Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive joint disease leading to the destruction of joint structures, which in turn causes severe and chronic pain to the patient. Since OA is a troubling and disruptive disease, numerous researches have been done into diagnosing this disease, both in the early and the late stages of the disease. Diagnostic modalities such as radiography, computed-tomography (CT), micro-computed tomography (µ-CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used in OA research. Not only that, more advance measurements and criteria have been established to standardize OA research. Currently, the OA research has been delving into proteomic studies to search for potential disease biomarkers. Biomarkers such as urinary C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type 2 (uCTX-II) and cartilage oligometric protein (COMP) have shown potential to be both diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. For this review paper, the developments in diagnostic modalities are discussed focusing more on proteomic and biomarker studies.
A case report of pneumonia and egg retention in a river terrapin was presented in this paper. A 20 year-old river terrapin (Batagur baska) was presented with complaint of coughing with blood discharge, wheezing breathing and inappetance. Plain radiograph showed both right and left lung lobes were consolidated due to pneumonia 90% and 70%, respectively. Tentative diagnosis of pneumonia due to opportunistic bacterial infection of Chromobacterium sp. and Plesiomonas shigelloides was made in this case based on bacterial isolation and response to antibiotic and antiinflammatory drugs. Enrofloxacin and flunixin meglumine were administered from Day-1 to -5. Enrofloxacin was then changed to gentamicin since it showed resistance in those bacteria. No clinical changes were observed. Gentamicin was given at rate 2.5 mg/kg once a week intramuscularly and prednisolone 2 mg/kg once on Day-6 given intramuscularly, showed a response on Day-10 of hospitalisation with the evidence of reduction in lung consolidation by almost 90% clear of lung lobes from pneumonia. Sixteen thin-shelled eggs were also observed in the coelomic cavity on radiographic images. Active laying season, prolonged laying period and the history of laying only two eggs a week before presenting to hospital gives a highly suggestive diagnosis of egg retention syndrome. To encourage laying, the terrapin was given a daily parenteral calcium supplement, oxytocin 5 IU/kg intramuscularly (Day-10 hospitalisation) and was released for sunbath and to sand twice daily. The eggs were completely laid on Day-11 and the overall terrapin condition was greatly improved 2 weeks post-hospitalisation.
An 11-year-old intact male Shih Tzu dog was referred to the University Veterinary Hospital (UVH) with history of coughing and laboured breathing. Auscultation revealed that the dog had a left systolic heart murmur grade V/VI at the base of the heart. Radiography showed findings of cardiomegaly and pulmonary oedema. Echocardiography findings revealed that dog has a myxomatous mitral valve disease. The mitral valve was severely thickened and prolapsed into the left atrium. Congestive heart failure (CHF) was treated with an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and diuretic. An anti-mucolytic agent was prescribed as a symptomatic treatmentfor the coughing that could be due to mild bronchitis. Dog did not response well with treatment as the frequency of cough was not reduced and the duration was longer each time. Pimobendan was then added on to the initial treatment and there was a tremendous improvement seen from the patient after that. Episodes of productive cough were noticed greatly reduced and dog was much more active at home post two weeks of ACE inhibitor, diuretic and dual-acting inodilator. We successfully maintained the dog with minimal coughing episodes. However, the prognosis is moderate to poor in this case due to possibilities of refraction towards medications.
A comparative study of nutrient composition and in vitro ruminal degradability of selected local plants, Macaranga sp.and Mallotus sp.was carried out and Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) was used as control.The results obtained from proximate analysis revealed that there were significant difference (P
Clinically healthy pets may carry zoonotic pathogens and shed them, thus act as potential public health threat. Small, exotic animals are gaining popularity as pets which include iguanas, turtles and sugar gliders. Salmonellosis is an important disease affecting human and animal populations worldwide. It is reported that sugar gliders are becoming popular pets among young Malaysians, not only are they cute and adorable but are easily carried around. Of 35 pet sugar gliders and 17 from a breeder, 15% were positive for salmonellae and the serovars identified were Salmonella enterica serovar Albany (62.5%) and Salmonella enterica serovar London (37.5%). Staphylococcus spp. (41.0%) were most frequently identified from oral mucosae, followed by Enterococcus faecalis (17%), Streptococcus viridians (15.0%), Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (13.0%) and Enterococcus faecium, Pasteurella spp., Staphylococcus delphini and Escherichia coli (2.0–4.0%). The close interaction between infected pet sugar gliders and their owners poses public health risk. Breeders with infected animals present direct risk to pet shops and pet owners.
Grouper Iriovirus (GIV) is one of the most devastating viral diseases of marine and cultured groupers worldwide. In the current study, 5 presumptive Malaysian GIV isolates were characterised through PCR amplification of the major capsid protein (MCP) gene and phylogenetic analysis of the sequences. The sequences from the five GIV isolates showed 100% homology with each other and a close relationship with grouper iridovirus isolate (GIV_Tn_352), which was clustered in group 1 together with King grouper iridovirus isolate (KGIV_Cy_346), Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), and Crimson snapper iridovirus isolate (CSIV). The phylogenetic tree also showed different degree of relatedness with other Ranavirus strains which were obtained from the blast of GIV MCP gene in the NCBI database. This study confirmed the GIV isolates from Malaysia are related to other isolates that were reported previously.
Avian polyomavirus disease is among the most common viral diseases of domesticated exotic birds as such in psittacine families. Caused by avian polyomavirus (APV) which possess a circular, double-stranded DNA which encodes for major structural virus protein 1 (VP1) and minor structural proteins VP2, VP3 and VP4, the disease is also known as Budgerigar fledgling disease polyomavirus (BFPyV), Papovavirus, and Psittacine polyomavirus. Infections from APV may lead to cutaneous haemorrhage, abdominal distension, feather abnormalities and even death. The APV virus has a broad avian host range and is known to cause acute chronic disease in several psittacine birds such as parrot, cockatoo, macaw, and budgerigar. The current status of APV epidemiology globally has not been fully recorded. Only the studies of the virus and disease caused within several countries are used as references, and few were done together with detection of beak and feather disease virus. Despite the common occurrence of APV among bird breeders in Malaysia, a very limited study has been done to evaluate the prevalence status of APV in Malaysia. In this review, we wish to disseminate knowledge, particularly to pet owners and bird breeders, on APV characterisations, its updated occurrence worldwide and prevention strategies. This information may be useful to trigger in depth study on the epidemiology of disease and better management practises among breeders.
Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is an emergent industry in Malaysia. In 2016, EBN worth RM 1.2 billion with the total production of 228-tonne metrics. EBN is salivary secretion of swiftlets (Aerodramus spp.) that contained various nutritive values. Back in Tang Dynasty, it had been recognized as a natural product with broad medicinal effects. Recently, various scientific studies have been done to elucidate the medicinal properties of this precious food. For the past 10 years, antiviral effects of EBN had been explained via in-vitro and in-vivo well-designed researches, in which generally EBN is exerting a good alternative food for prophylactic and therapeutic agent against Influenza A virus infection in the laboratory setting. The limited study had been done to identify the bioactive ingredient of EBN that have antiviral properties. Nevertheless, based on the previous nutritional studies, some contents of EBN have been hypothesised to serve as an antiviral agent, and comprehensive study is required to explicate those claimed. The aim of this paper is to review on the recent discovery pertaining to the potential antiviral effect of EBN in the cell culture and animal model studies.
The livestock industry has been relying merely on chemically synthesized antibiotic for eye infections as sprays and ointment. A natural remedy from Curcuma spp. has been tested for efficacy in curing keratoconjunctivitis and uveitis. A severe case of uveitis has been cured within 7 days, with impaired vision restored. These results are observations of a preliminary study conducted in a goat with uveitis.
This report describes the complications of obstructive urolithiasis in the lower urinary tract causing urinary bladder rupture in a Jamnapari buck. A 3-year-old Jamnapari buck was presented with the complaint of stranguria, subsequent anuria and a progressively distended abdomen for the past three days. Upon physical examination, body temperature, pulse rate and respiration rate were increased. Uroliths could be felt within the urethra in the ventral abdomen region. A urolith was removed via amputationof the urethral process, but the patency of the urethra could not be established. Transabdominal ultrasound revealed anechoic areas around the bladder, and the bladder was relatively small for a urinary obstructed goat. The bladder wall was thickened and shadow of sludge was observed within the bladder. Abdominocentesis was done and fluid analysis revealed that it was a haemorrhagic effusion. Blood results revealed renal disease, liver disease, muscle injury and haemoconcentration. Retrograde cystourethrogram revealed no urolithswithinthe urethra but there was leakage of the contrast agent from the bladder into the peritoneal cavity. The final diagnosis was complete blockage of the lower urinary tract leading to bladder rupture. Exploratory laparotomy was done and emergency cystorraphy was planned. Due to the poor condition of the urinary bladder with presence of septic peritonitis, the goat was euthanised.
An innovative assembly to maintain isoflurane anaesthesia in rats is described. This assembly was used successfully in laboratory rats for dental procedures that may last as long as sixty minutes. Repeated exposures to isoflurane anaesthesia, of up to eight times within a 30-day study period in healthy laboratory rats did not result in any observable adverse-effects.
Leptospirosis is re-emerging in Malaysia and many other tropical countries. Its infection of human and animal’s worldwide. The study was carried out to identify predominate Leptospira serovars within rat populations in Kuala Lumpur (KL) by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). As well to investigate the frequency of infection by polymerase chain reaction assays (PCR). The isolated cultures that obtained from culturing kidney tissue of 112 trapped rats from four sites in KL, were identified by MAT using panel of 16 standard hyper immune anti-sera. Besides, identification of Leptospira strains by PCR amplification with G1/G2 and ompL1 Borgpetersenii genes. Results from typing by MAT revealed that 8/57 (7.1%) of cultured isolates reacted against; hyper-immune antisera of serogroup Javanica and 13/57 (22.8%) against serogroup Bataviae. Whereas, the rest of isolates recorded across reactivity 1/20 against serogroups; Icterohaemorrhagiae 2/57, Canicola 1/57, Australis 2/57. From PCR-G1/G2; 50/112 (50.9%) cultures were positive included (40/57 cultures positive to isolation and 10/55 cultures negative to isolation). While, from PCR-ompL1 Borgpetersenii gene; 21/112 (18.7%) cultures positive included (17/57 cultures positive to isolation and 4/55 cultures were negative to isolation). It is obvious from this study that serogroups Javanica and Bataviae were the predominant among rat populations in KL. Also it revealed the high frequency of pathogenic strains among rat populations and their potential risk of humans and animals contracting infection.
Cattle is one of an important maintenance hosts involved in the transmission of leptospirosis. Serological method is always implemented to detect current or past leptospiral infection in cattle. The results can be obtained immediately compared to isolation method which need more longer time. An in-house IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using heat-killed whole cells of local isolate Leptospira kmetyi serovar malaysia strain Bejo-Iso9 (ELISABejo-Iso9) was developed in this study. The perfomance of ELISA-Bejo-Iso9 was compared with in-house IgGELISA using reference strain 117123 (hardjo bovis) antigen (ELISA-117123) and CUSABIO® commercial ELISA. It was found that, the performance of ELISA-Bejo-Iso9 was promising to compete with commercial ELISA. The specificity and sensitivity was 98.75% and 53.75%, respectively. The sensitivity of ELISA-Bejo-Iso9 was lower than commercial ELISA. However, the specificity of ELISA-Bejo-Iso9 was higher than commercial ELISA. Due to economically and availability factors, this finding suggested that the ELISA-Bejo-Iso9 can be used as an alternatif method for serological diagnosis of leptospirosis in cattle.
An adult female Elephant Trunk Snake (Acrochordus javanicus) was reported to have been weak and inappetent for five days. The following morning the snake found dead, while in the process of shedding its skin. On post mortem examination, there were multiple circumscribed caseous nodules of various sizes distributed all over the liver, along the respiratory tract and on the lungs. Bacteriological analysis of the lungs and liver swab samples yielded Burkholderia pseudomallei, which was confirmed by PCR amplification of specific 16S rRNA. The condition was diagnosed as melioidosis and the organism was genotypically characterized as sequence type 51, a genotype that has been previously characterized in humans in Malaysia. Antibiotic susceptibility by both Disc diffusion or Kirby Bauer and E-test minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) showed that the organism exhibited susceptibility to meropenem, imipenem, ceftazidime, cotrimoxazole and co-amoxyclav; the antibiotics recommended in the treatment of melioidosis.
A 5-month-old Siamese cross kitten was presented with jaundice and a palpable abdominal mass at the right cranial quadrant. The extra-hepatic biliary system was markedly distended upon abdominal ultrasonography. Complete bile duct obstruction was ruled out due to the presence of urobilinogen, light brown stool, and consistentlynormal alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels. Head tremors developed on the second day of hospitalization. Tentative diagnoses of congenital biliary anomaly and hepatic encephalopathy werederived and exploratory laparotomy revealed a severely distended and tortuous bile duct indistinguishable from the gallbladder with negative duodenal filling. Modified cholechoduodenostomy was performed however the kitten did not recover from general anaesthesia. Secondary cholangiohepatitis and hepatic encephalopathy were confirmed upon histopathologic examination.Primary congenital biliary atresia or choledochal cyst with secondary cholangiohepatitis was suspected. Biliary anomalies are rare in cats with only two cases reported in the literature. These conditions are often challenging to diagnose and due to the limited treatment options, have a poor prognosis.
Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) such as multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli are important pathogens associated with nosocomial infections in both human and animal health care facilities. Surfaces of inanimate objects in health care facilities can serve as sources of infection. However, studies on prevalence of these pathogens in veterinary settings are lacking in the country. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the occurrence of A. baumannii and E. coli and the occurrence of MDR isolates on surfaces of inanimate objects in veterinary health care facilities in Klang Valley, Malaysia. In this study, swab samples were taken from 65 surfaces of inanimate objects that included door knobs, examination tables, labcoats, stethoscopes and weighing scales. The swab samples were cultured and all isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility test. The study revealed that the occurrence of A. baumannii was 9.23% and 5 out of 6 (83.33%) A. baumannii isolates were classified as MDR. However, no E. coli was isolated. In conclusion, surfaces of inanimate objects can be a source of MDR A. baumannii in veterinary health care facilities that is of animal and public health concern.
Infected poultry meat plays an important role in the spread of Newcastle Disease (ND). In this study, an imported meat product was found to be positive for ND by both virus isolation and molecular characterization. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the F protein cleavage site showed that the isolate was virulent as indicated by the sequence 112RRQKR116 for the Cterminus of the F2 protein and phenylanine (F) at the N-terminus of the F1 protein, residue 117. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis showed the isolate was 98% identical with China Hebei ND strain. Though the regulations for the importation of poultry meat for human consumption into Malaysia are strict, the possibility of the persistence of ND virus in imported meat is prevalent. Strict enforcement of importing regulations and screening the disease in imported poultry meat is important to ensure food safety and prevent introducing ND strain fInfected poultry meat plays an important role in the spread of Newcastle Disease (ND). In this study, an imported meat product was found to be positive for ND by both virus isolation and molecular characterization. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the F protein cleavage site showed that the isolate was virulent as indicated by the sequence 112RRQKR116 for the Cterminus of the F2 protein and phenylanine (F) at the N-terminus of the F1 protein, residue 117. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis showed the isolate was 98% identical with China Hebei ND strain. Though the regulations for the importation of poultry meat for human consumption into Malaysia are strict, the possibility of the persistence of ND virus in imported meat is prevalent. Strict enforcement of importing regulations and screening the disease in imported poultry meat is important to ensure food safety and prevent introducing ND strain from other countries into Malaysiarom other countries into Malaysia.
A six-year-old Thoroughbred race horse was presented with left unilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge. Endoscopic examination revealed atypical mycotic lesion within the guttural pouch in which the fungal mass was not located on any neurovascular structures. This case was successfully treated by the combination of manual debulking of fungal diphtheritic plaques and medical treatment that included daily local irrigation and systemic medication. There were no complications and the horse returned to race three weeks later.
Oesophageal strictures associated with doxycycline therapy in cats are a rare occurrence but several cases have been reported. A 3-month-old kitten was presented to University Veterinary Hospital, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UVH-UPM) with the primary complaint of persistent vomiting. The kitten was prescribed with doxycycline two weeks prior to presentation. Regurgitation was observed during hospitalisation. Radiographs and endoscopy performed revealed findings consistent with a megaesophagus cranial to an oesophageal stricture located at the region of the second thoracic vertebrae.
Leptospirosis is recognised as one of the leading zoonotic diseases and rodents have been implicated as one of the natural reservoirs of the disease. The Malayan porcupines (Hystrix brachyura) which are also a rodent could possibly be a carrier of leptospiral organisms. This study was conducted to determine the serological prevalence of leptospiral infection among captive Malayan porcupines and to disclose the possibility of porcupines as a reservoir for leptospiral infection. Fifty serum samples were obtained from the Malayan porcupines kept in captivity at the Wildlife Conservation Centre, Sungai Dusun, Malaysia. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was performed on the serum samples to detect the presence of agglutinating antibodies to a panel of 16 Leptospira serovars (Australis, Autumnalis, Ballum, Bataviae, Canicola, Celledoni, Djasiman, Hardjobovis, Hardjopratjino, Hebdomadis, Hurstbridge, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Javanica, Pomona, Pyrogenes and Sejroe). From the serological test, 18% (n=9/50) of the Malayan porcupines tested had leptospiral antibodies to serovars Javanica (8%), Hurstbridge (4%), Ballum (2%), Celledoni (2%) and Hardjoprajitno (2%). It is seen that this study disclosed a high prevalence of leptospiral infection in the Malayan porcupines tested and indicated that the Malayan porcupines could possibly be a source of leptospirosis to other animals including humans and that they might play an important role in the epidemiology of leptospiral infection in the country.