OBJECTIVES: To characterize dietary patterns among pregnant women living in the UAE and examine their associations with gestational weight gain and gestational weight rate.
METHODOLOGY: Data were drawn from the Mother-Infant Study Cohort, a two-year prospective cohort study of pregnant women living in the United Arab Emirates, recruited during their third trimester (n = 242). Weight gain during pregnancy was calculated using data from medical records. The Institute of Medicine's recommendations were used to categorize gestational weight gain and gestational weight gain rate into insufficient, adequate, and excessive. During face-to-face interviews, dietary intake was assessed using an 89-item culture-specific semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire that referred to usual intake during pregnancy. Dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations of derived dietary patterns with gestational weight gain/gestational weight gain rate.
RESULTS: Two dietary patterns were derived, a "Diverse" and a "Western" pattern. The "Diverse" pattern was characterized by higher intake of fruits, vegetables, mixed dishes while the "Western" pattern consisted of sweets and fast food. The "Western" pattern was associated with excessive gestational weight gain (OR:4.04,95% CI:1.07-15.24) and gestational weight gain rate (OR: 4.38, 95% CI:1.28-15.03) while the "Diverse" pattern decreased the risk of inadequate gestational weight gain (OR:0.24, 95% CI:0.06-0.97) and gestational weight gain rate (OR:0.28, 95% CI:0.09-0.90).
CONCLUSION: The findings of this study showed that adherence to a "Diverse" pattern reduced the risk of insufficient gestational weight gain/gestational weight gain rate, while higher consumption of the "Western" pattern increased the risk of excessive gestational weight gain/gestational weight gain rate. In view of the established consequences of gestational weight gain on the health of the mother and child, there is a critical need for health policies and interventions to promote a healthy lifestyle eating through a life course approach.
METHODS: A total of 392 children participated in the FFQ development and 112 children aged 9-12 years participated in the validation phase; with a subsample of 50 children participating in the reproducibility phase. Three-day diet record (3DR) as the reference method in validation phase. Spearman correlations, mean difference, Bland-Altman plot and cross-classification analyses were used to assess validity. The reproducibility was tested through a repeat administration of the FFQ, with 1 month time interval. Reproducibility analyses involved intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), Cronbach's alpha and cross-classification analyses.
RESULTS: The FFQ consisted of 156 whole grain food items from six food groups. Mean intake of whole grain in FFQ1 and 3DR were correlated well (r = 0.732), demonstrated good acceptance of the FFQ. Bland Altman plots showed relatively good agreement for both the dietary methods. Cross-classification of whole grain intake between the two methods showed that
METHODS: We randomized 108 overweight and obese patients with T2D (46 M/62F; age 60 ± 10 years; HbA1c 8.07 ± 1.05%; weight 101.4 ± 21.1 kg and BMI 35.2 ± 7.7 kg/m2) into three groups. Group A met with RDN to develop an individualized eating plan. Group B met with RDN and followed a structured meal plan. Group C did similar to group B and received weekly phone support by RDN.
RESULTS: After 16 weeks, all three groups had a significant reduction of their energy intake compared to baseline. HbA1c did not change from baseline in group A, but decreased significantly in groups B (- 0.66%, 95% CI -1.03 to - 0.30) and C (- 0.61%, 95% CI -1.0 to - 0.23) (p value for difference among groups over time