Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 27 in total

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  1. Dietzel E, Kolesnikova L, Sawatsky B, Heiner A, Weis M, Kobinger GP, et al.
    J Virol, 2016 Mar;90(5):2514-22.
    PMID: 26676785 DOI: 10.1128/JVI.02920-15
    Nipah virus (NiV) causes fatal encephalitic infections in humans. To characterize the role of the matrix (M) protein in the viral life cycle, we generated a reverse genetics system based on NiV strain Malaysia. Using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-expressing M protein-deleted NiV, we observed a slightly increased cell-cell fusion, slow replication kinetics, and significantly reduced peak titers compared to the parental virus. While increased amounts of viral proteins were found in the supernatant of cells infected with M-deleted NiV, the infectivity-to-particle ratio was more than 100-fold reduced, and the particles were less thermostable and of more irregular morphology. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the M protein is not absolutely required for the production of cell-free NiV but is necessary for proper assembly and release of stable infectious NiV particles.
  2. Yunus MA, Lin X, Bailey D, Karakasiliotis I, Chaudhry Y, Vashist S, et al.
    J Virol, 2015 Jan 15;89(2):1218-29.
    PMID: 25392209 DOI: 10.1128/JVI.02432-14
    All members of the Caliciviridae family of viruses produce a subgenomic RNA during infection. The subgenomic RNA typically encodes only the major and minor capsid proteins, but in murine norovirus (MNV), the subgenomic RNA also encodes the VF1 protein, which functions to suppress host innate immune responses. To date, the mechanism of norovirus subgenomic RNA synthesis has not been characterized. We have previously described the presence of an evolutionarily conserved RNA stem-loop structure on the negative-sense RNA, the complementary sequence of which codes for the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (NS7). The conserved stem-loop is positioned 6 nucleotides 3' of the start site of the subgenomic RNA in all caliciviruses. We demonstrate that the conserved stem-loop is essential for MNV viability. Mutant MNV RNAs with substitutions in the stem-loop replicated poorly until they accumulated mutations that revert to restore the stem-loop sequence and/or structure. The stem-loop sequence functions in a noncoding context, as it was possible to restore the replication of an MNV mutant by introducing an additional copy of the stem-loop between the NS7- and VP1-coding regions. Finally, in vitro biochemical data suggest that the stem-loop sequence is sufficient for the initiation of viral RNA synthesis by the recombinant MNV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, confirming that the stem-loop forms the core of the norovirus subgenomic promoter.

    IMPORTANCE: Noroviruses are a significant cause of viral gastroenteritis, and it is important to understand the mechanism of norovirus RNA synthesis. Here we describe the identification of an RNA stem-loop structure that functions as the core of the norovirus subgenomic RNA promoter in cells and in vitro. This work provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms of norovirus RNA synthesis and the sequences that determine the recognition of viral RNA by the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

  3. Sun W, McCrory TS, Khaw WY, Petzing S, Myers T, Schmitt AP
    J Virol, 2014 Nov;88(22):13099-110.
    PMID: 25210190 DOI: 10.1128/JVI.02103-14
    Paramyxoviruses and other negative-strand RNA viruses encode matrix proteins that coordinate the virus assembly process. The matrix proteins link the viral glycoproteins and the viral ribonucleoproteins at virus assembly sites and often recruit host machinery that facilitates the budding process. Using a co-affinity purification strategy, we have identified the beta subunit of the AP-3 adapter protein complex, AP3B1, as a binding partner for the M proteins of the zoonotic paramyxoviruses Nipah virus and Hendra virus. Binding function was localized to the serine-rich and acidic Hinge domain of AP3B1, and a 29-amino-acid Hinge-derived polypeptide was sufficient for M protein binding in coimmunoprecipitation assays. Virus-like particle (VLP) production assays were used to assess the relationship between AP3B1 binding and M protein function. We found that for both Nipah virus and Hendra virus, M protein expression in the absence of any other viral proteins led to the efficient production of VLPs in transfected cells, and this VLP production was potently inhibited upon overexpression of short M-binding polypeptides derived from the Hinge region of AP3B1. Both human and bat (Pteropus alecto) AP3B1-derived polypeptides were highly effective at inhibiting the production of VLPs. VLP production was also impaired through small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of AP3B1 from cells. These findings suggest that AP-3-directed trafficking processes are important for henipavirus particle production and identify a new host protein-virus protein binding interface that could become a useful target in future efforts to develop small molecule inhibitors to combat paramyxoviral infections.
  4. Prow NA, Setoh YX, Biron RM, Sester DP, Kim KS, Hobson-Peters J, et al.
    J Virol, 2014 Sep 1;88(17):9947-62.
    PMID: 24942584 DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01304-14
    The mosquito-borne West Nile virus (WNV) is responsible for outbreaks of viral encephalitis in humans, horses, and birds, with particularly virulent strains causing recent outbreaks of disease in eastern Europe, the Middle East, North America, and Australia. Previous studies have phylogenetically separated WNV strains into two main genetic lineages (I and II) containing virulent strains associated with neurological disease. Several WNV-like strains clustering outside these lineages have been identified and form an additional five proposed lineages. However, little is known about whether these strains have the potential to induce disease. In a comparative analysis with the highly virulent lineage I American strain (WNVNY99), the low-pathogenicity lineage II strain (B956), a benign Australian strain, Kunjin (WNVKUN), the African WNV-like Koutango virus (WNVKOU), and a WNV-like isolate from Sarawak, Malaysia (WNVSarawak), were assessed for neuroinvasive properties in a murine model and for their replication kinetics in vitro. While WNVNY99 replicated to the highest levels in vitro, in vivo mouse challenge revealed that WNVKOU was more virulent, with a shorter time to onset of neurological disease and higher morbidity. Histological analysis of WNVKOU- and WNVNY99-infected brain and spinal cords demonstrated more prominent meningoencephalitis and the presence of viral antigen in WNVKOU-infected mice. Enhanced virulence of WNVKOU also was associated with poor viral clearance in the periphery (sera and spleen), a skewed innate immune response, and poor neutralizing antibody development. These data demonstrate, for the first time, potent neuroinvasive and neurovirulent properties of a WNV-like virus outside lineages I and II.
  5. Jelen MM, Chen Z, Kocjan BJ, Burt FJ, Chan PK, Chouhy D, et al.
    J Virol, 2014 Jul;88(13):7307-16.
    PMID: 24741079 DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00621-14
    Human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV6) is the major etiological agent of anogenital warts and laryngeal papillomas and has been included in both the quadrivalent and nonavalent prophylactic HPV vaccines. This study investigated the global genomic diversity of HPV6, using 724 isolates and 190 complete genomes from six continents, and the association of HPV6 genomic variants with geographical location, anatomical site of infection/disease, and gender. Initially, a 2,800-bp E5a-E5b-L1-LCR fragment was sequenced from 492/530 (92.8%) HPV6-positive samples collected for this study. Among them, 130 exhibited at least one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), indel, or amino acid change in the E5a-E5b-L1-LCR fragment and were sequenced in full. A global alignment and maximum likelihood tree of 190 complete HPV6 genomes (130 fully sequenced in this study and 60 obtained from sequence repositories) revealed two variant lineages, A and B, and five B sublineages: B1, B2, B3, B4, and B5. HPV6 (sub)lineage-specific SNPs and a 960-bp representative region for whole-genome-based phylogenetic clustering within the L2 open reading frame were identified. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that lineage B predominated globally. Sublineage B3 was more common in Africa and North and South America, and lineage A was more common in Asia. Sublineages B1 and B3 were associated with anogenital infections, indicating a potential lesion-specific predilection of some HPV6 sublineages. Females had higher odds for infection with sublineage B3 than males. In conclusion, a global HPV6 phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of two variant lineages and five sublineages, showing some degree of ethnogeographic, gender, and/or disease predilection in their distribution.
  6. Tan CW, Poh CL, Sam IC, Chan YF
    J Virol, 2013 Jan;87(1):611-20.
    PMID: 23097443 DOI: 10.1128/JVI.02226-12
    Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) infections are usually associated with mild hand, foot, and mouth disease in young children but have been reported to cause severe neurological complications with high mortality rates. To date, four EV-71 receptors have been identified, but inhibition of these receptors by antagonists did not completely abolish EV-71 infection, implying that there is an as yet undiscovered receptor(s). Since EV-71 has a wide range of tissue tropisms, we hypothesize that EV-71 infections may be facilitated by using receptors that are widely expressed in all cell types, such as heparan sulfate. In this study, heparin, polysulfated dextran sulfate, and suramin were found to significantly prevent EV-71 infection. Heparin inhibited infection by all the EV-71 strains tested, including those with a single-passage history. Neutralization of the cell surface anionic charge by polycationic poly-d-lysine and blockage of heparan sulfate by an anti-heparan sulfate peptide also inhibited EV-71 infection. Interference with heparan sulfate biosynthesis either by sodium chlorate treatment or through transient knockdown of N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 and exostosin-1 expression reduced EV-71 infection in RD cells. Enzymatic removal of cell surface heparan sulfate by heparinase I/II/III inhibited EV-71 infection. Furthermore, the level of EV-71 attachment to CHO cell lines that are variably deficient in cell surface glycosaminoglycans was significantly lower than that to wild-type CHO cells. Direct binding of EV-71 particles to heparin-Sepharose columns under physiological salt conditions was demonstrated. We conclude that EV-71 infection requires initial binding to heparan sulfate as an attachment receptor.
  7. Ng KT, Ong LY, Takebe Y, Kamarulzaman A, Tee KK
    J Virol, 2012 Oct;86(20):11405-6.
    PMID: 22997423
    We report here the first novel HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF) 54_01B (CRF54_01B) isolated from three epidemiologically unlinked subjects of different risk groups in Malaysia. These recently sampled recombinants showed a complex genome organization composed of parental subtype B' and CRF01_AE, with identical recombination breakpoints observed in the gag, pol, and vif genes. Such a discovery highlights the ongoing active generation and spread of intersubtype recombinants involving the subtype B' and CRF01_AE lineages and indicates the potential of the new CRF in bridging HIV-1 transmission among different risk groups in Southeast Asia.
  8. Chow WZ, Al-Darraji H, Lee YM, Takebe Y, Kamarulzaman A, Tee KK
    J Virol, 2012 Oct;86(20):11398-9.
    PMID: 22997419
    A novel HIV-1 genotype designated CRF53_01B was recently characterized from three epidemiologically unrelated persons in Malaysia. Here we announced three recently isolated full-length genomes of CRF53_01B, which is likely to be phylogenetically linked to CRF33_01B, circulating widely in Southeast Asia. The genome sequences may contribute to HIV-1 molecular surveillance and future vaccine development in the region.
  9. Ong KC, Devi S, Cardosa MJ, Wong KT
    J Virol, 2010 Jan;84(1):661-5.
    PMID: 19864378 DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00999-09
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes childhood hand, foot, and mouth disease and neurological complications, and no vaccines or therapeutic drugs are currently available. Formaldehyde-inactivated whole-virus vaccines derived from EV71 clinical isolates and a mouse-adapted virus (MAV) were tested in a mouse model of EV71 encephalomyelitis. After only two immunizations, given to mice at 1 and 7 days of age, the MAV vaccine protected mice at 14 days of age from disease. Tissues from immunized mice were negative for virus by viral culture, reverse transcriptase PCR, immunohistochemistry analysis, and in situ hybridization. Cross-neutralizing EV71 antibodies to strains with genotypes B3, B4, and C1 to C5 generated in immunized adult mice were able to passively protect 14-day-old mice from disease.
  10. Wang J, Vijaykrishna D, Duan L, Bahl J, Zhang JX, Webster RG, et al.
    J Virol, 2008 Apr;82(7):3405-14.
    PMID: 18216109 DOI: 10.1128/JVI.02468-07
    The transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus to Southeast Asian countries triggered the first major outbreak and transmission wave in late 2003, accelerating the pandemic threat to the world. Due to the lack of influenza surveillance prior to these outbreaks, the genetic diversity and the transmission pathways of H5N1 viruses from this period remain undefined. To determine the possible source of the wave 1 H5N1 viruses, we recently conducted further sequencing and analysis of samples collected in live-poultry markets from Guangdong, Hunan, and Yunnan in southern China from 2001 to 2004. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of 73 H5N1 isolates from this period revealed a greater genetic diversity in southern China than previously reported. Moreover, results show that eight viruses isolated from Yunnan in 2002 and 2003 were most closely related to the clade 1 virus sublineage from Vietnam, Thailand, and Malaysia, while two viruses from Hunan in 2002 and 2003 were most closely related to viruses from Indonesia (clade 2.1). Further phylogenetic analyses of the six internal genes showed that all 10 of those viruses maintained similar phylogenetic relationships as the surface genes. The 10 progenitor viruses were genotype Z and shared high similarity (>/=99%) with their corresponding descendant viruses in most gene segments. These results suggest a direct transmission link for H5N1 viruses between Yunnan and Vietnam and also between Hunan and Indonesia during 2002 and 2003. Poultry trade may be responsible for virus introduction to Vietnam, while the transmission route from Hunan to Indonesia remains unclear.
  11. Yaiw KC, Bingham J, Crameri G, Mungall B, Hyatt A, Yu M, et al.
    J Virol, 2008 Jan;82(1):565-8.
    PMID: 17913804
    Disease manifestation, pathology, and tissue tropism following infection with Tioman virus (TioPV), a newly isolated, bat-derived paramyxovirus, was investigated in subcutaneously (n = 12) and oronasally (n = 4) inoculated pigs. Pigs were either asymptomatic or developed pyrexia, but all of the animals produced neutralizing antibodies. The virus (viral antigen and/or genome) was detected in lymphocytes of the thymus, tonsils, spleen, lymph nodes and Peyer's patches (ileum), tonsillar epithelium, and thymic epithelioreticular cells. Virus was isolated from oral swabs but not from urine. Our findings suggest that the pig could act as an intermediate or amplifying host for TioPV and that oral secretion is a possible means of viral transmission.
  12. Weingartl HM, Berhane Y, Caswell JL, Loosmore S, Audonnet JC, Roth JA, et al.
    J Virol, 2006 Aug;80(16):7929-38.
    PMID: 16873250
    Nipah virus (NiV), of the family Paramyxoviridae, was isolated in 1999 in Malaysia from a human fatality in an outbreak of severe human encephalitis, when human infections were linked to transmission of the virus from pigs. Consequently, a swine vaccine able to abolish virus shedding is of veterinary and human health interest. Canarypox virus-based vaccine vectors carrying the gene for NiV glycoprotein (ALVAC-G) or the fusion protein (ALVAC-F) were used to intramuscularly immunize four pigs per group, either with 10(8) PFU each or in combination. Pigs were boosted 14 days postvaccination and challenged with 2.5 x 10(5) PFU of NiV two weeks later. The combined ALVAC-F/G vaccine induced the highest levels of neutralization antibodies (2,560); despite the low neutralizing antibody levels in the F vaccinees (160), all vaccinated animals appeared to be protected against challenge. Virus was not isolated from the tissues of any of the vaccinated pigs postchallenge, and a real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay detected only small amounts of viral RNA in several samples. In challenge control pigs, virus was isolated from a number of tissues (10(4.4) PFU/g) or detected by real-time RT-PCR. Vaccination of the ALVAC-F/G vaccinees appeared to stimulate both type 1 and type 2 cytokine responses. Histopathological findings indicated that there was no enhancement of lesions in the vaccinees. No virus shedding was detected in vaccinated animals, in contrast to challenge control pigs, from which virus was isolated from the throat and nose (10(2.9) PFU/ml). Based on the data presented, the combined ALVAC-F/G vaccine appears to be a very promising vaccine candidate for swine.
  13. Escaffre O, Borisevich V, Carmical JR, Prusak D, Prescott J, Feldmann H, et al.
    J Virol, 2013 Mar;87(6):3284-94.
    PMID: 23302882 DOI: 10.1128/JVI.02576-12
    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are deadly zoonotic viruses for which no vaccines or therapeutics are licensed for human use. Henipavirus infection causes severe respiratory illness and encephalitis. Although the exact route of transmission in human is unknown, epidemiological studies and in vivo studies suggest that the respiratory tract is important for virus replication. However, the target cells in the respiratory tract are unknown, as are the mechanisms by which henipaviruses can cause disease. In this study, we characterized henipavirus pathogenesis using primary cells derived from the human respiratory tract. The growth kinetics of NiV-Malaysia, NiV-Bangladesh, and HeV were determined in bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells (NHBE) and small airway epithelial cells (SAEC). In addition, host responses to infection were assessed by gene expression analysis and immunoassays. Viruses replicated efficiently in both cell types and induced large syncytia. The host response to henipavirus infection in NHBE and SAEC highlighted a difference in the inflammatory response between HeV and NiV strains as well as intrinsic differences in the ability to mount an inflammatory response between NHBE and SAEC. These responses were highest during HeV infection in SAEC, as characterized by the levels of key cytokines (interleukin 6 [IL-6], IL-8, IL-1α, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1], and colony-stimulating factors) responsible for immune cell recruitment. Finally, we identified virus strain-dependent variability in type I interferon antagonism in NHBE and SAEC: NiV-Malaysia counteracted this pathway more efficiently than NiV-Bangladesh and HeV. These results provide crucial new information in the understanding of henipavirus pathogenesis in the human respiratory tract at an early stage of infection.
  14. Tsai KN, Chong CL, Chou YC, Huang CC, Wang YL, Wang SW, et al.
    J Virol, 2015 Nov;89(22):11406-19.
    PMID: 26339052 DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00949-15
    The risk of liver cancer in patients infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and their clinical response to interferon alpha therapy vary based on the HBV genotype. The mechanisms underlying these differences in HBV pathogenesis remain unclear. In HepG2 cells transfected with a mutant HBV(G2335A) expression plasmid that does not transcribe the 2.2-kb doubly spliced RNA (2.2DS-RNA) expressed by wild-type HBV genotype A, the level of HBV pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) was higher than that in cells transfected with an HBV genotype A expression plasmid. By using cotransfection with HBV genotype D and 2.2DS-RNA expression plasmids, we found that a reduction of pgRNA was observed in the cells even in the presence of small amounts of the 2.2DS-RNA plasmid. Moreover, ectopic expression of 2.2DS-RNA in the HBV-producing cell line 1.3ES2 reduced the expression of pgRNA. Further analysis showed that exogenously transcribed 2.2DS-RNA inhibited a reconstituted transcription in vitro. In Huh7 cells ectopically expressing 2.2DS-RNA, RNA immunoprecipitation revealed that 2.2DS-RNA interacted with the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and that nucleotides 432 to 832 of 2.2DS-RNA were required for efficient TBP binding. Immunofluorescence experiments showed that 2.2DS-RNA colocalized with cytoplasmic TBP and the stress granule components, G3BP and poly(A)-binding protein 1 (PABP1), in Huh7 cells. In conclusion, our study reveals that 2.2DS-RNA acts as a repressor of HBV transcription through an interaction with TBP that induces stress granule formation. The expression of 2.2DS-RNA may be one of the viral factors involved in viral replication, which may underlie differences in clinical outcomes of liver disease and responses to interferon alpha therapy between patients infected with different HBV genotypes.
  15. Jelen MM, Chen Z, Kocjan BJ, Hošnjak L, Burt FJ, Chan PKS, et al.
    J Virol, 2016 06 01;90(11):5503-5513.
    PMID: 27030261 DOI: 10.1128/JVI.03149-15
    Human papillomavirus 11 (HPV11) is an etiological agent of anogenital warts and laryngeal papillomas and is included in the 4-valent and 9-valent prophylactic HPV vaccines. We established the largest collection of globally circulating HPV11 isolates to date and examined the genomic diversity of 433 isolates and 78 complete genomes (CGs) from six continents. The genomic variation within the 2,800-bp E5a-E5b-L1-upstream regulatory region was initially studied in 181/207 (87.4%) HPV11 isolates collected for this study. Of these, the CGs of 30 HPV11 variants containing unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), indels (insertions or deletions), or amino acid changes were fully sequenced. A maximum likelihood tree based on the global alignment of 78 HPV11 CGs (30 CGs from our study and 48 CGs from GenBank) revealed two HPV11 lineages (lineages A and B) and four sublineages (sublineages A1, A2, A3, and A4). HPV11 (sub)lineage-specific SNPs within the CG were identified, as well as the 208-bp representative region for CG-based phylogenetic clustering within the partial E2 open reading frame and noncoding region 2. Globally, sublineage A2 was the most prevalent, followed by sublineages A1, A3, and A4 and lineage B.

    IMPORTANCE: This collaborative international study defined the global heterogeneity of HPV11 and established the largest collection of globally circulating HPV11 genomic variants to date. Thirty novel complete HPV11 genomes were determined and submitted to the available sequence repositories. Global phylogenetic analysis revealed two HPV11 variant lineages and four sublineages. The HPV11 (sub)lineage-specific SNPs and the representative region identified within the partial genomic region E2/noncoding region 2 (NCR2) will enable the simpler identification and comparison of HPV11 variants worldwide. This study provides an important knowledge base for HPV11 for future studies in HPV epidemiology, evolution, pathogenicity, prevention, and molecular assay development.

  16. Sam IC, Su YC, Chan YF, Nor'E SS, Hassan A, Jafar FL, et al.
    J Virol, 2015 Sep;89(18):9689-92.
    PMID: 26136576 DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00708-15
    Influenza B virus causes significant disease but remains understudied in tropical regions. We sequenced 72 influenza B viruses collected in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from 1995 to 2008. The predominant circulating lineage (Victoria or Yamagata) changed every 1 to 3 years, and these shifts were associated with increased incidence of influenza B. We also found poor lineage matches with recommended influenza virus vaccine strains. While most influenza B virus lineages in Malaysia were short-lived, one circulated for 3 to 4 years.
  17. Geoghegan JL, Tan le V, Kühnert D, Halpin RA, Lin X, Simenauer A, et al.
    J Virol, 2015 Sep;89(17):8871-9.
    PMID: 26085170 DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00706-15
    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is a major cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and is particularly prevalent in parts of Southeast Asia, affecting thousands of children and infants each year. Revealing the evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics of EV-A71 through time and space is central to understanding its outbreak potential. We generated the full genome sequences of 200 EV-A71 strains sampled from various locations in Viet Nam between 2011 and 2013 and used these sequence data to determine the evolutionary history and phylodynamics of EV-A71 in Viet Nam, providing estimates of the effective reproduction number (Re) of the infection through time. In addition, we described the phylogeography of EV-A71 throughout Southeast Asia, documenting patterns of viral gene flow. Accordingly, our analysis reveals that a rapid genogroup switch from C4 to B5 likely took place during 2012 in Viet Nam. We show that the Re of subgenogroup C4 decreased during the time frame of sampling, whereas that of B5 increased and remained >1 at the end of 2013, corresponding to a rise in B5 prevalence. Our study reveals that the subgenogroup B5 virus that emerged into Viet Nam is closely related to variants that were responsible for large epidemics in Malaysia and Taiwan and therefore extends our knowledge regarding its associated area of endemicity. Subgenogroup B5 evidently has the potential to cause more widespread outbreaks across Southeast Asia.

    IMPORTANCE: EV-A71 is one of many viruses that cause HFMD, a common syndrome that largely affects infants and children. HFMD usually causes only mild illness with no long-term consequences. Occasionally, however, severe infection may arise, especially in very young children, causing neurological complications and even death. EV-A71 is highly contagious and is associated with the most severe HFMD cases, with large and frequent epidemics of the virus recorded worldwide. Although major advances have been made in the development of a potential EV-A71 vaccine, there is no current prevention and little is known about the patterns and dynamics of EV-A71 spread. In this study, we utilize full-length genome sequence data obtained from HFMD patients in Viet Nam, a geographical region where the disease has been endemic since 2003, to characterize the phylodynamics of this important emerging virus.

  18. McMinn P, Lindsay K, Perera D, Chan HM, Chan KP, Cardosa MJ
    J Virol, 2001 Aug;75(16):7732-8.
    PMID: 11462047
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a frequent cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics associated with severe neurological sequelae in a small proportion of cases. There has been a significant increase in EV71 epidemic activity throughout the Asia-Pacific region since 1997. Recent HFMD epidemics in this region have been associated with a severe form of brainstem encephalitis associated with pulmonary edema and high case fatality rates. In this study, we show that four genetic lineages of EV71 have been prevalent in the Asia-Pacific region since 1997, including two previously undescribed genogroups (B3 and B4). Furthermore, we show that viruses belonging to genogroups B3 and B4 have circulated endemically in Southeast Asia during this period and have been the primary cause of several large HFMD or encephalitis epidemics in Malaysia, Singapore, and Western Australia.
  19. Solomon T, Ni H, Beasley DW, Ekkelenkamp M, Cardosa MJ, Barrett AD
    J Virol, 2003 Mar;77(5):3091-8.
    PMID: 12584335
    Since it emerged in Japan in the 1870s, Japanese encephalitis has spread across Asia and has become the most important cause of epidemic encephalitis worldwide. Four genotypes of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are presently recognized (representatives of genotypes I to III have been fully sequenced), but its origin is not known. We have determined the complete nucleotide and amino acid sequence of a genotype IV Indonesian isolate (JKT6468) which represents the oldest lineage, compared it with other fully sequenced genomes, and examined the geographical distribution of all known isolates. JKT6468 was the least similar, with nucleotide divergence ranging from 17.4 to 19.6% and amino acid divergence ranging from 4.7 to 6.5%. It included an unusual series of amino acids at the carboxy terminus of the core protein unlike that seen in other JEV strains. Three signature amino acids in the envelope protein (including E327 Leu-->Thr/Ser on the exposed lateral surface of the putative receptor binding domain) distinguished genotype IV strains from more recent genotypes. Analysis of all 290 JEV isolates for which sequence data are available showed that the Indonesia-Malaysia region has all genotypes of JEV circulating, whereas only more recent genotypes circulate in other areas (P < 0.0001). These results suggest that JEV originated from its ancestral virus in the Indonesia-Malaysia region and evolved there into the different genotypes which then spread across Asia. Our data, together with recent evidence on the origins of other emerging viruses, including dengue virus and Nipah virus, imply that tropical southeast Asia may be an important zone for emerging pathogens.
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