lactobacillus strains to the diet improved the intestinal characteristics and feed, passage rate of the chickens.
This study was undertaken to optimize yeast extract, glucose, and vitamin concentrations; and also culture pH for maximizing the growth of a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and to assess the effects of these factors by using response surface methodology. A central composite design was used as an experimental design for the allocation of treatment combinations. A polynomial regression model with cubic and quartic terms was used for analysis of the experimental data. It was found that the effects involving yeast extract, glucose, vitamins and pH on the growth of L. rhamnosus were significant, and the strongest effect was given by the yeast extract concentration. Estimated optimum conditions of the factors for the growth of L. rhamnosus are as follows: pH=6.9; vitamin solution=1.28% (v/v); glucose=5.01% (w/v) and yeast extract=6.0% (w/v).
Isotricha jalaludinii n. sp. found in the rumen of lesser mouse deer, Tragulus javanicus, in Malaysia was described and illustrated. This new species is characterized by the location and direction of the vestibulum, shape of the macronucleus, and absence of a dent at the vestibular opening. The presence of single peculiar isotrichid species in the rumen of mouse deer, which is recognized as one of the most primitive ruminants, suggests that the isotrichid ciliates similar to I. jalaludinii and Isotricha intestinalis were established at a fairly early period during the evolution of ruminants.
Isolates of anaerobic fungi obtained from the rumen, duodenum and faeces of sheep were identified as Piromyces mae based on their morphological characteristics observed using light microscopy. There was no significant morphological variation among the isolates of P. mae from the rumen, duodenum and faeces. Isozymes of 12 isolates of P. mae (one each from the rumen, duodenum and faeces from 4 different sheep) were analysed by PAGE. A total of 12 isozymes were studied and 5 isozyme loci were successfully typed. They were malic enzyme, malate dehydrogenase, shikimate dehydrogenase, alpha-esterase and beta-esterase. All the isolates of P. mae regardless of whether they were from the rumen, duodenum or faeces or from different animals produced very similar isozyme banding patterns for each of the enzyme systems. The similar isozyme profiles of the isolates indicate that they are of the same species although they exist in different regions of the alimentary tract.
Two Lactobacillus isolates, Lact. acidophilus I 26 and Lact. fermentum I 25, were selected, based on their poor aggregation with Escherichia coli and strong ability to adhere to ileal epithelial cells (IEC), to study in vitro interactions with E. coli O1:K1, O2:K1 and O78:K80 in an IEC radioactive-assay under the conditions of exclusion (lactobacilli and IEC, followed by the addition of E. coli), competition (lactobacilli, IEC and E. coli together) and displacement (E. coli and IEC, followed by the addition of lactobacilli). The results indicated that Lact. acidophilus I 26 and Lact. fermentum I 25 could not significantly reduce the attachment of E. coli O1:K1, O2:K1 and O78:K80 to IEC under the three conditions tested in vitro, except that the attachment of E. coli O1:K1 was slightly reduced by Lact. fermentum I 25 in the test for competition.