Background: The toxicity of inhaled silver nanoparticles on contractile and pro-inflammatory airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) that control airway calibre is unknown. We explored the oxidative activities and sulfidation processes of the toxic-inflammatory response. Method: Silver nanospheres (AgNSs) of 20 nm and 50 nm diameter and silver nanowires (AgNWs), short S-AgNWs, 1.5 μm and long L-AgNWs, 10 μm, both 72 nm in diameter were manufactured. We measured their effects on cell proliferation, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) release and membrane potential, and also performed electron microscopic studies. Main results and findings: The greatest effects were observed for the smallest particles with the highest specific surface area and greatest solubility that were avidly internalised. ASMCs exposed to 20 nm AgNSs (25 μg mL-1) for 72 hours exhibited a significant decrease in DNA incorporation (-72.4%; p < 0.05), whereas neither the 50 nm AgNSs nor the s-AgNWs altered DNA synthesis or viability. There was a small reduction in ASMC proliferation for the smaller AgNS, although Ag+ at 25 μL mL-1 reduced DNA synthesis by 93.3% (p < 0.001). Mitochondrial potential was reduced by both Ag+ (25 μg mL-1) by 47.1% and 20 nm Ag NSs (25 μg mL-1) by 40.1% (*both at p < 0.05), but was not affected by 50 nm AgNSs and the AgNWs. None of the samples showed a change in ROS toxicity. However, malondialdehyde release, associated with greater total ROS, was observed for all AgNPs, to an extent following the geometric size (20 nm AgNS: 213%, p < 0.01; 50 nm AgNS: 179.5%, p < 0.01 and L-AgNWs by 156.2%, p < 0.05). The antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine, prevented the reduction in mitochondrial potential caused by 20 nm AgNSs. The smaller nanostructures were internalised and dissolved within the ASMCs with the formation of non-reactive silver sulphide (Ag2S) on their surface, but with very little uptake of L-AgNWs. When ASMCs were incubated with H2S-producing enzyme inhibitors, the spatial extent of Ag2S formation was much greater. Conclusion: The intracellular toxicity of AgNPs in ASMCs is determined by the solubility of Ag+ released and the sulfidation process, effects related to particle size and geometry. Passivation through sulfidation driven by biogenic H2S can outcompete dissolution, thus reducing the toxicity of the smaller intracellular Ag nanostructures.
In this study, different concentrations (0, 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06 wt%) of Mo doped onto La2O3 nanostructures were synthesized using a one-pot co-precipitation process. The aim was to study the ability of Mo-doped La2O3 samples to degrade toxic methylene blue dye in different pH media. The bactericidal potential of synthesized samples was also investigated. The structural properties of prepared samples were examined by XRD. The observed XRD spectrum of La2O3 showed a cubic and hexagonal structure, while no change was recorded in Mo-doped La2O3 samples. Doping with Mo improved the crystallinity of the samples. UV-Vis spectrophotometry and density functional theory calculations were used to assess the optical characteristics of Mo-La2O3. The band gap energy was reduced while the absorption spectra showed prominent peaks due to Mo doping. The HR-TEM results revealed the rod-like morphology of La2O3. The rod-like network appeared to become dense upon doping. A significant degradation of MB was confirmed with Mo; furthermore, the bactericidal activities against S. aureus and E. coli were measured as 5.05 mm and 5.45 mm inhibition zones, respectively, after doping with a high concentration (6%) of Mo.
The current COVID-19 pandemic, with its numerous variants including Omicron which is 50-70% more transmissible than the previously dominant Delta variant, demands a fast, robust, cheap, and easily deployed identification strategy to reduce the chain of transmission, for which biosensors have been shown as a feasible solution at the laboratory scale. The use of nanomaterials has significantly enhanced the performance of biosensors, and the addition of CNTs has increased detection capabilities to an unrivaled level. Among the various CNT-based detection systems, CNT-based field-effect transistors possess ultra-sensitivity and low-noise detection capacity, allowing for immediate analyte determination even in the presence of limited analyte concentrations, which would be typical of early infection stages. Recently, CNT field-effect transistor-type biosensors have been successfully used in the fast diagnosis of COVID-19, which has increased research and commercial interest in exploiting current developments of CNT field-effect transistors. Recent progress in the design and deployment of CNT-based biosensors for viral monitoring are covered in this paper, as are the remaining obstacles and prospects. This work also highlights the enormous potential for synergistic effects of CNTs used in combination with other nanomaterials for viral detection.
The Soret and Dufour effects have significant importance in several practical scenarios, especially in the domain of fluidic mass and temperature transfer. Nanofluidics, biological systems, and combustion processes are all areas where these consequences are crucial. Because of its distinct geometry, a wedge-shaped structure has aerodynamics, production, and engineering applications. Wedge shapes are used in aerodynamics for analyzing and improving airflow across various objects. Nanofluids increase thermal conductivity over traditional fluids making them ideal for cooling high-power electronics, boosting temperature transfer efficiencies, and boosting the solar energy system output. This work is of critical importance since it examines the consequences of a heat source/sink, the Soret impact and the Dufour impact, on the movement of a ternary nanofluid over a wedge. This work uses appropriate similarity constraints to reduce the complexity of the underlying governing equations, allowing for fast computational solutions with the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg 4-5th order method (RKF-45). Analysis of these phenomena helps determine their possible real-world applications across various engineering fields, by presenting numerical results through plots. The results reveal that adjusting the moving wedge factor lessens the temperature profile, improving the magnetic constraint increases the velocity, and modifying the heat source/sink, Dufour, and Soret factors increases the temperature and concentration profiles. Dufour and heat source/sink constraints speed-up the heat transmission rate. In all cases, ternary nano liquids show significant performance over hybrid nano liquids.
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has been attracting considerable attention due to its excellent electrical and optical properties. We successfully grew high-quality, large-area and uniform few-layer (FL)-MoS2 on p-doped gallium nitride (p-GaN) using a simplified sulfurization technique by the single-zone CVD of a Mo seed layer via E-beam evaporation. Tuning the sulfurization parameters, namely temperature and duration, has been discovered to be an effective strategy for improving MoS2 orientation (horizontally aligned and vertically aligned) and quality, which affects photodetector (PD) performance. The increase in the sulfurization temperature to 850 °C results in improved structural quality and crystallite size. However, a prolonged sulfurization duration of 60 minutes caused the degradation of the film quality. The close lattice match between p-GaN and MoS2 contributes to the excellent quality growth of deposited MoS2. Following this, an n-MoS2/p-GaN heterostructure PD was successfully built by a MoS2 position-selectivity method. We report a highly sensitive and self-powered GaN/MoS2 p-n heterojunction PD with a relatively high responsivity of 14.3 A W-1, a high specific detectivity of 1.12 × 1013 Jones, and a fast response speed of 8.3/13.4 μs (20 kHz) under a UV light of 355 nm at zero-bias voltage. Our PD exhibits superior performance to that of the previously reported MoS2/GaN p-n PD. Our findings suggest a more efficient and straightforward approach to building high-performance self-powered UV PDs.
Objective: hybrid nanofluids have superior thermal efficiency and physical durability in contrast to regular nanofluids. The stagnation point flow of MHD micropolar hybrid nanofluids over a deformable sheet with viscous dissipation is investigated. Methodology: the controlling partial differential equations are converted to nonlinear ordinary differential equations using the transmuted similarity, and are subsequently solved using the bvp4c solver in MATLAB. The hybrid nanofluids consist of aluminum and copper nanoparticles, dispersed in a base fluid of water. Results: multiple solutions are obtained in the given problem for the case of shrinking as well as for the stretching sheet due to the variation in several influential parameters. Non-unique solutions, generally, exist for the case of shrinking sheets. In addition, the first branch solution is physically stable and acceptable according to the stability analysis. The friction factor is higher for the branch of the first solution and lower in the second branch due to the higher magnetic parameters, while the opposite behavior is seen in the case of the local heat transfer rate. Originality: the novelty of this model is that it finds multiple solutions in the presence of Cu and Al2O3 nanoparticles and also performs the stability analysis. In general, non-unique solutions exist for the phenomenon of shrinking sheets.
This article focuses on a numerical investigation aimed at enhancing the electrical performance of a two-dimensional photovoltaic thermal system (PV/T) through the application of cooling using hybrid nanofluids. The hybrid nanofluids consist of titanium oxide and silver nanoparticles suspended in water, while the PV/T system is based on polycrystalline silicon, copper, and a flow channel with a rotating cylinder. PV/T devices generate electricity from sunlight, but their performance degrades over time due to the heat generated by solar radiation. Therefore, nanofluids can be circulated through the bottom flow channel to cool the device. This study utilizes 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations to control fluid flow and energy equations to manage energy distribution. The COMSOL 6.0 finite element software is employed for comprehensive modeling and simulation. To enhance the performance of the PV/T system, a parametric study is conducted by varying the Reynolds number (ranging from 100 to 1000), cylinder rotational speed (varying from 0.01 to 0.2 m s-1), and silver volume fraction (ranging from 0.01 to 0.2). The results show that increasing the Reynolds number and the volume fraction of silver leads to a reduction in the maximum temperature of the cell. The maximum temperature of the cell also decreases with the rotational speed of the cylinder but only for high Reynolds numbers. By applying the present model, the cell's efficiency is improved by 5.93%.
Synthesis of carbon nanostructures at room temperature and under atmospheric pressure is challenging but it can provide significant impact on the development of many future advanced technologies. Here, the formation and growth characteristics of nanostructured carbon films on nascent Ag clusters during room-temperature electrochemical CO2 reduction reactions (CO2RR) are demonstrated. Under a ternary electrolyte system containing [BMIm]+[BF4]-, propylene carbonate, and water, a mixture of sp2/sp3 carbon allotropes were grown on the facets of Ag nanocrystals as building blocks. We show that (i) upon sufficient energy supplied by an electric field, (ii) the presence of negatively charged nascent Ag clusters, and (iii) as a function of how far the C-C coupling reaction of CO2RR (10-390 min) has advanced, the growth of nanostructured carbon can be divided into three stages: Stage 1: sp3-rich carbon and diamond seed formation; stage 2: diamond growth and diamond-graphite transformation; and stage 3: amorphous carbon formation. The conversion of CO2 and high selectivity for the solid carbon products (>95%) were maintained during the full CO2RR reaction length of 390 min. The results enable further design of the room-temperature production of nanostructured carbon allotropes and/or the corresponding metal-composites by a viable negative CO2 emission technology.
Nanoparticles possess fascinating properties and applications, and there has been increasing critical consideration of their use. Because carbon is a component with immaterial cytotoxicity and extensive biocompatibility with different components, carbon nanomaterials have a wide scope of potential uses. Carbon nanodots are a type of carbon nanoparticle that is increasingly being researched because of their astounding properties such as extraordinary luminescence, simplicity of amalgamation and surface functionalization, and biocompatibility. Because of these properties, carbon nanodots can be used as material sensors, as indicators in fluorescent tests, and as nanomaterials for biomedical applications. In this review, we report on the ongoing and noteworthy utilization of carbon quantum dots such as bioimaging tests and photocatalytic applications. In addition, the extension and future components of these materials, which can be investigated for new potential applications, are discussed.
Electrolytes are one of the vital constituents of electrochemical energy storage devices and their physical and chemical properties play an important role in these devices' performance, including capacity, power density, rate performance, cyclability and safety. This article reviews the current state of understanding of the electrode-electrolyte interaction in supercapacitors and battery-supercapacitor hybrid devices. The article discusses factors that affect the overall performance of the devices such as the ionic conductivity, mobility, diffusion coefficient, radius of bare and hydrated spheres, ion solvation, viscosity, dielectric constant, electrochemical stability, thermal stability and dispersion interaction. The requirements needed to design better electrolytes and the challenges that still need to be addressed for building better supercapacitive devices for the competitive energy storage market have also been highlighted.
The characteristics of nanomaterials have garnered significant attention in recent research on natural and forced convection. This study focuses on the forced convection characteristics of ternary nanofluids within convergent and divergent channels. The ternary nanofluid comprises titanium oxide (TiO2), zinc oxide (ZnO), and silver suspended in water, which serves as the base fluid. Using COMSOL Multiphysics 6.0, a reliable software for finite element analysis, numerical simulations were conducted for steady and incompressible two-dimensional flow. Reynolds numbers varying from 100 to 800 were employed to investigate forced convection. Additionally, we explored aspect ratios (channel height divided by the height of the convergent or divergent section) of -0.4, -0.2, 0, 0.2, and 0.4. Our findings revealed that only at aspect ratio a = 0.4 did the average outlet temperature increase as the Reynolds number rose, while other aspect ratios exhibited decreasing average temperatures with declining Reynolds numbers. Moreover, as the Reynolds number increased from 100 to 800 and the total volume fraction of the ternary nanofluids ranged from 0.003 to 0.15, there was a significant 100% enhancement in the average Nusselt number. For clarity, this article briefly presents essential information, such as the study's numerical nature, fluid properties (constant-property fluid), and the methodology (COMSOL Multiphysics 6.0, finite element analysis). Key conclusions are highlighted to enable readers to grasp the main outcomes at a glance. These details are also adequately covered in the manuscript to facilitate a comprehensive understanding of the research. The utilization of this emerging phenomenon holds immense potential in various applications, ranging from the development of highly efficient heat exchangers to the optimization of thermal energy systems. This phenomenon can be harnessed in scenarios in which effective cost management in thermal production is a critical consideration.
A new push-pull aza-BODIPY (AZB-CF3) derivative comprised of dimethylamino groups and trifluoromethyl moieties was successfully synthesized. This derivative exhibited broad absorption in the near-infrared region in the range from 798 to 832 nm. It also exhibited significant near-infrared (NIR) signals in low-polar solvents with emission peaks around 835-940 nm, while non-fluorescence in high-polar environments due to the twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) phenomenon. The nanoprecipitation of this compound with phospholipid-based polyethylene glycol (DSPE-PEG) yielded AZB-CF3@DSPE-PEG nanoparticles (NPs) with a hydrodynamic size of 70 nm. The NPs exhibited good photostability, colloidal stability, biocompatibility, and excellent photothermal (PTT) competence with a conversion efficiency (η) of 44.9%. These NPs were evaluated in vitro and in ovo in a 4T1 breast cancer cell line for NIR light-trigger photothermal therapy. Proven in the chicken egg tumor model, AZB-CF3@DSPE-PEG NPs induced severe vascular damage (∼40% vascular destruction), showed great anticancer efficacy (∼75% tumor growth inhibition), and effectively inhibited distant metastasis via photothermal treatment. As such, this PTT-based nanocarrier system could be a potential candidate for a clinical cancer therapy approach.
Garcinia mangostana extract (GME) has severe pharmacokinetic deficiencies and is made up of a variety of bioactive components. GME has proven its anti-Acanthamoeba effectiveness. In this investigation, a GME-loaded niosome was developed to increase its potential therapeutic efficacy. A GME-loaded niosome was prepared by encapsulation in a mixture of span60, cholesterol, and chloroform by the thin film hydration method. The vesicle size, zeta potential, percentage of entrapment efficiency, and stability of GME-loaded niosomes were investigated. The values for GME-loaded niosome size and zeta potential were 404.23 ± 4.59 and -32.03 ± 0.95, respectively. The delivery system enhanced the anti-Acanthamoeba activity, which possessed MIC values of 0.25-4 mg mL-1. In addition, the niosomal formulation decreased the toxicity of GME by 16 times. GME-loaded niosome must be stored at 4 °C, as the quantity of remaining GME encapsulated is greater at this temperature than at room temperature. SEM revealed the damage to the cell membrane caused by trophozoites and cysts, which led to dead cells. In light of the above, it was found that GME-loaded niosomes had better anti-Acanthamoeba activity. The study suggested that GME-loaded niosomes could be used as an alternative to Acanthamoeba's therapeutic effects.