The tropical edible red seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii L.) is rich in nutrients and polyphenolic compounds that may suppress cancer through its antioxidant and antiproliferative properties. The study reports on rat mammary tumor suppression and tissue antioxidant status modulation by E. cottonii ethanol extract (ECE). The effect of orally administered ECE (100 mg/kg body-weight) was compared with that of tamoxifen (10 mg/kg body-weight). Rat was induced to develop mammary tumor with subcutaneous injection of LA-7 cells (6 × 10(6) cells/rat). The ECE was more effective than tamoxifen in suppressing tumor growth (27%), improving tissues (plasma, liver, and kidney) malondialdehyde concentrations, superoxide dismutase activity and erythrocyte glutathione concentrations (P < 0.05). Unlike tamoxifen, the ECE displayed little toxicity to the liver and kidneys. The ECE exhibited strong anticancer effect with enzyme modulating properties, suggesting its potential as a suppressing agent for mammary gland tumor.
Cat's whiskers (Orthosiphon stamineus) is commonly used as Java tea to treat kidney stones including a variety of angiogenesis-dependent diseases such as tumorous edema, rheumatism, diabetic blindness, and obesity. In the present study, antitumor potential of standardized 50% ethanol extract of O. stamineus leaves (EOS) was evaluated against colorectal tumor in athymic mice and antiangiogenic efficacy of EOS was investigated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). EOS at 100 mg/kg caused 47.62 ± 6.4% suppression in tumor growth, while at 200 mg/kg it caused 83.39 ± 4.1% tumor regression. Tumor histology revealed significant reduction in extent of vascularization. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed EOS (200 mg/kg) significantly reduced the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level in vitro (211 ± 0.26 pg/ml cell lysate) as well as in vivo (90.9 ± 2 pg/g tissue homogenate) when compared to the control (378 ± 5 and 135.5 ± 4 pg, respectively). However, EOS was found to be noncytotoxic to colon cancer and endothelial cells. In vitro, EOS significantly inhibited the migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). EOS suppressed VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGF receptor-2 in HUVECs. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of EOS showed high rosmarinic acid contents, whereas phytochemical analysis revealed high protein and phenolic contents. These results demonstrated that the antitumor activity of EOS may be due to its VEGF-targeted antiangiogenicity.
Tumor angiogenesis and metastasis are the major causes for high morbidity and mortality rates in cancer patient. Modulation on tumor angiogenesis and metastasis provides opportunities to halt progression of cancer. From our previous findings, Phyllanthus plant possesses antiproliferative effects on melanoma and prostate cancer cell lines and induction of apoptosis. The main aims of the present work were further investigated on the antimetastatic and antiangiogenic effects on cancer cells (MeWo and PC-3) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) of 4 Phyllanthus species (P.amarus, P.niruri, P.urinaria and P.watsonii). Phyllanthus extracts significantly inhibited cell adhesion, migration, invasion, and transendothelial migration activities of cancer (MeWo and PC-3) cells in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05) by cell-matrix adhesion, Transwell migration, invasion, and transendothelial migration assays. Phyllanthus extracts were exhibited low cytotoxicity on HUVECs up to a concentration of 500.0 μg/ml by MTS reduction assay. Phyllanthus extracts also exhibited antiangiogenic effects through inhibition of migration, invasion, and microcapillary like-tube structure formation in HUVECs. These observations were due to alteration in activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -2, -7, -9, and -26 in treated-endothelial and cancer cells by zymographies. These findings suggest that Phyllanthus plant has the potential to inhibit tumour metastasis and angiogenesis through the suppression of MMP enzymes.
The induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to selectively kill cancer cells is an important feature of radiotherapy and various chemotherapies. Depletion of glutathione can induce apoptosis in cancer cells or sensitize them to anticancer treatments intended to modulate ROS levels. In contrast, antioxidants protect cancer cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death by scavenging ROS. The role of exogenous antioxidants in cancer cells under oxidative insults remains controversial and unclear. This study aimed to identify protective pathways modulated by γ-tocotrienol (γT3), an isomer of vitamin E, in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells under oxidative stress. Using buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) as an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, we found that BSO treatment reduced the viability of SH-SY5Y cells. BSO induced cell death by increasing apoptosis, decreased the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), and increased ROS levels in SH-SY5Y cells. Addition of γT3 increased the viability of BSO-treated cells, suppressed apoptosis, and decreased the ROS level induced by BSO, while the GSH level was unaffected. These results suggest that decreasing GSH levels by BSO increased ROS levels, leading to apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. γT3 attenuated the BSO-induced cell death by scavenging free radicals.
Previous studies have revealed that tocotrienol-rich fractions (TRF) from palm oil inhibit the proliferation and the growth of solid tumors. The anticancer activity of TRF is said to be caused by several mechanisms, one of which is antiangiogenesis. In this study, we looked at the antiangiogenic effects of TRF. In vitro investigations of the antiangiogenic activities of TRF, delta-tocotrienol (deltaT3), and alpha-tocopherol (alphaToc) were carried out in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). TRF and deltaT3 significantly inhibited cell proliferation from 4 microg/ml onward (P < 0.05). Cell migration was inhibited the most by deltaT3 at 12 microg/ml. Anti-angiogenic properties of TRF were carried out further in vivo using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and BALB/c mice model. TRF at 200 microg/ml reduced the vascular network on CAM. TRF treatment of 1 mg/mouse significantly reduced 4T1 tumor volume in BALB/c mice. TRF significantly reduced serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level in BALB/c mice. In conclusion, this study showed that palm tocotrienols exhibit anti-angiogenic properties that may assist in tumor regression.
Cancer is one of the major causes of death worldwide, and the incidence and mortality rates of cancer are expected to rise tremendously in the near future. Despite a better understanding of cancer biology and advancement in cancer management, current strategies in cancer treatment remain costly and ineffective. Hence, instead of putting more efforts to search for new cancer cures, attention has now been shifted to the development of cancer chemopreventive agents as a preventive measure for cancer formation. It is well known that neoplastic transformation of cells is multifactorial, and the occurrence of oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and genomic instability events has been implicated in the carcinogenesis of cells. Zinc l-carnosine (ZnC), which is clinically used as gastric ulcer treatment in Japan, has been suggested to have the potential in preventing cancer development. Multiple studies have revealed that ZnC possesses potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and genomic stability enhancement effects. Thus, this review provides some mechanistic insight into the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and genomic stability enhancement effects of ZnC in relevance to its chemopreventive potential.
This systematic review aimed to assess the clinical benefits of green tea consumption on the progression and prevention of prostate cancer (PCa). A systematic search was performed across the following databases: PubMed, Excerpta Medica dataBASE, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Current Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We included studies from database inception to September 2015. Studies must report on the effect of green tea consumption on PCa. The quality of observational studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS), while randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were assessed for quality using the Jadad scale. A total of 15 articles were included, with 11 reporting on the effect of green tea consumption on PCa prevention, and four reporting on the effect of green tea on treatment. Mean NOS for observational studies was 7.4 (SD±1.3), with a range from 6 to 9, while all three RCTs scored 5 on the Jadad scale. Findings demonstrate that green tea appears to be an effective chemopreventive agent, particularly in those with high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia. However, evidence of efficacy in the treatment of PCa is currently lacking. Given the limitations in current studies, more well-designed RCTs should be undertaken to determine if green tea indeed has a role in the prevention and treatment of PCa.
The prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is on a steady rise over the years, with the World Health Organization (WHO) reporting CRC as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. While treatment modalities may differ in accordance to the staging and severity of the disease itself, chemotherapy is almost unavoidable in most cases. Though effective in its mode of action, chemotherapy is commonly associated with undesirable side effects that negatively affects the patient in terms of quality of life, and in some cases may actually interfere with their treatment regimens, thus escalating to poor prognosis. Gastrointestinal disturbances is a major side effect of chemotherapy and in CRC, gastrointestinal disturbances may be further aggravated and grave in nature mainly due to the affected site, being the gastrointestinal tract. The use of complementary therapies as adjuncts to alleviate the side effects of chemotherapy in CRC patients is gaining prominence with dietary supplements being the most commonly employed adjunct. Some of the frequently used dietary supplements for CRC patients are probiotics, omega-3 fatty acid and glutamine. The successful crosstalk between these dietary supplements with important metabolic pathways is crucial in the alleviation of chemotherapy side effects.
This study was conducted to investigate the anticancer effects and mechanism of Calophyllum inophyllum fruit extract against MCF-7 cells. C. inophyllum fruit extract was found to have markedly cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner with the IC50 for 24 h of 23.59 µg/mL. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that C. inophyllum fruit extract mediated cell cycle at G0/G1 and G2/M phases, and MCF-7 cells entered the early phase of apoptosis. The expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 was decreased whereas the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, cytochrome C and p53 were increased after treatment. C. inophyllum fruit extract led to apoptosis in MCF-7 cells via the mitochondrial pathway in a dose dependent manner. This is evidenced by the elevation of intracellular ROS, the loss of mitochondria membrane potential (Δψm), and activation of caspase-3. Meanwhile, dose-dependent genomic DNA fragmentation was observed after C. inophyllum fruits extract treatment by comet assay. This study shows that C. inophyllum fruits extract-induced apoptosis is primarily p53 dependent and mediated through the activation of caspase-3. C. inophyllum fruit extract could be an excellent source of chemopreventive agent in the treatment of breast cancer and has potential to be explored as green anticancer agent.
Tocotrienols (T3), a family of vitamin E, are reported to possess potent anti-cancer effects but the molecular mechanisms behind these effects still remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate how T3 exert anti-cancer effects on MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. The MDA-MB-231 cells were chosen for this study as they are triple-negative and highly metastatic cells, which form aggressive tumors in experimental models. The MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with varying concentrations (0-20 µg mL-1) of gamma (γ) or delta (δ) T3 and the secretome profiles of these cells treated with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of γT3 (5.8 µg mL-1) or δT3 (4.0 µg mL-1) were determined using label-free quantitative proteomic strategy. A total of 103, 174 and 141 proteins were identified with ProteinLynx Global Server (PLGS) score of more than 200 and above 25% sequence coverage in the untreated control and T3-treated cell culture supernatant respectively. A total of 18 proteins were dysregulated between untreated control and T3 (δT3 or γT3) treated conditions. The results showed that T3 treatment downregulated the exogenous Cathepsin D and Serpine1 proteins but upregulated Profilin-1 protein, which play a key role in breast cancer in the MDA-MB-231 cells. These findings strongly suggest that T3 may induce differential expression of secreted proteins involved in the cytoskeletal regulation of RHO GTPase signaling pathway.
Phyla nodiflora L. has been used as medicinal remedies for various ailments due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-tumor activity. Previously, we found that the plant extracts induced DNA fragmentation in MCF-7. This study was to investigate the modes of action of P. nodiflora in inhibiting breast cancer cells using leaf ethyl acetate (EA leaf), stem ethyl acetate (EA stem) and stem methanol (Met stem) extracts. The MTT assay showed that the anti-proliferative effects of P. nodiflora extracts were selective towards MCF-7 with a minimal effect on MCF10A. Morphological changes such as cell shrinkage and nuclear condensation were observed in treated cells. We found that induction of apoptosis by EA leaf and EA stem was mitochondrial-dependent while loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was not found in Met stem-treated cells. In addition, the expression levels of AIFM1, CASP9, CFLAR, and IGF1R were altered after treatment. Decreased BCL-2 expression was found in treated cells while BAX and caspases' expression was upregulated or maintained. All extracts caused perturbation of cell cycle at S phase by dysregulating the expression of cell cycle regulators such as CDKs and cyclins. Our findings indicate that P. nodiflora inhibits MCF-7 cells by inducing apoptosis and perturbing cell cycle.
Nine phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in Artocarpus altilia fruit. One of the main compounds was quercetin, which is the major class of flavonoids has been identified and quantified in pulp part of A. altilis fruit of methanol extract. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro cytotoxic assay. Inhibitory concentration 50% concentration was determined using trypan blue exclusion assay. Apoptosis induction and cell cycle regulation were studied by flow cytometric analysis. The expression of apoptosis and cell cycle-related regulatory genes were assessed by RT-qPCR study of the methanol extract of pulp part on human lung carcinoma (A549) cell line. A significant increase of cells at G2/M phases was detected (P
Introduction:Pereskia bleo is a leafy and edible plant, locally known as "Pokok Jarum Tujuh Bilah" which has anticancer properties. This study purposed to determine the cytotoxic effects of P. bleo leaves extracts on several well-known cancer cells and elucidate its underlying mechanism in inducing cell death. Methods: Cytotoxic activity on selected cell lines was determined using MTT assay. Mechanism of cell death was investigated through cell cycle and Annexin V assay. Expression of apoptotic proteins was measured by flow cytometry method. Results: Ethyl acetate extract of P. bleo leaves (PBEA) appeared to have the strongest IC50 value (14.37 ± 8.40 μg/ml) and most active against HeLa cells was further studied for apoptosis. The cell cycle investigation by flow cytometry evidenced the increment of PBEA treated HeLa cells in G0/G1 phase and apoptotic event was detected in Annexin V assay. Analysis of apoptotic protein showed pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, p53 and caspase 3) were triggered where as anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was suppressed in treated HeLa cells. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrated that PBEA treatment induced cell death in HeLa cells by p53-mediated mechanism through arresting cell cycle at G0/G1 phase and mitochondrial-mediated pathway with involvement of pro-apoptotic proteins, anti-apoptotic protein, and caspase 3.