A case control study was conducted to identify the risk factors for acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI) in hospitalised children in Kelantan. One hun-dred and twenty children aged one month to five years hospitalised for ALRI were matched by age with 120 children as controls. Data on demography and expo-sure to putative risk factors were collected by interview-ing parents or caretakers. Anthropometric measure-ments were also carried out to assess the nutritional sta-tus of the children. For each risk factor studied, the odds ratios for exposure and disease were calculated by using univariate analysis followed by multiple logistic regression analysis to determine those factors which remained significant.
The presence of sibling(s) who coughed at home (OR 12.1, 95% CI 5.2-28.1), crowding in bedroom (OR 4.4, 95% CI 2.1-9.0), weight-for-age < 3rd percentile (OR 9.0, 95% CI 3.1-25.8), lack of breast feeding (OR 9.4, 95% CI 2.3-38.4) and incomplete immunisation (OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.7-12.1) were significant indepen-dent risk factors for ALRI. Other factors like poverty, maternal education level, male sex, low birth weight, history of atopy, family history of asthma and indoor air pollution were not associated with an increased risk of ALRI.
This study showed that poor nutritional status, inap-propriate child care practices and poor living conditions, particularly those related to crowding, predispose to ALRI in Kelantanese children necessitating hospital admission. A change in these factors may reduce the morbidity and mortality of childhood ALRI in Kelantan.
A 46 day old female Chinese infant was referred for fail-ure to thrive, jaundice, hepatomegaly and bilateral cataracts. She had vomiting,blood stained stools and severe unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia soon after birth. The jaundice persisted. At one month of age, pale stools, firm hepatomegaly and bilateral cataracts were noted. Radionuclide hepatobiliary scintigraphy per-formed at another hospital excluded biliary atresia. Investigations showed cholestasis but a negative sero-logical screening for congenital infections. A presump-tive diagnosis of galactosaemia was made and the infant was started on lactose free formula. A deficient red blood cell galactose- 1 -phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) activity was demonstrated later. Review eight months after the initial diagnosis showed a thriving infant with no jaundice, but persisting cataracts and firm enlarged liver. A high index of clinical suspicion, labo-ratory confirmation of a deficient GALT activity and prompt withdrawal of lactose from diet are necessary to avoid any delay in diagnosis and management of this condition.
A cross-sectional study using structured questionnaires was conducted to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practice on breast-feeding among working mothers. A total of 200 working mothers who attended the Child Health Clinics in Temerloh, for their chil-dren's third DPT/Polio vaccination were interviewed. Eighty-nine percent of the mothers successfully initiat-ed breast-feeding. However, there was a rapid decline in breast-feeding each month especially during the period when the mothers returned to work. Only 33.5% of the mothers had at least one experience in expressing and feeding expressed breast milk to their babies and only 47% reported that they had been taught by health work-ers. The mothers scored highest on the 'benefits of breast-feeding' with a mean knowledge score of 77.9% and lowest on "storage of expressed breast milk" (35.4%). Overall the mothers showed a positive attitude towards breast-feeding. The two main reasons given for stopping breast-feeding were "work" (61.4%) and "insufficient milk" (57.9%). In conclusion, other areas of breast-feeding besides benefits such as "expressing and storing breast milk" and "how" to practise breast-feeding while working away from home are also impor-tant for working mothers.
The aim of this paper was to study hand washing practices in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. All medical personnel handling babies in the NICU were observed without their knowledge for a total of three times before and after an educational intervention between November 1, 1993 and December 31, 1993. Hand washing techniques with both Hibisol Spray and Chlorhexidine were scored from 1-4. The results of the study are shown as follows: the number of personnel observed were: before educational intervention -paediatric doctors (PD) 14, non-paediatric doctors (ND) 13 and nurses (N) 48; after educational intervention - PD 10 , ND 12 and N 42. PD and N washed hands significantly more often than ND (p < 0.001), before and after intervention. PD but not ND or N improved their rate of hand washing after educational intervention PD (p= 0.02). The Hibisol handwashing technique was poor in all groups (77.1% of all observations). The Chlorhexidine hand washing technique was better than Hibisol (p<0.0001). However only 15% of observed washes with Chlorhexidine were well done and almost one third were done poorly. Both Hibisol and Chlorhexidine techniques did not improve after educational intervention. Hand washing was performed more often in the Level III than Level II nursery [85% of all observations in Level III and 73% of all observations in Level II, p=0.002]. In conclusion, the present educational program is not sufficient and more direct means should be taken to improve the frequency of hand washing among all medical personnel. All medical personnel in the NICU should be educated in the use of the Hibisol, otherwise Hibisol should be removed from the nursery.
Keywords: Handwashing, doctors, neonatal intensive care unit, nurses
Study site: Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia
The two vital aspects of treatment for patients with tha-lassaemia are regular blood transfusions and iron chela-tion therapy. Unfortunately, the use of blood transfu-sions exposes these patients to the risks of acquiring transfusion related viral infections such as hepatitis C. Patients who acquire the hepatitis C virus (HCV) may develop chronic hepatitis and later on hepatocellular carcinoma. Hence, patients with thalassaemia should be regularly screened for the presence of HCV. We report here the results of a cross-sectional study conducted in a typical day-care centre for thalassaemics at the Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, involving 85 multiply transfused patients. We found that 19 patients (22.4%) were seropositive for HCV and two of them had positive HCV-RNA. Those who had started receiv-ing their transfusions before 1995, i.e. the year routine screening for HCV amongst blood donors were com-menced, and those who received transfusions 2-4 week-ly had a significantly higher risk of acquiring HCV infection.
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of surfactant replacement therapy on hospital resource uti-lization in a well defined cohort of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Thirty preterm infants 800g with RDS requiring mechanical ventila-tion with Fi02 of 0.4 given modified bovine surfactant (Survanta) were compared with an equal number of his-torical controls. The total cost of neonatal care was cal-culated in a detailed survey covering all aspects of resource use. Surfactant-treated infants had an improved survival rate (90.0% vs 66.7%, p=0.03) and a trend towards shorter ventilator days (11.8 vs 19.0 days, p=0.17). There were no significant differences in the number of laboratory and radiological investiga-tions, use of disposable items, equipment, medications and other therapies. The total hospital cost per livebirth for surfactant-treated and control infants were R/V120,281 and R1V121,785 respectively. Personnel salaries represented the largest sector of resource uti-lization. When analysed by birthweight categories, the cost per livebirth for surfactant-treated and control infants in the 800-999g category were RM37,315 and RM14,760 respectively. As for the surfactant-treated and control infants in the 1000-1499g category, the cost per livebirth were RM21,426 and RM32,327 respectively. We concluded that surfactant replacement therapy did not increase overall hospital resource uti-lization and may decrease the cost for infants weighing 1000g.
Thyroxine has been shown to have a beneficial effect on renal function in cases of impending renal failure in ani-mal studies.'5 Studies of the use of thyroxine in humans in impending renal failure are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of oral thyroxine on the renal function of asphyxiated term neonates who often have renal impairment.
A randomised control trial was conducted, involving 30 term asphyxiated neonates. The study group (n=15) was given thyroxine (50 pg) orally on days 1, 2 and 3 of life and placebo was given to the control group (n=15). Renal function was studied on day 1 and day 4 of life. The two groups did not differ significantly as regards gestational age, birth weight, severity of asphyxia, preg-nancy or delivery complications, fluids administered and drugs used. There was no significant difference in urine output, creatinine clearance and fractional excretion of sodium on day 1 but there was a trend towards a worse renal function on day 1 in the treatment group. The creatinine clearance was significantly better in the treat-ment group on day 4 (p = 0.017). Urine output and fractional excretion of sodium on day 4 were better in the treatment group but the differences did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.14 and 0.057 respectively). Statistical analysis on the differences between day 4 and day 1 showed statistical significance only for creatinine clearance: creatinine clearance day 4 minus creatinine clearance day 1 was 52.6 (±32.4) for the thyroxine group and 7.3 (±7.8) for the controls (p= 0.006).
These data support the hypothesis that thyroxine may have a significant beneficial effect on the renal function in term neonates with perinatal asphyxia. Thyroxine may be proven useful in future for patients with impending renal failure.
A Malay baby boy with the femoral-facial syndrome is presented. The phenotype included bilateral femoral hypoplasia, short nose with a broad nasal tip, long philtrum with a thin upper lip, micrognathia, bilateral cryptorchidism and hypoplastic penis.
Fusarium species is an emerging genus of fungal pathogens which until recently were rare causes of human disease apart from localized infection of the skin and nails. Two cases of fungaemia due to Fusarium sp. in children are described. The first child, an 8-year old girl with acute myeloid leukaemia developed character-sitic pyoderma gangrenosum-like skin lesions before succumbing to disseminated Fusarium infection and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The second child, a 5-month old boy, developed pneumonia associated with a transient erythematous skin rash while on chemother-apy for congenital leukaemia. Both patients had Fusarium isolated from blood. The second child improved after six weeks of treatment with ampho-tericin B and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulat-ing factor but ultimately she died of the disease follow-ing discharge. Fusarium spp should be recognised as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised patients. Current literature suggests that liposomal amphotericin B in conjunction with leukocyte growth factors are the treatment of choice in this potentially fatal infection.
Four hundred and forty three teachers from eight ran-domly selected primary schools were enrolled in this study which was aimed at determining the knowledge regarding child abuse and neglect among primary school teachers in Kuala Lumpur. The areas that were examined included characteristics of child abusers and abused children. The results showed that the marital status of the teachers did not influence their level of knowledge and there was no significant difference between novice and senior teachers. The most impor-tant finding here was that knowledge regarding sexual and physical abuse was lacking in the teachers surveyed.
The report describes a pilot study of cognitive-behavioural social skills program conducted on primary school children in Kelantan, Malaysia. Designs: Uncontrolled pre- and post- single design study. Methods: Children aged 9 - 11 referred by school teachers for behavioural problems were put into Petersen’s Stop-Think-Do cognitive-behavioural social skills program for 6 sessions delivered by a clinical psychologist. Main outcome measure was Goodman’s Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires; to assess child’s emotional and behavioural functioning rated by parents and children themselves. Results: The results showed positive short-term effects of the program at improving some aspects of children’s psychological functioning, however they are not significant. Findings are limited to several issues including subjects’ drop-out, problems in generalizing learnt behaviour, and the use of single outcome measure. Conclusion: Whilst the program could possibly improve children behavioural functioning more dramatically, the implementation of such program in school setting must be organized in full collaboration and assistance from the parents and school administrators.
Objective: To describe the effect of mycophenolate mofetil in Pakistani children with steroid dependent and steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome. Methods: This is cross sectional retrospective review of 16 patients; 9 boys and 7 girls (11 SD/FRNS and 5 SRNS) for a period of 4.8 years. This study was conducted in Mayo hospital and Fatima Memorial hospital specialist care centre, Lahore involving urban and suburban population. Results: The median age of the group was 4 years (1.6 to 12.6 years). Seven patients had histological diagnosis of MCN, 3 had diffuse mesangial proliferation, one of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and 4 had FSGS. Out of 5 SRNS 4 were found to have FSGS and 1 had membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). A total of three patients were completely off steroids and in two patients MMF was also successfully stopped. Number of relapses /patient /year calculated by applying Wilcoxan signed rank test was found to be 4.31 + 0.87(3.00-6.00 /patient/year) before starting MMF, which dropped to 1.12 + 0.718 (0.00- 2.000 /patient/year) after starting MMF, p=0.0001. Reduction in steroid dose from mean of 0.85 + 0.18 mg/kg/day to 0.3mg/kg/day + 1.56 was achieved in 12 months, p
Objective: This study assessed the pattern of clinical course of hematological disorders in children diagnosed by bone marrow aspiration/biopsy in a tertiary care centre. Setting: The study was conducted at the Department of Pediatrics, Lahore General Hospital, Pakistan. Design: A retrospective descriptive study. Duration of study: Jan 2006 to Dec 2010. Methods: The clinical and laboratory data of 250 patients including complete history, physical examination, investigations and bone marrow examination reports were collected and then analyzed retrospectively. On the basis of these data, relative frequency of different hematological disorders was determined. Results: A total of 250 patients were selected during this study period where their bone marrow was sent for the investigations. Out of these cases, double deficiency anemia was the commonest diagnosis (22%) followed by aplastic anemia (13.6%), megaloblastic anemia (13.2%) and iron deficiency anemia (5.6%). For hematological malignancies, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was observed in 27 cases (10.8%) followed by acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in 12 cases (4.8%), lymphoma in 8 cases (3.2%) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in only two cases. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) was reported as frequent as 13.2% (33 cases). Conclusion: The pattern of non malignant hematological disorders in children diagnosed by bone marrow aspiration/biopsy was more common than malignant conditions. Double deficiency anemia was the commonest non malignant condition followed by aplastic anemia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and megaloblastic anemia. ALL was the most common presentation of the hematological malignancy.
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy in Kawasaki disease (KD) has been shown to reduce coronary artery aneurysm by 4-5%. However, we still observed significant number of coronary aneurysm post IVIG in our centre. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of coronary artery abnormality (CAA) and the associated risk factors.
Designs: Retrospective descriptive study. Method: A retrospective study performed on children with KD from 1 st January 2005 to 30 th July 2010. Japanese Ministry of Health criteria were used to classify coronary arteries abnormality. Children with incomplete or atypical KD were excluded. Data were extracted from Pediatric Cardiology Clinical Information System.
Results: A total of 126 KD were diagnosed during the study period with 69% were male and 52.4% were Chinese. The median age of diagnosis was 1.4yr [Q1, 0.6yr Q3, 2.3yr]. Of these 126, 118 (93.7%) received IVIG within 10 days of illness. Ten patients (7.9%) required more than one dose of IVIG. CAA were noted in 28 (22.2%) patients with 21 ectasia, 4 small fusiform, one small saccular and 2 medium fusiform aneurysm. Of these 28, 22 who had IVIG within 10 days of illness (18 ectasia, 3 small and one medium coronary aneurysm) Significant risk factors for CAA were older children (2.3 v s 1.7yr, p=0.03), presentation after 10days of illness (p=0.006) and required more than 2gm/kg of IVIG (p=0.04).
Conclusion: CAA in complete KD treated with IVIG was 22.2% with 5.5% significant aneurysm. Risk factors for coronary abnormality were older children, late presentation and require more of IVIG of than 2gm/kg.
Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are a group of disorders that causes abnormal function of biochemical pathways. Archibald Garrod des-cribed the first inborn error of metabolism in 1893. He described alkaptonuria in a patient whose urine turned black on standing and the development of arthritis in adult life.' Subse-quently, Garrod encapsulated the idea of IEM in 1908 with the concept of 'chemical indivi-duality'. Beadle and Tatum proposed the concept of one gene - one enzyme in 1945.2 Phenyl-ketonuria (PKU) was described in 1934 and amongst the first to be recognised as a cause of mental handicap with a biochemical basis.' Effective treatment for PKU with low pheny-lalanine diet was introduced in 1955. Molecular characterisation of genetic defects localised to alleles in various chromosomes were performed in the last two decades
The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension in healthy primary school children. A cross-sectional survey by manual blood pressure measurement of healthy children aged 6-12 years attending a national type school was carried out. Children with previous renal, cardiac and endocrine disorders were excluded. Korotkoff 1 represented the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and Korotkoff 5 was taken as the diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Hypertension was defined as the SBP or DBP above the 95th centile according to age group and sex regardless of ethnicity. A total of 1756 children were studied with 895 boy and 861 girls. The results showed that 109 children (6.2%) were found to have hypertension and the incidence was similar in boys and girls (6.4% vs 6.0%, p = 0.69). Fifty-three (48.6%) children had an elevated SBP and the DBP was elevated in 43 (39.4%) children. Only 12 (12.0%) children had both elevated SBP and DBP. Children found to have hypertension were more likely to be Chinese (p = 0.009) and obese (p = 0.04). In conclusion the overall prevalence of hypertension in children aged 6-12 years based on a single blood pressure measurement was 6.2%. Hypertension was more likely to be found in Chinese children and those who were obese.
Helicobacter pylori (HP) was first described in 1983 by Warren and Marshall.' It is a spiral-shaped bacterium measuring 2-4p,m x 0.5-1.0μm. Since it was discovered, the organism has rarely been isolated from sites other than the stomach.2 Available evidence, therefore, points to the human stomach as the normal habitat of this bacterium. The infection is contracted primarily in childhood.' It has been shown that colonisation by HP is rare under the age of five years, but thereafter, it becomes gradually more frequent, and by sixty years of age more than 50% of individuals may be affected
This paper looks at some of the problems encountered when cases of abuse and injuries occur in children placed in child care in an urban community in Malaysia. It is based on the study of 37 children referred to our hospital's Child Protection Services over the past four years for injuries and incidents where the child-minders came under suspicion. They constituted 12% of the 285 children referred to the Child Protection Team during that period for evaluation of suspected child abuse. Twenty six children had experienced physical trauma. Fifty eight percent of these were young infants with cranial injuries or limb fractures but no history to explain their occurrence. Four had superficial injuries from accidents secondary to inadequate supervision. The other 11 children had been sexually abused. The perpetrators in 73% of cases were either the husbands or sons of the child-minder. Ninety five percent of the incidents occured at home-based nurseries. Prospects of any punitive measures were remote in most instances due to uncertainty about the perpetrator, or insufficient corroborative evidence required in sexual abuse cases. There were three documented cases where the family refused to lodge a police report or co-operate with investigations out of a reluctance to implicate or offend the child-minders who were mainly neighbours, relatives or friends in 58% of cases. Ninety seven percent of the facilities were unregistered, making surveillance for recurrent incidents and adherence to safety standards difficult. These incidents were almost certainly an underestimate of the problem. Training of child-care providers, improved legislation and enforcement as well as education of parents to choose suitable facilities are issues which need to be tackled.
A community-based study of childhood injuries in Kedah was undertaken in January-March 1996. The aims were to determine the types and frequencies of injuries reported; to assess the association between injury and selected variables (age, sex, place, number of children in the family, presence of care-givers and treatment); and to recommend further research and policy for childhood injury prevention. A total of 448 injuries were recorded from 1089 children in 451 randomly selected households. The incidence was 411.4/1000. There appeared to be a decrease in risk of injury as the number of children per household increased. The effect of lower age on injury was significant (p>0.05). Male children were 1.5 times more likely to injure themselves than female children when data were controlled for number of children in the household. Falls accounted for 53.3% of all injuries sustained, and occurred more frequently when the child was with non-family members. Different injury categories were associated with different caregiver categories. It is concluded that child injury prevention programmes require more data on injury situations and collaborative efforts between clinical, health and and behavioural professionals.