Objectives: The objectives of the study were to assess: i) the staining susceptibility of composite resins, ii) the ability of whitening toothpastes in removing stains from composite resins.
Materials and Methods: Thirty specimens from each composite resins: Filtek Z350 (3M ESPE), Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE) and Beautifil (Shofu Inc.) were fabricated. After polishing, specimens were immersed in coffee for 3 days. Specimens were then brushed twice a day for 2 weeks using Colgate Total (Colgate-Palmolive, control group), Colgate Advanced Whitening (Colgate- Palmolive, test group) and Darlie All Shiny White (Hawley & Hazel Chemical Co., test group). Colour changes (?E*) were measured using Spectrophotometer at baseline, after coffee immersion and after brushing. Results were statistically analyzed using one way ANOVA and Tukey’s test.
Results: There was significant difference in terms of colour changes for Filtek Z350, Filtek Z250 and Beautifil after coffee immersion (P0.05).
Conclusions: Filtek Z350 was able to resist staining by coffee better than Filtek Z250 and Beautifil. The whitening toothpastes did not offer added advantage in terms of ability to remove stains compared to ordinary toothpaste.
Radiology is important in the diagnostic assessment, treatment and monitoring progress of patients having dental and maxillofacial diseases. The central question in dental radiology is whether there is any risk with regard to low doses of radiation and what are the necessary protection needed to prevent any hazardous outcome with X-raying. With the emergence of the new millennium, major changes are happening in the field of science and technology. More efficient equipments are being discovered and more researches are being conducted to elicit better understanding of the radiation process and its effect on the human health. This article will review the latest guidelines for proper radiographic practice from the USA and Europe. It will address topics like the risks from dental radiography, selection criteria, protection for patients and staff, improvement to X-ray equipments, room dimensions and lead lining requirements. We have limited our research to intraoral, panoramic and cephalometric radiographs because these are the radiographs or images that are commonly taken in the general practice setting. (Copied from article).
A case report of a 16 year old male oligodontia patient who presented with a Class I malocclusion on a skeletal I base. He had multiple missing teeth of upper lateral incisors and all premolars except for lower right first premolar. Treatment involved fixed appliance with the aid of mini-implants to mesialize posterior teeth in order to reduce the number of prosthodontic replacement of the remaining missing teeth planned for the future. The application of the mini-implants in the sequence of treatment is presented
Background: Mothers play an important role in preventing fluorosis due to inadvertent swallowing of fluoridated toothpaste and enhancing the effectiveness of toothbrushing amongst preschool children through proper supervision.
Aim: To investigate the knowledge of mothers with regards to the benefits and risks of fluoride toothpaste usage among preschool children and to assess the level of parental supervision during toothbrushing. In additional, we wish to investigate the toothpaste purchasing behaviour of mothers in relation to brand, price, flavour, fluoride content and the influence of advertisement.
Methodology: Cross-sectional study of a representative random sample of 373 mothers of 5-6 year old preschool children through self-administered questionnaires.
Result: The response rate was 90.3% (337). The majority (61.7%) of the mothers reported that the amount of toothpaste their children used was half-length. Most mothers (70.6%) claimed they usually apply toothpaste for their child. About one-half (50.4%) reported the children applied the toothpaste themselves. Only 41.2% of the respondents supervised their children every time during toothbrushing. The mean age at which the child started brushing and using toothpaste was about 34 months (S.D. 14.9) and 37 months (S.D.14.8) respectively. Almost all (95.8%) reported that their children rinsed their mouth after toothbrushing. The mothers’ choice of toothpaste for their child was influence by brand (91.4%), flavour (91.4%) and fluoride content (84.6%) with price being the least of the factors. The majority of the respondents (82.7%) had average to good overall knowledge scores. There was significant association (P=0.034) between the level of education of the mothers and their level of knowledge on fluoride toothpaste usage.
Conclusion: Future oral health messages for preschool children and mothers in Perlis should target areas found lacking in terms of knowledge and practices with regards to fluoride toothpaste usage. This includes regular supervision of preschool children during toothbrushing by parents and using only a small amount of toothpaste for young children.
Abscess of the periodontium is a localized purulent inflammation of the periodontal tissues1. It has been classified into three categories which are gingival abscess, periodontal abscess and pericoronal abscess. A periodontal abscess can be defined as a localized purulent infection affecting the tissues surrounding a periodontal pocket that can lead to the destruction of supporting structures4 including tortuous periodontal pockets, furcation involvement, and intrabony defects. The lesion may be acute or chronic abscess. A localized acute abscess may progress to a chronic abscess if the pus drains through a fistula into the outer gingival surface or into the periodontal pocket. (Copied from article).
Tissue regeneration is a rapidly growing field providing a beacon of hope in the field of restorative and endodontics. Root canal treatment involves the removal of pulp tissue and replacement by an inorganic materials where as regenerative endodontics deals with replacement with healthy pulp to revitalize the teeth .Research in the field of tissue engineering and material science have lead to significant progress but still is plague with lots of drawbacks and failures, hence it is still not being adapted as routine clinical procedures .The purpose of this article is to review the advances made in regenerative endodontics and the future scopes.
The prevalence of periodontal abscesses in emergency dental clinics was found to be between 8%-14%. The purpose of this study was to study the clinical features of periodontal abscesses seen in a specialist periodontal unit. There were 14 patients with equal distribution of gender. The mean age was 39.6 years. Twelve upper teeth (86%) were found to be involved as compared to two lower teeth (14%). There were more posterior teeth involved, a total of nine teeth (64%) as compared to five anterior teeth (36%). The mean pocket depth associated with the abscesses was found to be 7.4mm. There were ten buccal sites (71%) as compared to four palatal sites (29%). Average temperature of patients was 36.9° C. Only one patient was found to have cervical lympadenopathy (7%). The teeth involved were found to be mostly mobile with mobility of grade I to III (71%).
Objectives: To assess pattern of toothpaste usage among young children under 6 years old.
Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out at the Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Parents of children below 6 years old were involved. 200 questionnaires were distributed and 136 (68%) were returned for analysis. The questionnaire covered the following parameters: type, frequency, and quantity of toothpaste usage among children, level of parental knowledge of fluoride concentration in toothpaste and selection criteria of suitable toothpaste for their children.
Results: Majority of the respondents (83.1%) said they used children’s toothpaste to brush their child’s teeth and 62.5 % of them knew that the toothpaste used had fluoride in it. Slightly more than half of the respondents (53.7%) said they started brushing their child’s teeth one year after eruption of the first tooth. Almost an equal proportion of the respondents reported using toothpaste twice daily (50.7%) and only 44.1% of them supervised their children’s brushing. Respondents generally used more than a pea-sized toothpaste quantity (53.6%). Taste, fluoride concentration and brand of the toothpaste appeared to be the main criteria that influenced the selection of the toothpaste (55.9%). Income and educational levels of the respondents did not influence the type of toothpaste used.
Conclusion: These findings indicated that although parents were brushing their childrens’ teeth with children toothpaste, they were still unaware of the proper usage and importance of fluoridated toothpaste.
Forensic odontological examination of a disputed bitemark can furnish the police and the prosecutor with useful evidence to either implicate or exonerate a person in relation to a crime, on the basis that each person’s bitemark is as distinctive as his or her dentition. The aims of this article are (a) to evaluate the extent of which bitemark evidence is reliable as a proof of identification of a biter for the purposes of criminal investigation and prosecution in Malaysia and (b) to make the necessary recommendations (if any) for the purpose of improving the reliability of such evidence. Where a questioned bitemark is not sufficiently detailed, any findings made from its examination shall be highly unreliable and prejudicial. On the other hand, where a bitemark is sufficiently detailed, then any findings made from its examination may be reliable, provided that the forensic odontologists and other practitioners in the criminal justice system are professionally trained to handle the said bitemark. Therefore, police officers must be given a basic training in the field of forensic odontology so that they will be able to appreciate the evidential value of bitemark and contribute to the development of bitemark cases in Malaysia. The relevant authorities governing the dental practice in Malaysia should standardize the methodology and terminology used in bitemark examination and in the reporting of its findings so that confusion and inconsistency among the forensic odontologists are kept absolutely low. Finally, forensic odontologists must be given specialized training in bitemark examination so that the probative value of their findings can be improved.
Introduction: Preclinical teaching using simulation is very beneficial in training dental graduates. The use of laboratory simulation for its undergraduate training during the preclinical years has been used in dental education. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate student’s perception, self evaluation and satisfactory level in preparing duralay burn-out post and core in preclinical fixed prosthodontics sessions.
Materials and Methods: The participants comprised of 104 fourth year dental undergraduates in the Faculty of Dentistry Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. The students had undergone preclinical session for endodontics during the 3rd year and had already completed root canal treatment on single rooted tooth. The same tooth was used for preclinical post and core preparation. The gutta percha was partially removed and the root canal was prepared. They then proceeded with the preparation of duralay build-up/pattern based on the lecture, video demonstration and manual given. Once completed and satisfied with their work, students were asked to answer the questionnaires in the simulation manual.
Results: Student response rate was 88.46% (92/104). Majority of the students were satisfied with their canal preparation, with about 5mm gutta percha left apically, appropriately shaped canal with sufficient retention and resistance form. They also thought that the surface of the duralay was good with no voids. With regards to the coronal preparation, majority of them incorporated ferrule effect and prepared preliminary crown preparation. More than half of the students claimed the level of difficulty of this procedure was moderate. Furthermore, majority of them said that the lecture and the preclinical manual were sufficient and helpful. The help from the supervisors was also benefit in preparing duralay burnout post and core.
Conclusions: From this study, majority of fourth year dental students could perform appropriate canal preparation as well as duralay pattern post and core. Only one student did not feel competent and confident in doing canal preparation and duralay pattern post and core. Our teaching methods and aids were proven to help them in preparing these tasks.
Introduction: Nowadays, there is a worldwide trend for universities to utilize the benefits of e-learning as a mechanism to facilitate improvements in teaching and learning. Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of using e-learning in the teaching of fixed prosthodontic course i.e. FPeL.
Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of questionnaire data, collected from fourth and fifth year dental undergraduates at the Faculty of Dentistry, National University of Malaysia (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM). For fixed prosthodontics (FP), all students had received a series of traditional classroom lectures, seminars, video demonstration, preclinical and Fixed Prosthodontics e-Learning or FPeL in semester 1 and 2 during their 4th year. The questionnaire of 4 sections was administered after the students completed fixed prosthodontics course.
Results: Questionnaires were returned by 136 students (80.9% response rate). Unfortunately, the response rate dropped 12.4% when only 115 students accessed and used the FPeL (68.5%). Majority of FPeL users felt PFeL was beneficial to their learning in the fixed prosthodontic course. PFeL users recommended printable version with detailed explanations, illustrated with more photos and with addition of references.
Conclusions: PFeL assisted users in the learning process of fixed prosthodontics.
Introduction: The peer assessment rating (PAR) index was used to self-audit 4 years of completed pre-adjusted edgewise appliance cases treated by a single orthodontist in a government clinic. The objectives of this study were to evaluate orthodontic treatment standards and factors which may influence treatment outcomes and treatment time.
Methodology: Pre and post-treatment study models were scored using the PAR index by the author. 17 models were re-examined for intra-examiner reliability using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). ICC was excellent for pretreatment (0.96), post-treatment (0.98) and reduction in PAR (0.96) scores.
Results: There were 173 cases (51 males; 122 females) with mean age 17.6 (SD 5.75) years. Mean treatment time was 18.6 (SD 6.47) months with range between 5-40 months. There was no statistically significant difference between one-arch and two-arch cases and between routine and compromised cases. Treatment time in extraction cases (mean 19.5, SD 6.17) was significantly different (p=0.000) compared with non-extraction cases (mean 11.6, SD 4.10) although this accounted for 15% of the variation only (r=0.388). 76.3% cases were ‘greatly improved’, 22.0% ‘improved’ and 1.7% ‘worst/ no different’. Mean pretreatment, post-treatment and reduction in PAR score was 34.1(SD 9.68), 6.4 (SD 6.84) and 27.9 (SD 9.69) respectively. Mean percentage PAR score reduction was 82.0% (SD 1.96). Pretreatment (p=0.000), post-treatment (p=0.000) and reduction (p=0.489) in PAR scores was significantly different between routine and compromised cases. There was significant difference (p=0.000) between category of improvement and pretreatment scores but not with treatment time.
Conclusion: Severe malocclusions had larger reduction in PAR scores and required longer treatment time. Extraction cases took longer to complete and routine cases had better outcomes than compromised cases with severe skeletal discrepancy.
The cleft lip and palate patients often have constricted maxillary arch, congenitally missing teeth, impacted teeth, and many kinds of malocclusion problems. Secondary bone grafting in cleft lip and palate patients is performed preferably before the eruption of permanent canine in order to provide adequate periodontal support for eruption and preservation of the teeth adjacent to the cleft. Secondary grafting with iliac marrow consistently produces trabecular bone to unify the maxilla and provide odontogenic support. Presented here is a case of unilateral cleft lip and palate, which was treated by expansion by quad helix and straight wire appliance for correction of dental malocclusion. Also discussed in detail the entire range of treatment procedures the boy underwent from 14 years of age, especially the role of secondary bone grafting with iliac marrow to facilitate the eruption of permanent impacted canine.
This study aims to determine the prevalence of hand-held ProTaper® files system among UKM final year dental undergraduates and to assess their perception in performing endodontic treatments.
Methods: 85 final year dental students from 2006/2007 academic session participated in the questionnaire survey. All students underwent didactic endodontic teaching of conventional stainless steel files throughout a 2-year course and a 2-day ProTaper® hand files seminar on canal preparation. Each student had a total of 6 months clinical period before the survey was distributed to the subjects and returned for data analysis.
Results: A 100% response rate was received. About 58.8% (n=50) used hand ProTaper routinely while 41.2% claimed themselves as non-users. Amongst the users, 52.5% were moderate users and about 33.6% were frequent users. Tooth type and size of canals were the selected criteria for file use. Majority of users used ProTaper® hand for posterior teeth and regarded it as user friendly. Although almost all users expressed concern of instrument fracture during use, very few did break. Procedural errors were not experienced by 51.3% users.
Conclusion: About 2/3rd majority of UKM undergraduate dental students use ProTaper® hand-held system as an alternative for canal preparation. Procedural errors were perceived to occur much less when using the NiTi files. The system can be initiated to novice users and can be taught as part of endodontic curricula.
There is a major concern about the increased use of antibiotics in dental practice and the emergence of resistant bacterial strains. In recent years, dentists have reported a shift from narrow-spectrum to broad-spectrum antibiotic prescriptions due to increasing antibiotic resistance. The aims of this study are to investigate the prescribing patterns of the therapeutic and prophylactic use for antibiotics in various dental situations by dental practitioners. The study also specifically investigates the prescribing habits of dental practitioners regarding certain cardiac conditions and related dental procedures in patients predisposed to infective endocarditis. This study utilized a questionnaire which was designed to investigate the antibiotic prescribing patterns by dental practitioners in the Klang Valley region. The returned questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS, to identify compliance to antibiotic guidelines by Malaysia National Clinical Guidelines (MNCG) (2003) and American Heart Association Guidelines (AHAG) (2008). 217 dentists responded to the questionnaire and the responses show that there is a wide variety of antibiotic prescriptions among dentists and there is also misuse of antibiotics in some clinical dental conditions. The results also show that there is a large variation in the antibiotic prescriptions patterns for prophylaxis against infective endocarditis. Furthermore, there is uncertainty as to which cardiac conditions required prophylaxis and for which particular dental procedures. This study concludes that there is a clear need for the development of prescribing guidelines, regular monitoring of antibiotic prescriptions by dental practitioners and educational initiatives to encourage the rational and appropriate use of the antibiotics.
Objectives: To evaluate the marginal microleakage of Class II cavities restored with various types of composite resins.
Materials and Methods: Standard Class II slot cavities were prepared at the proximal surfaces of 40 intact premolars which were divided into 4 groups. Four types of composite resins (Esthet-X-Denstply, USA, FiltekTMZ350- 3M ESPE, USA, Beautifil- Shofu, Japan and Solare P-GC, Japan) were used to restore the slot cavities. All the specimens were thermocycled and immersed in 0.5% basic fuschin dye for 24 hours. The specimens were then sectioned in mesio-distal direction. The marginal microleakage at the occlusal and cervical margin was scored using the ISO microleakage scoring system. Data was entered using SPSS Version 12.0 and analyzed using STATA software programme.
Results and discussion: All composite resins exhibited worse microleakage at the cervical margin compared to occlusal margin. Esthet-X showed significantly better microleakage score at the occlusal margin compared to Beautifil and Solare P. FiltekTMZ350 and Beautifil showed mainly microleakage into enamel only at the occlusal margin. Solare P demostrated better resistance against microleakage at the cervical margin compared to other composite resin tested. Esthet-X, Filtek Z350 and Beautiful is not significantly different from each other in terms of microleakage at the cervical margin.
Conclusion: This study showed that none of the materials used in this study is able to eliminate microleakage. Composite resin restorations exhibited worse micorleakage at cervical margin in comparison to occlusal margin.
Aim of the study: To compare the weight of retrieved food accumulated under the dentures base with and without adhesive treatment.
Materials and Method: Each subject was given 32 g of non-salted dry roasted peanuts to chew and swallow. After finishing all the peanuts, the subject was asked to brush their denture using toothbrush and toothpaste without removing the denture from the mouth and rinsed their mouth vigorously with water. The weight of the retrieved peanuts accumulated under the denture base collected, dried, and weighted. All procedures were repeated with denture adhesive.
Results: On average, the mean weight of peanuts particles recovered beneath upper dentures without application of denture adhesive was 51.21 mg which is higher than the mean weight of upper denture with adhesive treatment (35.36 mg). The similar pattern was detected for the lower dentures but at higher mean weight.
Conclusion: Application of denture adhesive significantly reduced the amount of retrieved peanut particles collected under the denture base compared to no-adhesive treatment (p< 0.005).
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant tumor that arises within secretary glands, most commonly the major and minor salivary glands. It has a tendency for a prolonged clinical course, perineural invasion, with local recurrences and distant metastases. The three recognized histopathologic pattern of ACC are cribriform, tubular, and solid with the cribriform being most common. Standard treatment for salivary gland ACC is surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. We report a case of ACC of palate in a 30-year-old female and review the literature.
The primary obligation and ultimate responsibility of a dental surgeon is not only to restore aesthetic and function, but also to relieve pain which originates from dental pathology or surgical procedures performed. Post operative dental pain is mainly of inflammatory origin. Common traditional oral analgesics, namely salicylates, paracetamol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been the drugs of choice, but are increasingly being superseded by newer designer analgesics, the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors. This article reviews the advantages and disadvantages of prescribing common traditional oral analgesics as well as exploring the potential use of COX-2 inhibitors as an alternative to these analgesics for the control of post operative pain in dentistry.
Oral granular cell tumour is a fairly rare lesion with a predilection for the tongue. Seven cases (6 females, 1 male) of oral granular cell tumour were seen during the 40 year period (1967-2006) in Stomatology Unit, Institute for Medical Research (IMR) in which 5 cases were located at the tongue. All the cases presented as a single swelling and excisional biopsies were carried out in all cases.