Sunitinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor for GIST and advanced renal cell carcinoma. Diclofenac is used in cancer pain management. Coadministration may mediate P450 toxicity. We evaluate their interaction, assessing biomarkers ALT, AST, BUN, creatinine, and histopathological changes in the liver, kidney, heart, brain, and spleen. ICR mice (male, n = 6 per group/dose) were administered saline (group A) or 30 mg/kg diclofenac ip (group B), or sunitinib po at 25, 50, 80, 100, 140 mg/kg (group C) or combination of diclofenac (30 mg/kg, ip) and sunitinib (25, 50, 80, 100, 140 mg/kg po). Diclofenac was administered 15 min before sunitinib, mice were euthanized 4 h post-sunitinib dose, and biomarkers and tissue histopathology were assessed. AST was 92.2 ± 8.0 U/L in group A and 159.7 ± 14.6 U/L in group B (p < 0.05); in group C, it the range was 105.1-152.6 U/L, and in group D, it was 156.0-209.5 U/L (p < 0.05). ALT was 48.9 ± 1.6 U/L (group A), 95.1 ± 4.5 U/L (p < 0.05) in group B, and 50.5-77.5 U/L in group C and 82.3-115.6 U/L after coadministration (p < 0.05). Renal function biomarker BUN was 16.3 ± 0.6 mg/dl (group A) and increased to 29.9 ± 2.6 mg/dl in group B (p < 0.05) and it the range was 19.1-33.3 mg/dl (p < 0.05) and 26.9-40.8 mg/dl in groups C and D, respectively. Creatinine was 5.9 pmol/ml in group A; 6.2 pmol/ml in group B (p < 0.01), and the range was 6.0-6.2 and 6.2-6.4 pmol/ml in groups C and D, respectively (p < 0.05 for D). Histopathological assessment (vascular and inflammation damages) showed toxicity in group B (p < 0.05) and mild toxicity in group C. Damage was significantly lesser in group D than group B (p < 0.05). Spleen only showed toxicity after coadministration. These results suggest vascular and inflammation protective effects of sunitinib, not shown after biomarker analysis.
The inhibitory effects of five flavonoids with distinct chemical classes (flavones [luteolin], flavonols [quercetin and quercitrin], and flavanones [hesperetin and hespiridin]) on cDNA-expressed CYP2C8 were investigated. CYP2C8 was co-expressed with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in Escherichia coli and used to characterise potency and mechanism of these flavonoids on the isoform. Tolbutamide 4-methylhydroxylase, a high-performance liquid chromatography-based assay, was selected as marker activity for CYP2C8. Our results indicated that the flavonoids inhibited CYP2C8 with different potency. The order of inhibitory activities was quercetin > luteolin > hesperetin > hesperidin > quercitrin. All of these compounds however exhibited mechanism-based inhibition. A number of structural factors were found to be important for inhibition; these include the molecular shape (volume to surface ratio), the number of hydroxyl groups as well as glycosylation of the hydroxyl group. Quercetin was the most potent inhibitor among the flavonoids examined in this study, and our data suggest that it should be examined for potential pharmacokinetic drug interactions pertaining to CYP2C8 substrates in vivo.
The functional responses of different overnight-stored in vitro tissues are not clearly described in any animal model. The influence of overnight storage in an animal model may vary between tissue types. We employed Sprague-Dawley rat as our animal model and investigated the functional changes of rat aorta, trachea, bronchus and bladder that were used (i) immediately after surgical removal (denoted as fresh) and (ii) after storage in aerated (95% O2, 5% CO2) Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution at 4 °C for 24 h (denoted as stored). The aorta ring was pre-contracted with phenylephrine, and the functional response of the tissue was investigated using isoprenaline, forskolin and carbachol. Carbachol was also used to increase the tone in trachea, bronchus rings and bladder strips. A clear reduced function of endothelium, with a minor if any effect in the smooth muscle function in rat aorta was observed after overnight storage. The contractile response of overnight-stored rat airway (trachea and bronchus) and bladder smooth muscles remained unchanged. Among all tested tissues, only bronchus showed a reduced response rate (only 40% responded) after storage. In vitro rat tissues that are stored in Krebs solution at 4 °C for 24 h can still be used to investigate smooth muscle responses, however, not endothelium-mediated responses for aorta. The influence of overnight storage on different tissues from an animal model (Sprague-Dawley rat in our study) also provides an insight in maximising the use of sacrificed animals.
Atherosclerosis is the commonest and most important vascular disease. Andrographolide (AND) is the main bioactive component of the medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata and is used in traditional medicine. This study was aimed to evaluate the antiatherogenic effect of AND against atherosclerosis induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis in White New Zealand rabbits. Thirty rabbits were divided into five groups as follows: G1, normal group; G2-5, were orally challenged with P. gingivalis five times a week over 12 weeks; G2, atherogenic control group; G3, standard group treated with atorvastatin (AV) 5 mg/kg; and G4 and G5, treatment groups treated with AND 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively over 12 weeks. Serums were subjected to antioxidant enzymatic and anti-inflammatory activities, and the aorta was subjected to histological analyses. Groups treated with AND showed a significant reversal of liver and renal biochemical changes, compared with the atherogenic control group. In the same groups, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total glutathione (GSH) levels in serum were significantly increased (P < 0.05), and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA)) levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), respectively. Furthermore, treated groups with AV and AND showed significant decrease in the level of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 compared with the atherogenic control group. In aortic homogenate, the level of nitrotyrosine was significantly increased, while the level of MCP1 was significantly decreased in AV and AND groups compared with the atherogenic control group. In addition, staining the aorta with Sudan IV showed a reduction in intimal thickening plaque in AV and AND groups compared with the atherogenic control group. AND has showed an antiatherogenic property as well as the capability to reduce lipid, liver, and kidney biomarkers in atherogenic serum that prevents atherosclerosis complications caused by P. gingivalis.
A series of preliminary studies was carried out to evaluate the antinociceptive (pain relief) activity of the aqueous extract of Corchorus olitorius L. leaves (COAE) and to determine the influence of temperature and opioid receptors on COAE activity using the abdominal constriction and hot plate tests in mice. COAE, at concentrations of 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, showed both peripheral and central antinociception that are non-concentration- and concentration-dependent respectively. The peripheral activity was clearly observed at a concentration of 25% and diminished at a concentration of 100%, while the central activity was observed at all the concentrations of COAE used. Furthermore, the insignificant results obtained indicated that this peripheral activity (at concentrations of 25 and 50%) was comparable to that of morphine (0.8 mg/kg). Pre-heating COAE at a temperature of 80 degrees C and 100 degrees C, or 60 degrees C and 80 degrees C was found to enhance its peripheral and central antinociception respectively. Pre-treatment with naloxone (10 mg/kg), a general opioid receptor antagonist, for 5 min, followed by COAE, was found to completely block its peripheral, but not central, antinociceptive activity. Based on this observation, we conclude that the antinociceptive activity exhibited by C. olitorius is enhanced by the increase in temperature and may be mediated peripherally, but not centrally, at least in part, via an opioid receptor.
Previous studies have demonstrated that 3'-hydroxy-5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone (TMF) content in Orthosiphon stamineus fractions correlate with its vasorelaxation activity. Even with the availability of previous studies, there is still very little information on the vasorelaxation effect of TMF, and few scientific studies have been carried out. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the vasorelaxation activity and mechanism of action of the TMF. The vasorelaxation activity and the underlying mechanisms of TMF were evaluated on thoracic aortic rings isolated from Sprague Dawley rats. TMF caused the relaxation of aortic rings with endothelium pre-contracted with phenylephrine. However, the vasorelaxant effect of TMF was significantly decreased in PE-primed endothelium-denuded and potassium chloride-primed endothelium-intact aortic rings. In the presence of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, methylene blue, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, indomethacin, tetraethylammonium, 4-aminopyridine, barium chloride, atropine and propranolol, the relaxation stimulated by TMF was significantly reduced. TMF was also found to reduce Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (via IP3R) and block calcium channels (VOCC). The present study demonstrates the vasorelaxant effect of TMF involves NO/sGC/cGMP and prostacyclin pathways, calcium and potassium channels and muscarinic and beta-adrenergic receptors.
The cathepsin B inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-chloromethyl ketone (z-FA-CMK) was recently found to induce apoptosis at low concentrations in Jurkat T cells, while at higher concentrations, the cells die of necrosis. In the present study, we showed that z-FA-CMK readily depletes intracellular glutathione (GSH) with a concomitant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The toxicity of z-FA-CMK in Jurkat T cells was completely abrogated by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), suggesting that the toxicity mediated by z-FA-CMK is due to oxidative stress. We found that L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) which depletes intracellular GSH through the inhibition of GSH biosynthesis in Jurkat T cells did not promote ROS increase or induce cell death. However, NAC was still able to block z-FA-CMK toxicity in Jurkat T cells in the presence of BSO, indicating that the protective effect of NAC does not involve GSH biosynthesis. This is further corroborated by the protective effect of the non-metabolically active D-cysteine on z-FA-CMK toxicity. Furthermore, in BSO-treated cells, z-FA-CMK-induced ROS increased which remains unchanged, suggesting that the depletion of GSH and increase in ROS generation mediated by z-FA-CMK may be two separate events. Collectively, our results demonstrated that z-FA-CMK toxicity is mediated by oxidative stress through the increase in ROS generation.
Developments in nanotechnology field, specifically, metal oxide nanoparticles have attracted the attention of researchers due to their unique sensing, electronic, drug delivery, catalysis, optoelectronics, cosmetics, and space applications. Physicochemical methods are used to fabricate nanosized metal oxides; however, drawbacks such as high cost and toxic chemical involvement prevail. Recent researches focus on synthesizing metal oxide nanoparticles through green chemistry which helps in avoiding the involvement of toxic chemicals in the synthesis process. Bacteria, fungi, and plants are the biological sources that are utilized for the green nanoparticle synthesis. Due to drawbacks such as tedious maintenance and the time needed for the nanoparticle formation, plant extracts are widely used in nanoparticle production. In addition, plants are available all over the world and phytosynthesized nanoparticles show comparatively less toxicity towards mammalian cells. Secondary metabolites including flavonoids, terpenoids, and saponins are present in plant extracts, and these are highly responsible for nanoparticle formation and reduction of toxicity. Hence, this article gives an overview of recent developments in the phytosynthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles and their toxic analysis in various cells and animal models. Also, their possible mechanism in normal and cancer cells, pharmaceutical applications, and their efficiency in disease treatment are also discussed.
Mitragynine is a major component isolated from Mitragyna speciosa Korth or kratom, a medicinal plant known for its opiate-like and euphoric properties. Multiple toxicity and fatal cases involving mitragynine or kratom have been reported but the underlying causes remain unclear. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a multidrug transporter which modulates the pharmacokinetics of xenobiotics and plays a key role in mediating drug-drug interactions. This study investigated the effects of mitragynine on P-gp transport activity, mRNA, and protein expression in Caco-2 cells using molecular docking, bidirectional assay, RT-qPCR, Western blot analysis, and immunocytochemistry techniques, respectively. Molecular docking simulation revealed that mitragynine interacts with important residues at the nucleotide binding domain (NBD) site of the P-gp structure but not with the residues from the substrate binding site. This was consistent with subsequent experimental work as mitragynine exhibited low permeability across the cell monolayer but inhibited digoxin transport at 10 μM, similar to quinidine. The reduction of P-gp activity in vitro was further contributed by the downregulation of mRNA and protein expression of P-gp. In summary, mitragynine is likely a P-gp inhibitor in vitro but not a substrate. Hence, concurrent administration of mitragynine-containing kratom products with psychoactive drugs which are P-gp substrates may lead to clinically significant toxicity. Further clinical study to prove this point is needed.
One major source of inter-individual variability in drug pharmacokinetics is genetic polymorphism of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes. This study aimed to elucidate the enzyme kinetic and molecular basis for altered activity in three major alleles of CYP2D6, namely CYP2D6*2, CYP2D6*10 and CYP2D6*17. The E. coli-expressed allelic variants were examined using substrate (venlafaxine and 3-cyano-7-ethoxycoumarin[CEC]) and inhibitor (quinidine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, terbinafine) probes in enzyme assays as well as molecular docking. The kinetics data indicated that R296C and S486T mutations in CYP2D6*2 have caused enhanced ligand binding (enhanced intrinsic clearance for venlafaxine and reduced IC50 for quinidine, paroxetine and terbinafine), suggesting morphological changes within the active site cavity that favoured ligand docking and binding. Mutations in CYP2D6*10 and CYP2D6*17 tended to cause deleterious effect on catalysis, with reduced clearance for venlafaxine and CEC. Molecular docking indicated that P34S and T107I, the unique mutations in the alleles, have negatively impacted activity by affecting ligand access and binding due to alteration of the substrate access channel and active site morphology. IC50 values however were quite variable for quinidine, fluoxetine and terbinafine, and a general decrease in IC50 was observed for paroxetine, suggesting ligand-specific altered susceptibility to inhibition in the alleles. This study indicates that CYP2D6 allele selectivity for ligands was not solely governed by changes in the active site architecture induced by the mutations, but that the intrinsic properties of the substrates and inhibitors also played vital role.
The rationale of designing compounds containing a (3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyloxy) phenyl moiety is largely due to its potential antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. A previous study focused on its antioxidant mechanism, whereas in this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity of a series of 28 analogues and the mechanism of apoptosis of the most cytotoxic compound against wild-type (HCT-116) and p53 mutant (HT-29) colorectal cancer cell lines. The series of analogues comprise of different families, namely hydrazone, oxadiazole, thiosemicarbazides and triazoles. In the initial cytotoxicity screening, N-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylidene)-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyloxy) benzohydrazide, henceforth known as, P5H, was found to be most cytotoxic against human colorectal cancer cell lines (IC50 for HCT-116 = 11.79 μM and HT-29 = 18.52 μM). Additionally, P5H was found to have some degree of selectivity towards cancer cells compared to normal human colon cells (CCD-112 CoN). Subsequent investigation had brought insight on P5H ability to induce apoptosis in both HCT-116 and HT-29 cell lines. Cell cycle analysis showed both cell lines were arrested at the G2/M phase upon treatment. Our study concluded that P5H induced the death receptor, DR5 in HCT-116 and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway in HT-29. Therefore, P5H may be a promising candidate as a chemotherapy agent against colon cancer. Graphical abstract The apoptotic pathways induced in HT-29 and HCT-116 cells upon P5H treatment.