Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 52 in total

  1. Rajendren, S.K., Khairuddin, N.H., Sumita, S.
    Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 2019;31(1):28-33.
    Endurance horses continuously undergoing training. This will cause inflammation which leads to acute phase reaction with the production of acute phase protein, especially serum amyloid A (SAA). The purpose of this study was to establish concentration of SAA in normal endurance horses in the blood serum using two-site enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) technique. Horse sera were aliquoted from blood taken from jugular venipuncture. The highest concentration of SAA was observed in horses rested between 12 months and 24 months. The lowest concentration of SAA was noticed in horses rested more than 24 months. All the horses between 6 and 11 years old have high SAA concentration. When resting intervals were compared against gender of the horses, it was noted that all mares have high SAA concentration compared to gelding and stallion. Whereas SAA concentration in Thoroughbred horses were high compared to Arabian horses in all rest intervals. The SAA concentration in horses rested more than 24 months was low most probably because the horses recovered well from the inflammatory process happened during the endurance race.
  2. Omar, S., Mohd Zainudin, N.A.I., Azman, N., Jessie-Bay, J.X.
    Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 2019;31(1):34-37.
    This report documents a case of 5-month old intact male German Shepherd dog diagnosed with pythiosis on its left forelimb. This is the first ever reported case of pythiosis presented at the University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (UVH), Universiti Putra Malaysia and may be the first ever reported incidence in Malaysia with a complaint of a chronic non-healing wound. The case became complicated as the dog was concurrently infected with a mixed bacterial infection and the identified bacteria were resistant towards a number of antibiotics tested. The antibiotic that was determined to be sensitive was only able to act on certain bacteria and not to the others. The journey of getting to the final diagnosis was almost impossible if we had not tried different media preparation: with and without Dermasel supplement; and through molecular approach using amplification at ITS region followed by DNA sequence analysis. The unwarranted lack during the diagnosis process of this incidence has made us more aware of the presence of Pythium insidiosum in Malaysia and plan for a more strategize ways of diagnosing the suspected fungus at laboratory setting in future. The objective of this paper is to share our experience and reflection on the diagnosis of the rare incidence of pythiosis present in Malaysia.
  3. Joanne, T.S.Y., Lim, M.L., Asnawi, O., Shamsul, M.A.H., Khor, K.H.
    Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 2019;31(1):38-42.
    An 8-year-old spayed female Shih Tzu was referred to University Veterinary Hospital (UVH) with history of chronic coughing for more than a year duration. Dry, hacking cough was heard and bilateral wheezing lung sound was noted upon physical examination. Auscultation of heart revealed left apical systolic heart murmur Grade III/VI. A soft, intermittent swelling was observed at ventral neck, cranial to thoracic inlet (protruded upon expiration and collapsed upon inspiration). Thoracic radiography taken showed presence of apical radiolucency at cervical region and bronchial pattern at caudodorsal lungs with left atrium enlargement and right-sided heart enlargement. Echocardiographic examination revealed myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) with mild regurgitation. Based on diagnostic imaging, this case was diagnosed as dynamic lung lobe herniation secondary to chronic coughing concurrent with myxomatous mitral valve disease. Other differential diagnosis that may lead to chronic cough such as of tracheal collapsed and bronchiectasis was not rule out.
  4. Hoong, L.W., Yasmin, A.R., Mummoorthy, K., Arshad, S.S., Omar, A.R., Anand, P., et al.
    Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 2019;31(2):13-18.
    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection is a very common in cat population. FCoV is further classified into two biotypes namely feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and mutated feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), in which FIPV causes a fatal immune complex disease by changing the tropism from enterocytes to monocytes. Previous studies on molecular detection of FCoV in cats were carried out in catteries but limited study investigate the presence of FCoV antigen in local pet cats. By considering this fact, this study aims to detect FCoV antigen via RT-PCR assay in local pet cats and to compare the similarity of the identified FCoV strain with previous related virus by phylogenetic analysis. By using convenience sampling, rectal swabs and buffy coat were collected from 16 clinically ill pet cats and 5 healthy pet cats. Viral RNA was extracted and subjected to one-step RT-PCR, targeting polymerase gene. Only one out of 21 fecal samples was positive for FCoV and none from buffy coat samples. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the identified positive sample was highly homologous, up to 95%, to FCoV strain from Netherlands and South Korea on partial sequence of polymerase gene. In conclusion, this study detected FCoV antigen in local pet cats from fecal samples while negative detection from fecal and buffy coat samples could not completely rule out the possibilities of FCoV infection due to the complexity of the virus diagnosis that require multiple series of analysis.
  5. Rajendren, S. K., Krishnan, K., Ganesh, T. N., Roslan, N. S., Hashim, N. A., Mohamad, M. A.
    Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 2019;31(2):19-22.
    A 5-year-old Mongrel was brought presented with the complaint of having serosanguineous discharge from penis for a month since adoption. Physical examination revealed cauliflower-like mass at the bulbus glandis. Presence of numerous anisokaryotic and anisocytotic round to oval histiocytes with multivacuolated cytoplasm from cytology, an evidence of canine transmissibale venereal tumour (CTVT). The mass was successfully surgically resected using electrocautery and was in remission for 12 months (since January 2019).
  6. Selvarajah, G.T., Khairani-Bejo, S.
    Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 2019;31(2):23-27.
    Bacteriological isolation and identification were performed on 60 cloacal swabs and 15 aquarium water samples of pet red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans) obtained from aquarium shops in the Klang Valley, Central Peninsula Malaysia. The most common bacteria isolated was Aeromonas spp., which was present in both cloacal swabs (70%) and aquarium water (86.7%). Klebsiella spp. (50%), Escherichia coli (33.3%), Yersinia spp. (16.7%) and Salmonella spp. (15%) obtained form cloacal swabs were identified as pathogenic to both humans and animals. Salmonella spp. were isolated from both cloacal swabs and aquarium water. The Salmonella serotypes identified were S. tennessee, S. typhimurium, S. brezany, S. pomona, S. corvallis and S. schwarzengrund. Bacterial infections in humans associated with handling exotic pets directly or indirectly in contact with aquarium water have been described regularly, hence the zoonotic significance of owning a turtle infected with Salmonella spp. or any pathogenic bacteria therefore cannot be ignored.
  7. Norhayati, Z., Wan Zahari, M., Shanmugavelu, S., Dzulfazly, A.
    Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 2019;31(1):43-44.
    This study was conducted to evaluate the meat quality of Dorper sheep weaned at different ages. 3 cuts of sirloin from 3 animals in each treatment groups were used in this study. 9 lambs were grouped into 3 different weaning groups (G1,G2, G3) of 30, 60 and 90 days, respectively. G3 was served as control group based on current practice. When the animals reached the age of 270 days, 3 out of 9 lambs from each of the treated groups were slaughtered for meat quality analysis. Results from this study shows no significant (P
  8. Aslam, M.W.
    Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 2019;31(2):1-12.
    In recent years, Rhodococcus equi has emerged as pathogen of importance in respiratory and non-respiratory infectious diseases of animals and humans. Its distribution is worldwide and incidence of disease is increasing in nonequine species like cats and humans. Sporadic infection in human and cat is hypothesized to infect immunocompromised cases largely. While predominantly in foals, infection is quite endemic/epidemic in nature depending on virulence of strain, and incidence is 10 – 20% since birth till weaning. Mode of acquisition is quite variable in humans, cats and foals and depends on the route of exposure. Pathogenesis is well understood in natural host but in cats and humans it is still in its infancy because of the manifestation of unusual cases with low to no exposure to contaminated elements. Clinical signs depend on the site of infection but respiratory manifestations are quite common in foals and human cases. In cats extra-pulmonary disorders are hypothesized as more common presentation. Definitive diagnosis is based on the microbiological culture and cytology from tracheobronchial aspirate for respiratory cases and site of sample for non-respiratory lesions. White blood cells and fibrinogen have some correlation in degree of diagnosis in foals but not in cats and humans. Macrolides especially clarithromycin along with rifampin are considered best combination at the moment and recently resistance is being reported against erythromycin and rifampin. In foals, consensus statements by ACVIM published detailed control and preventions but in humans and cats so far hygiene and isolation of infected patients are for the time being the methods to control nosocomial spread.
  9. Goh, S.H., Khor, K.H., Lau, S.F., Ismail, R., Khairani-Bejo, S., Radzi, R.
    Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 2019;31(1):17-27.
    Dogs could be reservoirs and carriers of Leptospira spp., hence, may play a potential role in disease transmission, exposing dog handlers to leptospirosis. This study evaluated the dog handlers’ knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) towards leptospirosis. Four working dog and four dog shelter organisations were approached. A total of 138 dog handlers were conveniently recruited and evaluated on their level of knowledge, attitude and practice towards leptospirosis using a validated structured questionnaire. Most of the dog handlers were male aged between 30 and 40 years with a wide range of working experience of 1 - 10 years and all of them have no formal training about leptospirosis. The majority of the dog handlers from the dog shelters had poor knowledge (90%, n=34/38) and attitude (100%, n=38/38) and moderate practice (53%, n=20/38) towards leptospirosis, whereas the working dog handlers had poor knowledge (58%, n=58/100) and attitude (75%, n=75/100) but a good level of practice (77%, n=77/100). The poor attitude towards leptospirosis in both groups is alarming as it may hinder implementation plans of control and preventive measures. Although there was good hand-washing practices among the dog handlers, there was a lack of personal protective equipment (PPE) practice that may therefore expose both the dogs and dog handlers to leptospirosis. Information gained from this study could be used to implement intervention programmes and to suggest prevention measures to limit the risk of leptospirosis among the dog handlers.
  10. Tyagita, H., Bahaman, A.R., Jasni, S., Ibrahim, T.A.T., Fuzina, N.H.
    Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 2019;31(1):1-11.
    A tourist was infected with a new strain of leptospires namely, Leptospira icterohemorrhagiae serovar Lai strain Langkawi, when he was on vacation in Langkawi, Malaysia. The leptospiral strain was successfully isolated from the patient in the Netherland. In this study, the bacteria were retrieved from Holland and inoculated into fifteen guinea pigs in Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) to determine its pathogenicity. The main clinical symptoms in the guinea pigs were decreased appetite and jaundice. Blood profile showed high neutrophil, lymphocyte, PCV, RBC, haemoglobin, leukocyte and thrombocyte counts. Besides that, enhancement of electrolytes such as sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), and potassium (K) was also noted. Biochemical examination showed an increase alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST) and bilirubin levels. Albumin, alanine transaminase (ALT), blood urea, total protein and creatinine were low values. Histopathological examination under haematoxylin and eosin staining showed evidence of haemorrhages, congestion and oedema in all organs, with inflammatory cell infiltration characterized by neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages. Hydropic degeneration and cell necrosis were also common in the findings. Leptospires were detected from Day 2 p.i by silver staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Rise in antibody titre was seen as early as Day 5 p.i and leptospiral DNA was detected by PCR in the kidneys and liver on Day 3 and Day 5, respectively. The findings were indicative of leptospirosis. This study demonstrated that guinea pigs are a suitable animal model to illustrate the clinical symptoms and pathological changes seen following infection with Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae serovar Lai strain Langkawi. In general, the symptoms and changes seen in leptospirosis are similar to viral infections and the information and data from this present study would help differentiate infection due to leptospires from that of viral infection. Leptospiral infection has often been misdiagnosed to be viral infection such as influenza and dengue which have similar signs and symptoms as leptospirosis.
  11. Mansor, R., Diauudin, N.S., Syed-Hussain, S.S., Khalid, S.F.
    Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 2019;31(1):12-16.
    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a major problem worldwide with significance public health impact in both animal and human populations. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a common pathogen in domestic livestock and Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a normal flora in the gut and these organisms are considered as effective indicators for AMR surveillance. Increased in antimicrobial resistance of these bacteria in veterinary medicine leads to difficulties in choosing effective antibiotics to treat diseases they caused. This study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of S. aureus and E. coli isolated from dairy goats in selected farms located in Selangor, Malaysia against different antibiotics. Milk and faecal samples were collected from 36 dairy goats and samples were prepared for the isolation of S. aureus and E. coli isolates respectively. The isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility test. All 11 (100%) E. coli isolates showed resistance to amoxicillin and penicillin while 3 (27%) of the 11 S. aureus isolates, showed resistance towards the same class of antibiotic. Both S. aureus and E. coli isolates showed high susceptibility to four antibiotics, namely trimethoprim-sulfamethazole, neomycin, tetracycline and enrofloxacin. This study provided information regarding the antibiotic resistance of S. aureus and E. coli in relation to the antimicrobial usage practice in selected dairy goat farms located in Selangor, Malaysia.
  12. Tan WM, Lau SF, Ajat M, Mansor R, Abd-Rani PAM, Ng AMH, et al.
    Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 2017;29(1):7-12.
    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive joint disease leading to the destruction of joint structures, which in turn causes severe and chronic pain to the patient. Since OA is a troubling and disruptive disease, numerous researches have been done into diagnosing this disease, both in the early and the late stages of the disease. Diagnostic modalities such as radiography, computed-tomography (CT), micro-computed tomography (µ-CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used in OA research. Not only that, more advance measurements and criteria have been established to standardize OA research. Currently, the OA research has been delving into proteomic studies to search for potential disease biomarkers. Biomarkers such as urinary C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type 2 (uCTX-II) and cartilage oligometric protein (COMP) have shown potential to be both diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. For this review paper, the developments in diagnostic modalities are discussed focusing more on proteomic and biomarker studies.
  13. Inirah, C.I., Donny, Y., Azlan, C.A., Teoh, H.X., Jesse, F.F.A.
    Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 2017;29(1):13-17.
    A case report of pneumonia and egg retention in a river terrapin was presented in this paper. A 20 year-old river terrapin (Batagur baska) was presented with complaint of coughing with blood discharge, wheezing breathing and inappetance. Plain radiograph showed both right and left lung lobes were consolidated due to pneumonia 90% and 70%, respectively. Tentative diagnosis of pneumonia due to opportunistic bacterial infection of Chromobacterium sp. and Plesiomonas shigelloides was made in this case based on bacterial isolation and response to antibiotic and antiinflammatory drugs. Enrofloxacin and flunixin meglumine were administered from Day-1 to -5. Enrofloxacin was then changed to gentamicin since it showed resistance in those bacteria. No clinical changes were observed. Gentamicin was given at rate 2.5 mg/kg once a week intramuscularly and prednisolone 2 mg/kg once on Day-6 given intramuscularly, showed a response on Day-10 of hospitalisation with the evidence of reduction in lung consolidation by almost 90% clear of lung lobes from pneumonia. Sixteen thin-shelled eggs were also observed in the coelomic cavity on radiographic images. Active laying season, prolonged laying period and the history of laying only two eggs a week before presenting to hospital gives a highly suggestive diagnosis of egg retention syndrome. To encourage laying, the terrapin was given a daily parenteral calcium supplement, oxytocin 5 IU/kg intramuscularly (Day-10 hospitalisation) and was released for sunbath and to sand twice daily. The eggs were completely laid on Day-11 and the overall terrapin condition was greatly improved 2 weeks post-hospitalisation.
  14. Leow, B.L., Syamsiah, A.S., Ong, G.H., Faizul, F.M.Y., Muhammad, R.S., Basirah, M.A., et al.
    Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 2016;28(2):17-20.
    Infected poultry meat plays an important role in the spread of Newcastle Disease (ND). In this study, an imported meat product was found to be positive for ND by both virus isolation and molecular characterization. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the F protein cleavage site showed that the isolate was virulent as indicated by the sequence 112RRQKR116 for the Cterminus of the F2 protein and phenylanine (F) at the N-terminus of the F1 protein, residue 117. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis showed the isolate was 98% identical with China Hebei ND strain. Though the regulations for the importation of poultry meat for human consumption into Malaysia are strict, the possibility of the persistence of ND virus in imported meat is prevalent. Strict enforcement of importing regulations and screening the disease in imported poultry meat is important to ensure food safety and prevent introducing ND strain fInfected poultry meat plays an important role in the spread of Newcastle Disease (ND). In this study, an imported meat product was found to be positive for ND by both virus isolation and molecular characterization. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the F protein cleavage site showed that the isolate was virulent as indicated by the sequence 112RRQKR116 for the Cterminus of the F2 protein and phenylanine (F) at the N-terminus of the F1 protein, residue 117. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis showed the isolate was 98% identical with China Hebei ND strain. Though the regulations for the importation of poultry meat for human consumption into Malaysia are strict, the possibility of the persistence of ND virus in imported meat is prevalent. Strict enforcement of importing regulations and screening the disease in imported poultry meat is important to ensure food safety and prevent introducing ND strain from other countries into Malaysiarom other countries into Malaysia.
  15. Tan, L.P., Thong, H.F., Lim, S.Y.
    Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 2016;28(2):21-23.
    Hyperadrenocorticism is the excessive production of cortisol by the adrenal cortex. 15-20% of hyperadrenocorticism in dogs may be due to functional adrenal tumour. Here we present a case of functional adrenal tumour in a 10 years old Shih-Tzu Poodle mixed-breed dog that was presented to University Veterinary Hospital, Universiti Putra Malaysia. Physical examination findings include multiple cutaneous myiasis, a pendulous abdomen with comedones on the ventral thoracic region and thinning of the skin. Clinical signs shown were polyuria, polydipsia and polyphagia. Serum biochemistry result showed elevated alkaline phosphatase enzyme of 5 folds. Urinary specific gravity was minimally concentrated (1.015). Radiography showed generalised hepatomegaly. Meanwhile, ultrasonography showed unilateral enlargement of the right adrenal gland with mineralisation. Invasion of the right adrenal gland into the caudal vena cava was observed. A differentiation test (high-dose dexamethasone suppression test) was performed and a lack of suppression of the cortisol level was observed. Based on the appropriate clinical signs and physical examination findings, elevated alkaline phosphatase enzyme, minimally concentrated urinary specific gravity, generalised hepatomegaly, unilateral adrenal gland enlargement, and high-dose dexamethasone suppression test, a diagnosis of functional adrenal tumour was made.
  16. Teoh, Y.B., Khor, K.H.
    Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 2017;29(1):18-22.
    An 11-year-old intact male Shih Tzu dog was referred to the University Veterinary Hospital (UVH) with history of coughing and laboured breathing. Auscultation revealed that the dog had a left systolic heart murmur grade V/VI at the base of the heart. Radiography showed findings of cardiomegaly and pulmonary oedema. Echocardiography findings revealed that dog has a myxomatous mitral valve disease. The mitral valve was severely thickened and prolapsed into the left atrium. Congestive heart failure (CHF) was treated with an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and diuretic. An anti-mucolytic agent was prescribed as a symptomatic treatmentfor the coughing that could be due to mild bronchitis. Dog did not response well with treatment as the frequency of cough was not reduced and the duration was longer each time. Pimobendan was then added on to the initial treatment and there was a tremendous improvement seen from the patient after that. Episodes of productive cough were noticed greatly reduced and dog was much more active at home post two weeks of ACE inhibitor, diuretic and dual-acting inodilator. We successfully maintained the dog with minimal coughing episodes. However, the prognosis is moderate to poor in this case due to possibilities of refraction towards medications.
  17. Ghani, A.A.A., Shahudin, M.S., Azrolharith, R., Haizan, A.R., Zamri-Saad, M., Zuki, A.B., et al.
    Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 2017;29(1):23-25.
    A comparative study of nutrient composition and in vitro ruminal degradability of selected local plants, Macaranga sp.and Mallotus sp.was carried out and Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) was used as control.The results obtained from proximate analysis revealed that there were significant difference (P
  18. Dyary, H.O., Arifah, A.K., Sharma, R.S.K., Rasedee, A., Mohd Aspollah, M.S., Zakaria, Z.A., et al.
    Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 2016;28(2):4-11.
    Garcinia hombroniana has been used in Malay traditional medicine to treat various disorders such as abdominal pain and gonorrhea, and little is known about its toxicological properties. This study investigated the acute toxicological effects of the plant’s leaves aqueous extract using theoral acute toxic class (ATC) method. Twenty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into T1, T2, T3 and control groups. The T1, T2 and T3 rats administered a single oral dose of 300, 2000 and 5000 mg/kg of G. hombroniana leaves aqueous extract, respectively.The animals were checked daily for abnormal clinical signs and mortality rate for 14 days. The body weight, daily food and water consumption were recorded. The haematological and biochemical parameters of blood as well as relative organ weight and tissues histology such as heart, kidney, liver and spleen were evaluated. Results have shown significantly decreased (p< 0.05) food and water consumption in T2 and T3 rats, which returned to normal after 72 hr post administration. No significant differences (p≥ 0.05) in the haematological and serum biochemical parameters in the treated rat groups, compared to the untreated control animals. An increase in the relative weight of spleen was noticed in T3 animals. Congestion of the splenic, hepatic, cardiac and renal tissues was seen in T2 and T3 rats. The oral LD50 was higher than 5000 mg/kg of body weight. Thus, it can be concluded that G. hombroniana aqueous extract shows little toxicity in the laboratory rats and the therapeutic potentials should be further investigated.
  19. Ng, S.Y., Saleha, A.A, Bejo, S.K., Dhaliwal, G.K.
    Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 2016;28(2):12-16.
    Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) such as multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli are important pathogens associated with nosocomial infections in both human and animal health care facilities. Surfaces of inanimate objects in health care facilities can serve as sources of infection. However, studies on prevalence of these pathogens in veterinary settings are lacking in the country. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the occurrence of A. baumannii and E. coli and the occurrence of MDR isolates on surfaces of inanimate objects in veterinary health care facilities in Klang Valley, Malaysia. In this study, swab samples were taken from 65 surfaces of inanimate objects that included door knobs, examination tables, labcoats, stethoscopes and weighing scales. The swab samples were cultured and all isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility test. The study revealed that the occurrence of A. baumannii was 9.23% and 5 out of 6 (83.33%) A. baumannii isolates were classified as MDR. However, no E. coli was isolated. In conclusion, surfaces of inanimate objects can be a source of MDR A. baumannii in veterinary health care facilities that is of animal and public health concern.
  20. Tan, Y.K., Hiew, M.W.H., Radzi, R., Khairuddin, N.H.
    Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 2017;29(2):20-24.
    This report describes the complications of obstructive urolithiasis in the lower urinary tract causing urinary bladder rupture in a Jamnapari buck. A 3-year-old Jamnapari buck was presented with the complaint of stranguria, subsequent anuria and a progressively distended abdomen for the past three days. Upon physical examination, body temperature, pulse rate and respiration rate were increased. Uroliths could be felt within the urethra in the ventral abdomen region. A urolith was removed via amputationof the urethral process, but the patency of the urethra could not be established. Transabdominal ultrasound revealed anechoic areas around the bladder, and the bladder was relatively small for a urinary obstructed goat. The bladder wall was thickened and shadow of sludge was observed within the bladder. Abdominocentesis was done and fluid analysis revealed that it was a haemorrhagic effusion. Blood results revealed renal disease, liver disease, muscle injury and haemoconcentration. Retrograde cystourethrogram revealed no urolithswithinthe urethra but there was leakage of the contrast agent from the bladder into the peritoneal cavity. The final diagnosis was complete blockage of the lower urinary tract leading to bladder rupture. Exploratory laparotomy was done and emergency cystorraphy was planned. Due to the poor condition of the urinary bladder with presence of septic peritonitis, the goat was euthanised.
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