Objective: To describe the effect of mycophenolate mofetil in Pakistani children with steroid dependent and steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome. Methods: This is cross sectional retrospective review of 16 patients; 9 boys and 7 girls (11 SD/FRNS and 5 SRNS) for a period of 4.8 years. This study was conducted in Mayo hospital and Fatima Memorial hospital specialist care centre, Lahore involving urban and suburban population. Results: The median age of the group was 4 years (1.6 to 12.6 years). Seven patients had histological diagnosis of MCN, 3 had diffuse mesangial proliferation, one of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and 4 had FSGS. Out of 5 SRNS 4 were found to have FSGS and 1 had membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). A total of three patients were completely off steroids and in two patients MMF was also successfully stopped. Number of relapses /patient /year calculated by applying Wilcoxan signed rank test was found to be 4.31 + 0.87(3.00-6.00 /patient/year) before starting MMF, which dropped to 1.12 + 0.718 (0.00- 2.000 /patient/year) after starting MMF, p=0.0001. Reduction in steroid dose from mean of 0.85 + 0.18 mg/kg/day to 0.3mg/kg/day + 1.56 was achieved in 12 months, p
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy in Kawasaki disease (KD) has been shown to reduce coronary artery aneurysm by 4-5%. However, we still observed significant number of coronary aneurysm post IVIG in our centre. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of coronary artery abnormality (CAA) and the associated risk factors.
Designs: Retrospective descriptive study. Method: A retrospective study performed on children with KD from 1 st January 2005 to 30 th July 2010. Japanese Ministry of Health criteria were used to classify coronary arteries abnormality. Children with incomplete or atypical KD were excluded. Data were extracted from Pediatric Cardiology Clinical Information System.
Results: A total of 126 KD were diagnosed during the study period with 69% were male and 52.4% were Chinese. The median age of diagnosis was 1.4yr [Q1, 0.6yr Q3, 2.3yr]. Of these 126, 118 (93.7%) received IVIG within 10 days of illness. Ten patients (7.9%) required more than one dose of IVIG. CAA were noted in 28 (22.2%) patients with 21 ectasia, 4 small fusiform, one small saccular and 2 medium fusiform aneurysm. Of these 28, 22 who had IVIG within 10 days of illness (18 ectasia, 3 small and one medium coronary aneurysm) Significant risk factors for CAA were older children (2.3 v s 1.7yr, p=0.03), presentation after 10days of illness (p=0.006) and required more than 2gm/kg of IVIG (p=0.04).
Conclusion: CAA in complete KD treated with IVIG was 22.2% with 5.5% significant aneurysm. Risk factors for coronary abnormality were older children, late presentation and require more of IVIG of than 2gm/kg.
Objective: This study assessed the pattern of clinical course of hematological disorders in children diagnosed by bone marrow aspiration/biopsy in a tertiary care centre. Setting: The study was conducted at the Department of Pediatrics, Lahore General Hospital, Pakistan. Design: A retrospective descriptive study. Duration of study: Jan 2006 to Dec 2010. Methods: The clinical and laboratory data of 250 patients including complete history, physical examination, investigations and bone marrow examination reports were collected and then analyzed retrospectively. On the basis of these data, relative frequency of different hematological disorders was determined. Results: A total of 250 patients were selected during this study period where their bone marrow was sent for the investigations. Out of these cases, double deficiency anemia was the commonest diagnosis (22%) followed by aplastic anemia (13.6%), megaloblastic anemia (13.2%) and iron deficiency anemia (5.6%). For hematological malignancies, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was observed in 27 cases (10.8%) followed by acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in 12 cases (4.8%), lymphoma in 8 cases (3.2%) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in only two cases. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) was reported as frequent as 13.2% (33 cases). Conclusion: The pattern of non malignant hematological disorders in children diagnosed by bone marrow aspiration/biopsy was more common than malignant conditions. Double deficiency anemia was the commonest non malignant condition followed by aplastic anemia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and megaloblastic anemia. ALL was the most common presentation of the hematological malignancy.
Asthma is considered as heterogeneous multidimensional disorder due to variable phenotypic presentation. Phenotype is defined as a cluster of either clinical or pathologic features, which tends to be associated with the understanding the mechanisms of the disease. Asthma is typically characterized by airway inflammation, variable airway obstruction, bronchial hyper-reactivity, smooth muscle hypertrophy and apparent reversible airflow obstruction by bronchodilators. ‘Asthma syndrome’ is a term to describe complex pathophysiology of the condition which is not exclusive to allergen triggered episodes. Diagnosing childhood asthma is difficult, due to the similarity of symptoms and overlapping with other wheezing conditions. The precise mechanism for asthma exacerbation, for each individual phenotype is not fully understood. However, it is influenced by genetic interaction with variety of external environmental stimuli. The current understanding on asthma phenotypes were interpreted based on age of onset, associated triggers, clinical aspects, physiologic parameters and type of inflammation (Table 1). Due to the illdefined of the current phenotypic definition and disagreement among the respirologists, it is becoming a challenge to label specific phenotype with certainty. Accurate definition of each phenotype should therefore be helpful to provide better understanding of different mechanistic pathways and focusing on targeted therapy for individual phenotype. (Copied from article).
OBJECTIVE: To assess a better strategy to implement oral iron supplementation in preschool Orang Asli children with high prevalence of iron deficiency, as opposed to the current practice, yet inefficient, of daily oral iron supplementation regime.
METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in preschool children presenting to a remote health center (Klinik Desa Kenang, Sungai Siput, Perak) with iron deficiency state. Oral iron prescribed as a daily unsupervised dose (group A) was compared to a weekly supervised administration (group B) over eight weeks.
RESULTS: Before intervention, iron deficiency was prevalent in these children (91.2%). The mean baseline haemoglobin and ferritin levels of group A were 9.9 (+/- 1.1) g/dL and 8.9 (+/- 1.3) mg/L respectively, and that of group B were 9.9 (+/-1.2) g/dL and 9.7 (+/- 1.9) mg/L respectively. After eight weeks of treatment, the mean rise in haemoglobin and ferritin levels of group A were 1.2 (+/- 0.6) g/dL and 18.1 (+/- 15.1) mg/ L respectively, as compared to group B, where the mean rise in haemoglobin and ferritin levels were 1.8 (+/- 0.7) g/dL and 35.2 (+/- 21.8) mg/ L respectively. The differences in the rise of haemoglobin and ferritin levels of the two groups were statistically significant (p<0.025). Both regimes were however effective in improving the iron status in a short term (88% in group A and 100% in group B), but group B had a better iron improvement (35.2 +/- 21.8 versus 18.1 +/-15.1 mg/L).
CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the supervised weekly oral iron supplementation regime was more effective than the unsupervised daily supplementation for treating iron deficiency in preschool Orang Asli children. Since iron deficiency is so common in these children and in view of the possibility of poor compliance with the unsupervised regime, an intermittent supervised treatment is proposed as the most effective strategy to address this nutritional problem.
The report describes a pilot study of cognitive-behavioural social skills program conducted on primary school children in Kelantan, Malaysia. Designs: Uncontrolled pre- and post- single design study. Methods: Children aged 9 - 11 referred by school teachers for behavioural problems were put into Petersen’s Stop-Think-Do cognitive-behavioural social skills program for 6 sessions delivered by a clinical psychologist. Main outcome measure was Goodman’s Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires; to assess child’s emotional and behavioural functioning rated by parents and children themselves. Results: The results showed positive short-term effects of the program at improving some aspects of children’s psychological functioning, however they are not significant. Findings are limited to several issues including subjects’ drop-out, problems in generalizing learnt behaviour, and the use of single outcome measure. Conclusion: Whilst the program could possibly improve children behavioural functioning more dramatically, the implementation of such program in school setting must be organized in full collaboration and assistance from the parents and school administrators.
Introduction: Parents play an important role in the management of their asthmatic children. Thus the ability of parents to recognise asthma trigger factors are very important.
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to identify the trigger factors that were recognised by parents to cause acute exacerbation in their children and analyse the association of these factors with severity of asthma and parental asthma knowledge.
Methods: Sixty-seven parents were interviewed to identify factors that can exacerbate acute asthmatic attack in their asthmatic children. The factors were then categorised as: infection, exercise, allergen, irritant, emotion and weather. The profiles of children were asthma severity status, duration of asthma, age, frequency of admission and steroid dosage. Parents' profiles were their age, number of asthmatic children and the level of asthma knowledge.
Result: Fifty-six (83.5%) parents identified more than one trigger factor for their children's exacerbation. The commonest frequency was two trigger factors (31.3%). Upper respiratory tract infection (77.6%) was the commonest trigger factor. There was no association between the number of trigger factors with the severity of asthma and level of parental asthma knowledge. The number of trigger factors significantly correlated with asthma duration (r = 0.33, p = 0.006). The asthma severity was associated significantly with weather (p = 0.042) but not with other trigger factors.
Conclusion: The majority of parents recognised more than one trigger factors to cause asthma exacerbation.
An eight-year-old Chinese girl presented with a slowly progressive generalized muscle weakness and wasting, complicated by respiratory failure. She had many hospital admissions requiring ventilator support. Eventually tracheostomy tube was inserted. Initial investigations failed to elicit a diagnosis but a muscle biopsy and histological study confirmed the diagnosis of juvenile acid maltase deficiency.
Even though vaccines are effective for prevention of diseases, compliance with recommended schedules of immunisation in early childhood is not always complete. Identification of potential risk factors associated with under-immunisation may help increase vaccination uptake. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors of under-immunisation in hospitalised preschool children in Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital (HUSM). Children aged 1 month to 2 years admitted between December 1998 and December 2000 in medical paediatric wards at HUSM were studied. Parents/guardians were interviewed during admission regarding immunisation status and potential risk factors. Children who did not have home-based cards during admission were excluded. Among 401 children, 37.9% had complete immunisation, 43.4% had delayed immunisation and 34.9% had incomplete immunisation. The uptake of BCG, DPT/OPV 1, DPT/OPV2, Hepatitis B3, DPT/OPV3, and measles were 98.5%, 90.7%, 83.2%, 81.4%,79.2% and 72.9% respectively. Vaccines scheduled to be given at later ages were significantly less likely to be taken (p=0.002) compared with vaccines scheduled to be given at an earlier age. Significant independent risk factors for under-immunisation were elderly mothers (3 40 years old) (OR 3.0, 95% CI: 1.2-8.0), low birth weight £2.0 kg (OR 6.2; 95% CI: 1.8-21.4) and presence of chronic illness in the child (OR 4.5; 95% CI: 2.5-7.9). In children whose father's education was low (primary school or no education), low maternal education was significantly associated with lower rate of under-immunisation (p = 0.005, OR 0.11 95%CI 0.02-0.51).
In conclusion this study showed that a large proportion of hospitalised preschool children were under-immunised, and vaccines scheduled to be given at a later age had lower uptakes. The situation can be rectified if every opportunity is taken to immunise all children, who have lapsed in their immunisation schedule.
Heralded by the revelation of the double helical structure of the DNA molecule in 1953, the 21st century is aptly designated the biotechnology century. The 20th century of physics, which saw the transformation of silicon into computing magic, was embraced with enthusiasm by virtually every household. However, unlike her predecessor, the same cannot be said about the advancements in biomedicine.
A cross-sectional study using structured questionnaires was conducted to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practice on breast-feeding among working mothers. A total of 200 working mothers who attended the Child Health Clinics in Temerloh, for their chil-dren's third DPT/Polio vaccination were interviewed. Eighty-nine percent of the mothers successfully initiat-ed breast-feeding. However, there was a rapid decline in breast-feeding each month especially during the period when the mothers returned to work. Only 33.5% of the mothers had at least one experience in expressing and feeding expressed breast milk to their babies and only 47% reported that they had been taught by health work-ers. The mothers scored highest on the 'benefits of breast-feeding' with a mean knowledge score of 77.9% and lowest on "storage of expressed breast milk" (35.4%). Overall the mothers showed a positive attitude towards breast-feeding. The two main reasons given for stopping breast-feeding were "work" (61.4%) and "insufficient milk" (57.9%). In conclusion, other areas of breast-feeding besides benefits such as "expressing and storing breast milk" and "how" to practise breast-feeding while working away from home are also impor-tant for working mothers.
The aim of this paper was to study hand washing practices in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. All medical personnel handling babies in the NICU were observed without their knowledge for a total of three times before and after an educational intervention between November 1, 1993 and December 31, 1993. Hand washing techniques with both Hibisol Spray and Chlorhexidine were scored from 1-4. The results of the study are shown as follows: the number of personnel observed were: before educational intervention -paediatric doctors (PD) 14, non-paediatric doctors (ND) 13 and nurses (N) 48; after educational intervention - PD 10 , ND 12 and N 42. PD and N washed hands significantly more often than ND (p < 0.001), before and after intervention. PD but not ND or N improved their rate of hand washing after educational intervention PD (p= 0.02). The Hibisol handwashing technique was poor in all groups (77.1% of all observations). The Chlorhexidine hand washing technique was better than Hibisol (p<0.0001). However only 15% of observed washes with Chlorhexidine were well done and almost one third were done poorly. Both Hibisol and Chlorhexidine techniques did not improve after educational intervention. Hand washing was performed more often in the Level III than Level II nursery [85% of all observations in Level III and 73% of all observations in Level II, p=0.002]. In conclusion, the present educational program is not sufficient and more direct means should be taken to improve the frequency of hand washing among all medical personnel. All medical personnel in the NICU should be educated in the use of the Hibisol, otherwise Hibisol should be removed from the nursery.
Keywords: Handwashing, doctors, neonatal intensive care unit, nurses
Study site: Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia
Thyroxine has been shown to have a beneficial effect on renal function in cases of impending renal failure in ani-mal studies.'5 Studies of the use of thyroxine in humans in impending renal failure are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of oral thyroxine on the renal function of asphyxiated term neonates who often have renal impairment.
A randomised control trial was conducted, involving 30 term asphyxiated neonates. The study group (n=15) was given thyroxine (50 pg) orally on days 1, 2 and 3 of life and placebo was given to the control group (n=15). Renal function was studied on day 1 and day 4 of life. The two groups did not differ significantly as regards gestational age, birth weight, severity of asphyxia, preg-nancy or delivery complications, fluids administered and drugs used. There was no significant difference in urine output, creatinine clearance and fractional excretion of sodium on day 1 but there was a trend towards a worse renal function on day 1 in the treatment group. The creatinine clearance was significantly better in the treat-ment group on day 4 (p = 0.017). Urine output and fractional excretion of sodium on day 4 were better in the treatment group but the differences did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.14 and 0.057 respectively). Statistical analysis on the differences between day 4 and day 1 showed statistical significance only for creatinine clearance: creatinine clearance day 4 minus creatinine clearance day 1 was 52.6 (±32.4) for the thyroxine group and 7.3 (±7.8) for the controls (p= 0.006).
These data support the hypothesis that thyroxine may have a significant beneficial effect on the renal function in term neonates with perinatal asphyxia. Thyroxine may be proven useful in future for patients with impending renal failure.
A Malay baby boy with the femoral-facial syndrome is presented. The phenotype included bilateral femoral hypoplasia, short nose with a broad nasal tip, long philtrum with a thin upper lip, micrognathia, bilateral cryptorchidism and hypoplastic penis.
Four hundred and forty three teachers from eight ran-domly selected primary schools were enrolled in this study which was aimed at determining the knowledge regarding child abuse and neglect among primary school teachers in Kuala Lumpur. The areas that were examined included characteristics of child abusers and abused children. The results showed that the marital status of the teachers did not influence their level of knowledge and there was no significant difference between novice and senior teachers. The most impor-tant finding here was that knowledge regarding sexual and physical abuse was lacking in the teachers surveyed.
A case control study was conducted to identify the risk factors for acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI) in hospitalised children in Kelantan. One hun-dred and twenty children aged one month to five years hospitalised for ALRI were matched by age with 120 children as controls. Data on demography and expo-sure to putative risk factors were collected by interview-ing parents or caretakers. Anthropometric measure-ments were also carried out to assess the nutritional sta-tus of the children. For each risk factor studied, the odds ratios for exposure and disease were calculated by using univariate analysis followed by multiple logistic regression analysis to determine those factors which remained significant.
The presence of sibling(s) who coughed at home (OR 12.1, 95% CI 5.2-28.1), crowding in bedroom (OR 4.4, 95% CI 2.1-9.0), weight-for-age < 3rd percentile (OR 9.0, 95% CI 3.1-25.8), lack of breast feeding (OR 9.4, 95% CI 2.3-38.4) and incomplete immunisation (OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.7-12.1) were significant indepen-dent risk factors for ALRI. Other factors like poverty, maternal education level, male sex, low birth weight, history of atopy, family history of asthma and indoor air pollution were not associated with an increased risk of ALRI.
This study showed that poor nutritional status, inap-propriate child care practices and poor living conditions, particularly those related to crowding, predispose to ALRI in Kelantanese children necessitating hospital admission. A change in these factors may reduce the morbidity and mortality of childhood ALRI in Kelantan.
A 46 day old female Chinese infant was referred for fail-ure to thrive, jaundice, hepatomegaly and bilateral cataracts. She had vomiting,blood stained stools and severe unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia soon after birth. The jaundice persisted. At one month of age, pale stools, firm hepatomegaly and bilateral cataracts were noted. Radionuclide hepatobiliary scintigraphy per-formed at another hospital excluded biliary atresia. Investigations showed cholestasis but a negative sero-logical screening for congenital infections. A presump-tive diagnosis of galactosaemia was made and the infant was started on lactose free formula. A deficient red blood cell galactose- 1 -phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) activity was demonstrated later. Review eight months after the initial diagnosis showed a thriving infant with no jaundice, but persisting cataracts and firm enlarged liver. A high index of clinical suspicion, labo-ratory confirmation of a deficient GALT activity and prompt withdrawal of lactose from diet are necessary to avoid any delay in diagnosis and management of this condition.
This paper looks at some of the problems encountered when cases of abuse and injuries occur in children placed in child care in an urban community in Malaysia. It is based on the study of 37 children referred to our hospital's Child Protection Services over the past four years for injuries and incidents where the child-minders came under suspicion. They constituted 12% of the 285 children referred to the Child Protection Team during that period for evaluation of suspected child abuse. Twenty six children had experienced physical trauma. Fifty eight percent of these were young infants with cranial injuries or limb fractures but no history to explain their occurrence. Four had superficial injuries from accidents secondary to inadequate supervision. The other 11 children had been sexually abused. The perpetrators in 73% of cases were either the husbands or sons of the child-minder. Ninety five percent of the incidents occured at home-based nurseries. Prospects of any punitive measures were remote in most instances due to uncertainty about the perpetrator, or insufficient corroborative evidence required in sexual abuse cases. There were three documented cases where the family refused to lodge a police report or co-operate with investigations out of a reluctance to implicate or offend the child-minders who were mainly neighbours, relatives or friends in 58% of cases. Ninety seven percent of the facilities were unregistered, making surveillance for recurrent incidents and adherence to safety standards difficult. These incidents were almost certainly an underestimate of the problem. Training of child-care providers, improved legislation and enforcement as well as education of parents to choose suitable facilities are issues which need to be tackled.
A community-based study of childhood injuries in Kedah was undertaken in January-March 1996. The aims were to determine the types and frequencies of injuries reported; to assess the association between injury and selected variables (age, sex, place, number of children in the family, presence of care-givers and treatment); and to recommend further research and policy for childhood injury prevention. A total of 448 injuries were recorded from 1089 children in 451 randomly selected households. The incidence was 411.4/1000. There appeared to be a decrease in risk of injury as the number of children per household increased. The effect of lower age on injury was significant (p>0.05). Male children were 1.5 times more likely to injure themselves than female children when data were controlled for number of children in the household. Falls accounted for 53.3% of all injuries sustained, and occurred more frequently when the child was with non-family members. Different injury categories were associated with different caregiver categories. It is concluded that child injury prevention programmes require more data on injury situations and collaborative efforts between clinical, health and and behavioural professionals.
Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) frequently occurs in neonates born in thick meconium-stained liquor (TMSL). It continues to be a significant cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality despite aggressive approaches to intervention. This study aims to identify the perinatal characteristics of deliveries with TMSL associated with the development of MAS and to describe the outcome of those babies who developed MAS.
All newborns with TMSL born in Hospital Alor Setar, Kedah from 1 October 1998 to 30 April 1999 were prospectively studied. In the hospital, all newborns with TMSL were routinely admitted to the Special Care Nursery for observation. Relevant data regarding pregnancy, delivery, resuscitation and outcome of newborns with and without MAS were collected and analysed. The incidence of TMSL among hospital deliveries was 2.2% (95% C.I. 1.8-2.5%). Thirty-six percent (95% C.I. 28.4-44.7%) of newborns with TMSL developed MAS. Significant risk factors associated with the development of MAS were non-Malay mothers (p=0.04, OR=3.32), resuscitation by paediatric medical officers (p=0.02, OR=2.84) and direct tracheal suction during resuscitation (p=0.02, OR=2.61). The presence of non-Malay mothers or resuscitation by paediatric medical officers or direct tracheal suction during resuscitation gave a sensitivity of 88.2%, specificity of 36.7%, a positive predictive value of 44.1% and a negative predictive value of 84.6% for the development of MAS. Asphyxia, pneumothorax and persistent pulmonary hyper-tension occurred in 25.5%, 7.8% and 5.9% of the babies with MAS respectively. Mechanical ventilation was required in 51% and the mortality rate was 3.9%. In conclusion, the incidence of TMSL and MAS and the mortality rate of neonates with MAS were comparable with that in developed countries. The presence of any one of the significant risk factors had high sensitivity but low specificity for the development of MAS. Newborns were unlikely to develop MAS if all these risk factors were absent.