METHODS AND RESULTS: A three-step procedure comprising acetone fractionation followed by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) resulted in a 30-fold purification. The purified enzyme had a molecular mass of 300 +/- 5 kDa as determined by gel filtration. It is probably a tetramer containing two different subunits with molecular masses of 93 +/- 1 kDa and 59 +/- 0.5 kDa, as determined by SDS-PAGE.
CONCLUSION: The deduced N-terminal amino acid sequences of the two subunits revealed no significant similarity between them and other proteins when compared to the data bases of EMBL and SWISS-PROT, indicating that this could be the first report on N-terminal amino acid sequence of F6PPK.
SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The data from this study will be used to design oligonucleotide probe specific for bifidobacteria and to study the gene encoded F6PPK.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Growth characteristics were compared in diluted and undiluted, settled and non-settled wastewater growing in anaerobic light and aerobic dark conditions; and also at different agitation speeds. The highest biomass (8.75 g l(-1)) and a reduction in chemical oxygen demand of 71% were obtained in unsettled, undiluted wastewater after 120 h culture with 15% inoculum. In settled wastewater, highest biomass (7.64 g l(-1)) and a COD reduction of 77% was also obtained after 120 h. Total biomass was higher (4.34 g l(-1)) after 120 h culture in anaerobic light compared to (3.23 g l(-1)) in aerobic dark growth.
CONCLUSIONS, SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Better performance, mean of total biomass (6.97 g l(-1) after 96 h), total carotenoids (4.24 mg g(-1) dry cell from 24 h) and soluble protein (431 microg ml(-1) after 96 h) were obtained from aerobic dark culture at 300 rev min(-1). The COD reduction, however, was lower (69%) after 96 h culture. Thus, the benefits in the production of bacterial biomass in non-sterilized sardine processing wastewater with the reduction of chemical oxygen demand could be achieved.
SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The bacteria isolated from unusual dwellings such as the cockroaches' gut are a useful source of antibacterial and antiamoebal molecules. These are remarkable findings that will open several avenues in our search for novel antimicrobials from unique sources. Furthermore studies will lead to the identification of molecules to develop future antibacterials from insects.
SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The study has demonstrated, for the first time, the expression of nonstructural 1 (NS1) protein of influenza A virus H5N1 on the cell wall of Lactobacillus casei using the pSGANC332 expression plasmid. Display of NS1 protein on the bacterial cell wall was evident under an immunofluorescence microscopic observation. Lactobacillus casei carrying the NS1 protein could be developed into a universal oral influenza vaccine since the NS1 is highly conserved among influenza viruses.