METHODS: Twelve patients (52 ± 12 years old; five female) with gastroesophageal reflux disease were recruited for the prospective crossover study. Each patient was invited for panendoscope, manometry and 24 h pH monitor. The two formulated liquid meal, test meal A: 500 ml liquid meal (containing 84.8 g carbohydrate) and B: same volume liquid meal (but 178.8 g carbohydrate) were randomized supplied as lunch or dinner. Reflux symptoms were recorded.
RESULTS: There are significant statistic differences in more Johnson-DeMeester score (p = 0.019), total reflux time (%) (p = 0.028), number of reflux periods (p = 0.026) and longest reflux (p = 0.015) after high carbohydrate diet than low carbohydrate. Total reflux time and number of long reflux periods more than 5 min are significant more after high carbohydrate diet.
CONCLUSION: More acid reflux symptoms are found after high carbohydrate diet. High carbohydrate diet could induce more acid reflux in low esophagus and more reflux symptoms in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.
METHODS: 99 adult patients at four training and research hospitals who had undergone an abdominal contrast computed tomography scan in the ED with the final diagnosis of splenic abscess from January 2004 to November 2017 were recruited. Evaluation for sarcopenia was performed via calculating the psoas cross-sectional area at the level of the third lumbar vertebra and normalising for height, before checking it against pre-defined values. Univariate analyses were used to evaluate the differences between survivors and non-survivors. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the presence of sarcopenia in predicting in-hospital mortality were calculated. Kaplan-Meier methods, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazards model were also performed to examine survival between groups with sarcopenia versus non-sarcopenia.
RESULTS: Splenic abscess patients with sarcopenia were 7.56 times more at risk of in-hospital mortality than those without sarcopenia (multivariate-adjusted HR: 7.56; 95% CI: 1.55-36.93). Presence of sarcopenia was found to have 84.62% sensitivity and 96.49% negative predictive value in predicting mortality.
CONCLUSION: Sarcopenia is associated with poor prognoses of in-hospital mortality in patients with splenic abscess presenting to the ED. We recommend its use in the ED to rapidly risk stratify and predict outcome to guide treatment strategies.