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  1. Viswanathan S
    Mult. Scler., 2015 Apr;21(4):488-91.
    PMID: 24948685 DOI: 10.1177/1352458514537698
    We report two cases of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with hypoglossal nerve involvement resulting in a wasted tongue associated with other brainstem symptoms of hypogeusia, hypersalivation, hiccough, increased sweating, hyperemesis and myelitis (in the second patient). This occurred due to involvement of the hypoglossal, tractus solitarius and dorsal vagal nuclei. Though the myelitis and other brainstem signs recovered the hypoglossal nerve involvement resulting in a unilateral wasted tongue did not. It is important to consider neuromyelitis optica and its spectrum disorders in the differential diagnosis of a wasted tongue though its occurrence is rare.
  2. Ching BH, Mohamed AR, Khoo TB, Ismail HI
    Mult. Scler., 2015 Aug;21(9):1209-11.
    PMID: 26199345 DOI: 10.1177/1352458515593404
    Multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis (MDEM) followed by optic neuritis (ON) has been described as a new entity in recent years. Gluten encephalopathy has also been recognized as a neurological manifestation of celiac disease. Accurate diagnosis of both is important due to the therapeutic implications. We report a girl presenting with recurrent encephalopathic polyfocal demyelinating episodes followed by optic neuritis, and a clinical history suggestive of gluten sensitivity. She had persistently high ESR, neutrophilia, and tested positive for anti-MOG (myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein) antibody. She responded well to methylprednisolone in each relapse, and achieved remission for a year after azathioprine was added.
  3. Schee JP, Viswanathan S
    Mult. Scler., 2019 07;25(8):1189-1195.
    PMID: 29771191 DOI: 10.1177/1352458518775912
    We identified five female patients retrospectively with relapsing short-segment partial myelitis whose clinical and paraclinical features were suggestive of cord involvement of multiple sclerosis (MS)-type albeit not rigidly fulfilling the 2017 McDonald criteria. Notably, these patients had not developed any typical MS-like brain lesions despite repeated neuroimaging assessments over years. Comprehensive work-up for differential diagnoses of MS and other causes of transverse myelitis particularly neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders had been consistently negative on longitudinal follow-up. Thus, we postulate a possible entity of pure spinal MS which may represent a novel forme fruste within the MS disease spectrum.
  4. Viswanathan S, Wah LM
    Mult. Scler., 2019 10;25(11):1452-1461.
    PMID: 30113245 DOI: 10.1177/1352458518792430
    OBJECTIVES: This study looked at observed crude prevalence/incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) in Malaysia and identified any inter-ethnic differences for MS/NMOSD.

    METHODS: This was a nationwide tertiary hospital-based retrospective cross-sectional study using the capture-recapture method. It looked at the estimated crude prevalence of confirmed MS and NMOSD and annual incidence on 29 December 2017. Recapture of data was done between February and March 2018 on 1 March 2018. Public and referring private institutions were accessed.

    RESULTS: The survey identified 767 MS and 545 NMOSD subjects, with crude prevalence rates of 2.73 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.53; 2.92 per 100,000 population) and 1.94 per 100,000 (95% CI: 1.77; 2.10 per 100,000 population) with observed crude annual incidence of 0.55 (95% CI: 0.43; 0.58) for MS and 0.39 per 100,000 (95% CI: 0.35; 0.47) for NMOSD. The MS:NMOSD ratios were 1.4:1.0. The capture-recapture method revealed 913 MS (95% CI: 910; 915.9) and 580 (95% CI: 578.8; 581.2) NMOSD with prevalence per 100,000 of 3.26 (95% CI: 3.05; 3.47) and 2.07 (95% CI: 1.90; 2.24), respectively. In the MS group, 59.4% were Malay, 16.6% Chinese, 20.5% Indian, and 3.5% were from indigenous groups. In the NMOSD group, 47.3% were Malay, 46.9% Chinese, 3.5% Indian, and 2.3% were from other indigenous groups. The ratio of NMOSD to MS among the Chinese was 2:1, but the ratio of MS to NMOSD among the Malays was 1.8:1, and that in Indians was 8.3:1.

    CONCLUSION: There is a modest increase in the prevalence of MS and NMOSD in Malaysia with inter-ethnic differences for MS/NMOSD.

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