Pelvimetry is the measurement of the dimensions of the pelvis, measured internally or externally, and is typically conducted with the aid of a pelvimeter. Intrapelvic dimensions, namely the intrapelvic height and width, are used to calculate pelvic area which has a moderate to high degree of heritability. Pelvic area measurements are associated with calving difficulty and have been used by producers to select for heifers to be included in their breeding herd.
A six-year-old Thoroughbred race horse was presented with left unilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge. Endoscopic examination revealed atypical mycotic lesion within the guttural pouch in which the fungal mass was not located on any neurovascular structures. This case was successfully treated by the combination of manual debulking of fungal diphtheritic plaques and medical treatment that included daily local irrigation and systemic medication. There were no complications and the horse returned to race three weeks later.
A 7-year-old, intact female Domestic Shorthair cat was referred to University Veterinary Hospital (UVH), UPM for diagnostic workup of a hepatomegaly observed on abdominal radiographs. Physical examination revealed no significant findings except for a distended abdomen. Hematology and serum biochemistry findings included a regenerative anaemia, left shift neutrophilia and a 10-fold elevation in gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT). Abdominal ultrasound revealed heterechoic liver lobes with irregular margins and presence of nodular and cyst-like structures predominantly affecting the left lobes. A mild ascites was also noted. A fine needle aspiration of the liver was performed and cytology results confirmed a cholangiocarcinoma. Generally, the outcome for cholagiocarcinoma is poor and there is limited information regarding the prognosis for patients with cholangiocarcinoma following chemotherapy or surgery.
An adult female Elephant Trunk Snake (Acrochordus javanicus) was reported to have been weak and inappetent for five days. The following morning the snake found dead, while in the process of shedding its skin. On post mortem examination, there were multiple circumscribed caseous nodules of various sizes distributed all over the liver, along the respiratory tract and on the lungs. Bacteriological analysis of the lungs and liver swab samples yielded Burkholderia pseudomallei, which was confirmed by PCR amplification of specific 16S rRNA. The condition was diagnosed as melioidosis and the organism was genotypically characterized as sequence type 51, a genotype that has been previously characterized in humans in Malaysia. Antibiotic susceptibility by both Disc diffusion or Kirby Bauer and E-test minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) showed that the organism exhibited susceptibility to meropenem, imipenem, ceftazidime, cotrimoxazole and co-amoxyclav; the antibiotics recommended in the treatment of melioidosis.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive joint disease leading to the destruction of joint structures, which in turn causes severe and chronic pain to the patient. Since OA is a troubling and disruptive disease, numerous researches have been done into diagnosing this disease, both in the early and the late stages of the disease. Diagnostic modalities such as radiography, computed-tomography (CT), micro-computed tomography (µ-CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used in OA research. Not only that, more advance measurements and criteria have been established to standardize OA research. Currently, the OA research has been delving into proteomic studies to search for potential disease biomarkers. Biomarkers such as urinary C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type 2 (uCTX-II) and cartilage oligometric protein (COMP) have shown potential to be both diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. For this review paper, the developments in diagnostic modalities are discussed focusing more on proteomic and biomarker studies.
A case report of pneumonia and egg retention in a river terrapin was presented in this paper. A 20 year-old river terrapin (Batagur baska) was presented with complaint of coughing with blood discharge, wheezing breathing and inappetance. Plain radiograph showed both right and left lung lobes were consolidated due to pneumonia 90% and 70%, respectively. Tentative diagnosis of pneumonia due to opportunistic bacterial infection of Chromobacterium sp. and Plesiomonas shigelloides was made in this case based on bacterial isolation and response to antibiotic and antiinflammatory drugs. Enrofloxacin and flunixin meglumine were administered from Day-1 to -5. Enrofloxacin was then changed to gentamicin since it showed resistance in those bacteria. No clinical changes were observed. Gentamicin was given at rate 2.5 mg/kg once a week intramuscularly and prednisolone 2 mg/kg once on Day-6 given intramuscularly, showed a response on Day-10 of hospitalisation with the evidence of reduction in lung consolidation by almost 90% clear of lung lobes from pneumonia. Sixteen thin-shelled eggs were also observed in the coelomic cavity on radiographic images. Active laying season, prolonged laying period and the history of laying only two eggs a week before presenting to hospital gives a highly suggestive diagnosis of egg retention syndrome. To encourage laying, the terrapin was given a daily parenteral calcium supplement, oxytocin 5 IU/kg intramuscularly (Day-10 hospitalisation) and was released for sunbath and to sand twice daily. The eggs were completely laid on Day-11 and the overall terrapin condition was greatly improved 2 weeks post-hospitalisation.
A 5-month-old Siamese cross kitten was presented with jaundice and a palpable abdominal mass at the right cranial quadrant. The extra-hepatic biliary system was markedly distended upon abdominal ultrasonography. Complete bile duct obstruction was ruled out due to the presence of urobilinogen, light brown stool, and consistentlynormal alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels. Head tremors developed on the second day of hospitalization. Tentative diagnoses of congenital biliary anomaly and hepatic encephalopathy werederived and exploratory laparotomy revealed a severely distended and tortuous bile duct indistinguishable from the gallbladder with negative duodenal filling. Modified cholechoduodenostomy was performed however the kitten did not recover from general anaesthesia. Secondary cholangiohepatitis and hepatic encephalopathy were confirmed upon histopathologic examination.Primary congenital biliary atresia or choledochal cyst with secondary cholangiohepatitis was suspected. Biliary anomalies are rare in cats with only two cases reported in the literature. These conditions are often challenging to diagnose and due to the limited treatment options, have a poor prognosis.
Leptospirosis is recognised as one of the leading zoonotic diseases and rodents have been implicated as one of the natural reservoirs of the disease. The Malayan porcupines (Hystrix brachyura) which are also a rodent could possibly be a carrier of leptospiral organisms. This study was conducted to determine the serological prevalence of leptospiral infection among captive Malayan porcupines and to disclose the possibility of porcupines as a reservoir for leptospiral infection. Fifty serum samples were obtained from the Malayan porcupines kept in captivity at the Wildlife Conservation Centre, Sungai Dusun, Malaysia. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was performed on the serum samples to detect the presence of agglutinating antibodies to a panel of 16 Leptospira serovars (Australis, Autumnalis, Ballum, Bataviae, Canicola, Celledoni, Djasiman, Hardjobovis, Hardjopratjino, Hebdomadis, Hurstbridge, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Javanica, Pomona, Pyrogenes and Sejroe). From the serological test, 18% (n=9/50) of the Malayan porcupines tested had leptospiral antibodies to serovars Javanica (8%), Hurstbridge (4%), Ballum (2%), Celledoni (2%) and Hardjoprajitno (2%). It is seen that this study disclosed a high prevalence of leptospiral infection in the Malayan porcupines tested and indicated that the Malayan porcupines could possibly be a source of leptospirosis to other animals including humans and that they might play an important role in the epidemiology of leptospiral infection in the country.
Infected poultry meat plays an important role in the spread of Newcastle Disease (ND). In this study, an imported meat product was found to be positive for ND by both virus isolation and molecular characterization. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the F protein cleavage site showed that the isolate was virulent as indicated by the sequence 112RRQKR116 for the Cterminus of the F2 protein and phenylanine (F) at the N-terminus of the F1 protein, residue 117. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis showed the isolate was 98% identical with China Hebei ND strain. Though the regulations for the importation of poultry meat for human consumption into Malaysia are strict, the possibility of the persistence of ND virus in imported meat is prevalent. Strict enforcement of importing regulations and screening the disease in imported poultry meat is important to ensure food safety and prevent introducing ND strain fInfected poultry meat plays an important role in the spread of Newcastle Disease (ND). In this study, an imported meat product was found to be positive for ND by both virus isolation and molecular characterization. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the F protein cleavage site showed that the isolate was virulent as indicated by the sequence 112RRQKR116 for the Cterminus of the F2 protein and phenylanine (F) at the N-terminus of the F1 protein, residue 117. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis showed the isolate was 98% identical with China Hebei ND strain. Though the regulations for the importation of poultry meat for human consumption into Malaysia are strict, the possibility of the persistence of ND virus in imported meat is prevalent. Strict enforcement of importing regulations and screening the disease in imported poultry meat is important to ensure food safety and prevent introducing ND strain from other countries into Malaysiarom other countries into Malaysia.
Hyperadrenocorticism is the excessive production of cortisol by the adrenal cortex. 15-20% of hyperadrenocorticism in dogs may be due to functional adrenal tumour. Here we present a case of functional adrenal tumour in a 10 years old Shih-Tzu Poodle mixed-breed dog that was presented to University Veterinary Hospital, Universiti Putra Malaysia. Physical examination findings include multiple cutaneous myiasis, a pendulous abdomen with comedones on the ventral thoracic region and thinning of the skin. Clinical signs shown were polyuria, polydipsia and polyphagia. Serum biochemistry result showed elevated alkaline phosphatase enzyme of 5 folds. Urinary specific gravity was minimally concentrated (1.015). Radiography showed generalised hepatomegaly. Meanwhile, ultrasonography showed unilateral enlargement of the right adrenal gland with mineralisation. Invasion of the right adrenal gland into the caudal vena cava was observed. A differentiation test (high-dose dexamethasone suppression test) was performed and a lack of suppression of the cortisol level was observed. Based on the appropriate clinical signs and physical examination findings, elevated alkaline phosphatase enzyme, minimally concentrated urinary specific gravity, generalised hepatomegaly, unilateral adrenal gland enlargement, and high-dose dexamethasone suppression test, a diagnosis of functional adrenal tumour was made.
An 11-year-old intact male Shih Tzu dog was referred to the University Veterinary Hospital (UVH) with history of coughing and laboured breathing. Auscultation revealed that the dog had a left systolic heart murmur grade V/VI at the base of the heart. Radiography showed findings of cardiomegaly and pulmonary oedema. Echocardiography findings revealed that dog has a myxomatous mitral valve disease. The mitral valve was severely thickened and prolapsed into the left atrium. Congestive heart failure (CHF) was treated with an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and diuretic. An anti-mucolytic agent was prescribed as a symptomatic treatmentfor the coughing that could be due to mild bronchitis. Dog did not response well with treatment as the frequency of cough was not reduced and the duration was longer each time. Pimobendan was then added on to the initial treatment and there was a tremendous improvement seen from the patient after that. Episodes of productive cough were noticed greatly reduced and dog was much more active at home post two weeks of ACE inhibitor, diuretic and dual-acting inodilator. We successfully maintained the dog with minimal coughing episodes. However, the prognosis is moderate to poor in this case due to possibilities of refraction towards medications.
A comparative study of nutrient composition and in vitro ruminal degradability of selected local plants, Macaranga sp.and Mallotus sp.was carried out and Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) was used as control.The results obtained from proximate analysis revealed that there were significant difference (P
Garcinia hombroniana has been used in Malay traditional medicine to treat various disorders such as abdominal pain and gonorrhea, and little is known about its toxicological properties. This study investigated the acute toxicological effects of the plant’s leaves aqueous extract using theoral acute toxic class (ATC) method. Twenty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into T1, T2, T3 and control groups. The T1, T2 and T3 rats administered a single oral dose of 300, 2000 and 5000 mg/kg of G. hombroniana leaves aqueous extract, respectively.The animals were checked daily for abnormal clinical signs and mortality rate for 14 days. The body weight, daily food and water consumption were recorded. The haematological and biochemical parameters of blood as well as relative organ weight and tissues histology such as heart, kidney, liver and spleen were evaluated. Results have shown significantly decreased (p< 0.05) food and water consumption in T2 and T3 rats, which returned to normal after 72 hr post administration. No significant differences (p≥ 0.05) in the haematological and serum biochemical parameters in the treated rat groups, compared to the untreated control animals. An increase in the relative weight of spleen was noticed in T3 animals. Congestion of the splenic, hepatic, cardiac and renal tissues was seen in T2 and T3 rats. The oral LD50 was higher than 5000 mg/kg of body weight. Thus, it can be concluded that G. hombroniana aqueous extract shows little toxicity in the laboratory rats and the therapeutic potentials should be further investigated.
Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) such as multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli are important pathogens associated with nosocomial infections in both human and animal health care facilities. Surfaces of inanimate objects in health care facilities can serve as sources of infection. However, studies on prevalence of these pathogens in veterinary settings are lacking in the country. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the occurrence of A. baumannii and E. coli and the occurrence of MDR isolates on surfaces of inanimate objects in veterinary health care facilities in Klang Valley, Malaysia. In this study, swab samples were taken from 65 surfaces of inanimate objects that included door knobs, examination tables, labcoats, stethoscopes and weighing scales. The swab samples were cultured and all isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility test. The study revealed that the occurrence of A. baumannii was 9.23% and 5 out of 6 (83.33%) A. baumannii isolates were classified as MDR. However, no E. coli was isolated. In conclusion, surfaces of inanimate objects can be a source of MDR A. baumannii in veterinary health care facilities that is of animal and public health concern.
Oesophageal strictures associated with doxycycline therapy in cats are a rare occurrence but several cases have been reported. A 3-month-old kitten was presented to University Veterinary Hospital, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UVH-UPM) with the primary complaint of persistent vomiting. The kitten was prescribed with doxycycline two weeks prior to presentation. Regurgitation was observed during hospitalisation. Radiographs and endoscopy performed revealed findings consistent with a megaesophagus cranial to an oesophageal stricture located at the region of the second thoracic vertebrae.
The complement cascade is a unique sequence of molecular events occurring within the vascular system in which inactive plasma proteins synthesised by the liver are activated following tissue injury (Figure ) (McGavin and Zachary, 2007). The increase permeability of blood vessels during inflammation is stimulated, at least in part, by the complement system. The complement system is a complex system of 30 serum proteins. Many early components are serine proteases that are activated sequentially to form a cascade. The complement cascade is activated through any one, or more, of four pathways: the classical, the mannan-binding lectin (MBL), the alternative and the extrinsic protease pathways (Guo and Ward, 2005; Monk et al., 2007; Ricklin and Lambris, 2007). For further information, refer (Manthey et al., 2009). (Copied from article)
Clinically healthy pets may carry zoonotic pathogens and shed them, thus act as potential public health threat. Small, exotic animals are gaining popularity as pets which include iguanas, turtles and sugar gliders. Salmonellosis is an important disease affecting human and animal populations worldwide. It is reported that sugar gliders are becoming popular pets among young Malaysians, not only are they cute and adorable but are easily carried around. Of 35 pet sugar gliders and 17 from a breeder, 15% were positive for salmonellae and the serovars identified were Salmonella enterica serovar Albany (62.5%) and Salmonella enterica serovar London (37.5%). Staphylococcus spp. (41.0%) were most frequently identified from oral mucosae, followed by Enterococcus faecalis (17%), Streptococcus viridians (15.0%), Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (13.0%) and Enterococcus faecium, Pasteurella spp., Staphylococcus delphini and Escherichia coli (2.0–4.0%). The close interaction between infected pet sugar gliders and their owners poses public health risk. Breeders with infected animals present direct risk to pet shops and pet owners.
Grouper Iriovirus (GIV) is one of the most devastating viral diseases of marine and cultured groupers worldwide. In the current study, 5 presumptive Malaysian GIV isolates were characterised through PCR amplification of the major capsid protein (MCP) gene and phylogenetic analysis of the sequences. The sequences from the five GIV isolates showed 100% homology with each other and a close relationship with grouper iridovirus isolate (GIV_Tn_352), which was clustered in group 1 together with King grouper iridovirus isolate (KGIV_Cy_346), Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), and Crimson snapper iridovirus isolate (CSIV). The phylogenetic tree also showed different degree of relatedness with other Ranavirus strains which were obtained from the blast of GIV MCP gene in the NCBI database. This study confirmed the GIV isolates from Malaysia are related to other isolates that were reported previously.
Thin does or very over-conditioned does and does carrying with multiple pregnancies are more likely to develop pregnancy ketosis (pregnancy toxaemia). Pregnancy ketosis is one of the metabolic disorders in ruminant animal such as does and ewes during the last weeks of pregnancy (5 – 6 weeks before gestation) and beside high ketone body levels characterised by free fatty acids levels (FFA). These FFA are derived from the adipose tissue. The ability of adipocytes to respond to changes in the energy balance, by secretion of FFA makes this parameter a main indicator for disorder that coincide with changes in energy balance. It is biochemically and endocrinologically characterized by ketosis, hypoinsulinemia and an elevation of B- hydroxybtyrate concentration in the plasma, free fatty acids (FFA), and cortisol. However, the effect of plasma free fatty acid on pathophysiology, metabolites and histological changes of this disorder remain poorly understood. Clinical signs, often with a slow onset, are characterised by neuorological signs like teeth grinding, stress and dull eyes. Ketosis also affected on pathological part which characterized by fatty liver. In this review, we are focusing various key aspects of the disease with special reference on the clinical, biochemical and histological changes during development of pregnancy ketosis in goat population.
Two cases of diaphragmatic hernia in cats caused by road traffic accident were undiagnosed during the initial presentation. Both cats showed no evidence of respiratory distress and clinicians did not notice the diaphragmatic hernia on thoracic radiographs. Later on, both cats showed signs of dyspnea and diaphragmatic hernia was diagnosed with repeated thoracic radiograph and ultrasound. Diaphragmatic hernia is rather common in veterinary practice, however, its diagnosis can be clinically challenging. This case report highlights the importance to re-evaluate and monitor the patient closely after the traffic accident. Repeated radiograph, different diagnostic modalities and techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography and positive contrast peritoneagraphy should be used in order to diagnose the diaphragmatic hernia conclusively.