STUDY DESIGN: In total, 282 patients with oral submucous fibrosis were treated with topical corticosteroid and oral antioxidant and the ice-cream stick exercise regimen. Patients in subgroups A1, A2, and A3 were additionally given a new MED. Patients in subgroups A1 and B1 patients with interincisal distance (IID) of 20 to 35 mm were managed without any additional therapy; patients in subgroups A2 and B2 with IID of 20 to 35 mm were additionally managed with intralesional injections; and those in subgroups A3 and B3 with IID less than 20 mm were managed surgically. Subjective evaluation of decrease in the oral mucosal burning was measured on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple post hoc analysis were carried out to present the results.
RESULTS: Patients using the MED, that is, subgroups A1, A2, and A3, showed reduction in burning sensation in the range of 64.8% to 71.1% and 27.8% to 30.9%, whereas in subgroups B1, B2, and B3, reduction in burning sensation ranged from 64.7% to 69.9% and from 29.3% to 38.6% after 6 months. The wo-way analysis of variance indicated statistically significant results in changes in initial VAS scores to 6-monthly VAS scores between MED users and non-MED users.
CONCLUSIONS: The MED helps to enhance the rate of reduction of mucosal burning sensation, in addition to the conventional ice-cream stick regimen, as an adjunct to local and surgical treatment.
STUDY DESIGN: A total of 28 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were distributed into 4 groups as follows: group 1 (nontreated group); group 2 (control), which received 4 NQO during 8 weeks in drinking water only; and groups 3 and 4, which received 4 NQO for 8 weeks in drinking water and treated with TH 1000 mg/kg and 2000 mg/kg by oral gavage for 10 weeks. All rats from all experiments were sacrificed after 22 weeks, and the incidence of oral neoplasms and histopathologic changes were microscopically evaluated. Moreover, immunohistochemical expression was analyzed in tongue specimens by using image analysis software. The expression of particular genes associated with oral cancer were assessed by using RT2 Profiler PCR Array (Qiagen, Germantown, MD).
RESULTS: TH significantly reduced the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and suppressed cancer cell proliferation via diminishing the expression of CCND1, EGFR, and COX-2. Furthermore, TH preserved cellular adhesion (epithelial polarity) through overexpression of β-catenin and e-cadherin and inhibited the OSCC aggressiveness by downregulating TWIST1 and RAC1.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that TH exerts chemopreventive activity in an animal model in which oral cancer was induced by using 4 NQO.
STUDY DESIGN: We determined the expression of molecular markers gamma glutamyl hydrolase (GGH), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor-3 (CDKN3), and chromobox homolog-7 (CBX7) using immunohistochemistry in OSCC clinical samples (n = 35). The intensity of staining was scored using a semiquantitative index (HSCORE). The association between clinicopathologic parameters and expression of molecular markers with ENE status was analyzed using chi-square test.
RESULTS: The number of positive nodes and the highest anatomic level of nodal involvement significantly correlated with ENE (P < .05). High GGH expression was significantly associated with ENE (P < .05), with an increased risk for ENE (odds ratio [OR] 9.9, 95% CI 1.08-91.47, P = .04), whereas no significant association was seen for CDKN3 and CBX7 expression with ENE. However, a trend toward significance was observed with a high level of CDKN3 and a low level of CBX7 expression with ENE.
CONCLUSIONS: Gamma glutamyl hydrolase offers potential as a predictor for ENE in OSCC, whereas the role of CDKN3 and CBX7 need to be validated in a larger sample.
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