Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 135 in total

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  1. Adekoya AA, Ahmad S, Maziah M
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2016 May;29(3):979-84.
    PMID: 27166542
    The use of herbal medicine and traditional healing practices for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of illness and ailment continue to have more awareness among the scientific community due to their safety and also as a source of alternatives to synthetic products. This research assessed the total phenolic compounds and in vitro total antioxidant potentials of water extracts in selected species of Zingiberaceae rhizomes use as spice, drinks and medicine. DPPH and FRAP were used to determine the antioxidant capacity, total flavonoid, phenolic acids and polyphenol contents assays to evaluate the quality of the antioxidant activity and the control was ascorbic acid. The results showed that all extracts contain significant antioxidant activity with Zingiber officinale having the highest activity in all assays. DPPH (222.30mg/TE/g DW), FRAP (98.04mg/TE/g DW), Flavonoid (38.58mg/NGN/g DW) phenolic acid (10.78mg/GAE/g DW) and polyphenols (22.84mg/GAE/g DW). Significant and positive linear correlation were found in DPPH, FRAP and total flavonoid, phenolic acids and polyphenol contents. This study reveals some phytochemicals present in Zingiberaceae species, which might be responsible for their biological activities and reason for it use in folkloric medicine in Southeast Asia.
  2. Emeka LB, Emeka PM, Khan TM
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2015 Nov;28(6):1985-90.
    PMID: 26639493
    Microbial resistance to existing antibiotics has led to an increase in the use of medicinal plants that show beneficial effects for various infectious diseases. The study evaluates the susceptibility of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus to Nigella sativa oil. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 34 diabetic patient's wounds attending the Renaissance hospital, Nsukka, Southeast Nigeria. The isolates were characterized and identified using standard microbiological techniques. Isolates were cultured and a comparative In vitro antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out using the disk diffusion method. Of the 34 samples collected, 19(56%) showed multidrug resistance to the commonly used antibiotics. Nigella sativa oil was then studied for antibacterial activity against these multidrug resistant isolates of Staphylococcus aureus in varying concentration by well diffusion method. The oil showed pronounced dose dependent antibacterial activity against the isolates. Out of 19 isolates, 8(42%) were sensitive to undiluted oil sample; 4(21%) of these showed sensitivity at 200 mg/ml, 400 mg/ml and 800 mg/ml respectively. Eleven (58%) of the isolates were completely resistant to all the oil concentrations. The present study, reports the isolation of multi-drug resistant S. aureus from diabetic wounds and that more than half of isolates were susceptible to different concentrations N. sativa oil.
  3. Teow SY, Ali SA
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2015 Nov;28(6):2109-14.
    PMID: 26639480
    This study evaluated the synergistic antibacterial activity of Curcumin with 8 different antibiotic groups. Two reference, one clinical and ten environmental strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were tested. Disc diffusion assay with 25 μg/mL Curcumin demonstrated synergism in combination with a majority of tested antibiotics against S. aureus. However, checkerboard micro dilution assay only showed synergism, fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) <0.5 in three antibiotics i.e. Gentamicin, Amikacin, and Ciprofloxacin. Other antibiotics showed indifferent interactions but no antagonism was observed. In time-kill curve, appreciable reduction of bacterial cells was also observed in combination therapy (Curcumin + antibiotics) compared to monotherapy (Curcumin or antibiotic(s) alone). The antibiotics with higher synergistic interaction with Curcumin are arranged in a decreasing order: Amikacin > Gentamicin > Ciprofloxacin.
  4. Mah SH, Lian Ee GC, Teh SS, Sukari MA
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2015 Mar;28(2):425-9.
    PMID: 25730799
    Structure-activity relationships of eleven xanthones were comparatively predicted for four cancer cell lines after the compounds were subjected to antiproliferative assay against B-lymphocyte cells (Raji), colon carcinoma cells (LS174T), human neuroblastoma cells (IMR-32) and skin carcinoma cells (SK-MEL-28). The eleven chemical constituents were obtained naturally from the stem bark of Calophyllum inophyllum and Calophyllum soulattri. Inophinnin (1) and inophinone (2) were isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum while soulattrin (3) and phylattrin (4) were found from Calophyllum soulattri. The other xanthones were from both Calophyllum sp. and they are pyranojacareubin (5), rheediaxanthone A (6), macluraxanthone (7), 4-hydroxyxanthone (8), caloxanthone C (9), brasixanthone B (10) and trapezifolixanthone (11). Compound 3 was found to be the most cytotoxic towards all the cancer cell lines with an IC50 value of 1.25μg/mL while the simplest xanthone, compound 8 was inactive.
  5. Kassab YW, Hassan Y, Aziz NA, Zulkifly HH, Iqbal MS
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2015 Mar;28(2):641-6.
    PMID: 25730796
    To evaluate patients' adherence to evidence-based therapies at an average of 2 years after discharge for Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) and to identify factors associated with non-adherence. This study was conducted at Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. A random sample of ACS patients (n=190) who had discharged on a regimen of secondary preventive medications were included and followed up over a three follow-up appointments at 8, 16, and 23 months post discharge. At each appointment, patients were interviewed and given Morisky questioner to complete in order to compare their level of adherence to the prescribed regimens across the three consecutive time periods. Majority of patients reported either medium or low adherence across the three time periods with only small portion reported high adherence. Furthermore, there was a significant downward trend in the level of adherence to cardio protective medications during the study period (p<0.001). This study also identified 6 factors-age, gender, employment status, ACS subtype, number of co morbidities and number of prescription medications per day that may influence Patients' adherence to their medications. Our findings suggest that long-term adherence to secondary prevention therapies among patients with ACS in Malaysia is sub optimal and influenced by many demographic, social as well as clinical factors.
  6. Sultan MT, Butt MS, Karim R, Ahmad N, Ahmad RS, Ahmad W
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2015 Mar;28(2):589-95.
    PMID: 25730812
    The onset of 21st century witnessed the awareness among the masses regarding the diet-health linkages. The researchers attempted to explore traditional products/plants were in the domain of pharmacy and nutrition focussing on their health benefits. In the present research intervention, we investigate the role of Nigella sativa fixed oil (NSFO) and essential oil (NSEO) in improving antioxidant status and modulation of enzymes. The National Institute of Health (NIH) provided us 30 Sprague Dawley rats that were equally placed in three groups. The groups were fed on their respective diets (56 days) two experimental diets i.e. D2 (NSFO @ 4.0%) and D3 (NSEO @ 0.30%) and control. The indices pertaining to antioxidant status, antioxidant enzymes, and parameters pertaining to immunity were evaluated at 4 weeks interval. The experimental diets (NSFO@ 4.0% & NSEO@ 0.30%) modulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes i.e., catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), positively. Indices of antioxidant status like tocopherols and glutathione were in linear relationship with that of GPx, GR and GST (P<0.01). Myeloperoxidase activities were in negative correlation with GST (P<0.01) but positive correlation with some other parameters. In the nutshell, the fixed and essential oil of Nigella sativa are effective in improving the indices pertaining to antioxidant status, however, the immune boosting potential needs further clarification. However, authors are of the view that there is need to explore the molecular targets of Nigella sativa fixed and essential oils. Findings from such studies would be useful to validate this instant study for health promoting potential against diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disorders.
  7. Ho WY, Yeap S, Liang WS, Beh BK, Mohamad N, Alitheen NB
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2015 Jan;28(1):15-22.
    PMID: 25553678
    Vernonia amygdalina is a strong natural antioxidant that possessed various medicinal properties. In this study, the spray-dried water extract of V. amygdalina was evaluated for its in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo hepatoprotective effect against alcoholic-mediated liver damage. Total phenolic and flavonoid content of spray-dried V. amygdalina water extract were determined. Liver enzyme profiles, liver antioxidant level and nitric oxide level were evaluated in alcohol-induced liver injured mice or co-supplement with spray-dried V. amydalina. Water extract of spray-dried V. amygalina that contained phenolic content of 24.8±1.5 mg/g gallic acid equivalent and total flavonoid content of 25.7±1.3 mg/g catechin equivalent was able to inhibit 50% of xanthine and tyrosinase oxidation at 170 μg/ml and 2 mg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, extracts at both 10 and 50 mg/kg body weight were able to reduce the levels of Alanine transaminase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Aspartate transaminase (AST), triglyceride and total bilirubin content inthe alcohol-mediated liver injury in mice. Furthermore, it also helped to increase levels of Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and reduce the levels of Nitric oxide (NO) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver of the treated mice. These resultssuggestedthat water extract of spray-dried V. amygdalina exhibited liver protective effect, which could be contributed by its antioxidant properties.
  8. Muralidharan S, Kumar Jr, Dhanaraj SA
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2015 Jan;28(1):135-8.
    PMID: 25553676
    Simple and effective high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for estimation of Clindipine in drug free human drug free blank plasma. The internal standard used as Nifidipine (IS). The current method was used protein precipitating extraction of Clindipine from blank plasma. Separation was achieved on reversed-phase c18 column (25cm × 4.6mm, 5μ) and the detection was monitored by UV detector at 260 nm. The optimized mobile phase was used acetonitrile: 5mM potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (pH 4.5), in the ratio of 60:40% v/v at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. This linearity was achieved in this method range of 10.0-125.0 ng/ml with regression coefficient range is 0.99. The present method is suitable in terms of precise, accurate and specific during the study. The simplicity of the method allows for application in laboratories that lack sophisticated analytical instruments such as LC-MS/MS or GC-MS/MS that are complicated, costly and time consuming rather than a simple HPLC-UV method. The present method was successfully applied for pharmacokinetic studies.
  9. Ahmad M, Masood S, Sultana S, Hadda TB, Bader A, Zafar M
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2015 Jan;28(1):241-7.
    PMID: 25553701
    Nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity of three edible wild berries (Rubus ellipticus Smith, Rubus niveus Thunb, Rubus ulmifolius L.) from Lesser Himalayan Range (LHR) were evaluated. Their edible portion was assayed for moisture, fats, ash, carbohydrates, proteins, fibers, essential minerals (Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, Cl, S, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Co, Ni) and DPPH free radical scavenging activity was applied to determine the antioxidant potential. The fruit of Rubus ulmifolius L. (blackberry) possessed the highest values of energy (403.29 Kcal), total protein (6.56g/100 g), Nitrogen (N) content (1500mg/100g), K (860.17mg/100g), Ca (620.56mg/100g), Zn (17.509mg/100g) and the strongest antioxidant activity (98.89% inhibition). While the raspberries (Rubus ellipticus Smith, Rubus niveus Thunb.) exhibited more significant contents of dietary fiber (5.90g/100g), carbohydrates (86.4 g/100 g) and Fe (4.249mg/100g). Significant variation was observed among the tested samples in all the investigated features. The combination of bio elements and active antioxidants clearly showed the applicability of these berries as a nutraceutical supplement.
  10. Asif M, Jabeen Q, Abdul-Majid AM, Atif M
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2014 Nov;27(6):1811-7.
    PMID: 25362605
    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of crude aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum on urinary electrolytes, pH and diuretic activity in normal albino rats. Moreover, acute toxicity of the gum extract was assessed using mice. Albino rats were divided into five groups. Control group received normal saline (10 mg/kg), reference group received furosemide (10 mg/kg) and test groups were given different doses of crude extract (10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) by intra-peritoneal route, respectively. The Graph Pad Prism was used for the statistical analysis and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Significant diuretic, kaliuretic and natriuretic effects were observed in the treated groups in a dose dependent manner. Diuretic index showed good diuretic activity of the crude extract. Lipschitz values indicated that the crude extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg, showed 44 % diuretic activity compared to the reference drug. No lethal effects were observed among albino mice even at the higher dose of 3000 mg/kg. It is concluded that aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata oleo gum, at the dose of 50 mg/kg showed significant effects on urinary volume and concentration of urinary electrolytes with no signs of toxicity.
  11. Mayakrishnan V, Kannappan P, Shanmugasundaram K, Abdullah N
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2014 Nov;27(6):1911-7.
    PMID: 25362615
    Cyathula prostrata (Linn) Blume herbs are commonly used for the treatment of inflammatory and pain in Nigeria. The objective of the present study was to assess the antitumor and antioxidant activity of Cyathula prostrata (Linn) Blume in mice model. The treatment of Dalton's lymphoma ascites cells induced tumor by the methanolic extract of Cyathula prostrata was determined at concentration of 100 mg/ kg body weight given orally for 11 days, antitumor activity was assessed by monitoring the mean survival time, body weight, effect on hematological parameters, antioxidant enzyme levels and histopathological evidence. The results showed that the methanolic extract of Cyathula prostrata increased the survival period of animals, decreased the body weight and also altered many hematological markers and also restored the antioxidant enzymes when compared to the mice of the DLA control group. These findings indicate that the methanolic extract of C. prostrata has anti-tumor activity by preventing the lipid peroxidation and thereby promoting the antioxidant systems in Dalton's lymphoma ascites induced mice. So, these extract could be a natural anticancer agent for human health.
  12. Jayusman PA, Budin SB, Ghazali AR, Taib IS, Louis SR
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2014 Nov;27(6):1873-80.
    PMID: 25362611
    Indiscriminate application of organophosphate (OP) pesticides has led to environmental pollution and severe health problems. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of palm oil tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on biochemical and morphological changes of the liver in rats treated with fenitrothion (FNT), a type of OP pesticide. A total of 28 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups; control group, TRF-supplemented group, FNT-treated group and TRF+FNT group. TRF (200 mg/kg) was supplemented 30 minutes prior to FNT (20 mg/kg) administration, both orally for 28 consecutive days. Following 28 days of treatment, plasma biochemical changes and liver morphology were evaluated. The body and absolute liver weights were significantly elevated in TRF+FNT group compared to FNT group. TRF administration significantly decreased the total protein level and restored the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in TRF + FNT group. In contrast, total bilirubin level, γ-glutamyltranferase (GGT) and cholinesterase activity in TRF + FNT group did not significantly differ from FNT group. Administration of TRF also prevented FNT-induced morphological changes of liver as observed by electron microscope. In conclusion, TRF supplementation showed potential protective effect towards biochemical and ultrastructural changes in liver induced by FNT.
  13. Ismail NA, Shamsahal-Din NS, Mamat SS, Zabidi Z, Wan Zainulddin WN, Kamisan FH, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2014 Jul;27(4):831-5.
    PMID: 25015448
    The present study aimed to determine the hepatoprotective activity of Dicranopteris linearis L. (family Gleicheniaceae) leaf aqueous extract (DLAE) using two models of liver injury in rats. Rats were divided into ten groups (n=6) and received dH2O (negative control), 200 mg/kg silymarin (positive control) or DLAE (50, 250 and 500 mg/kg) orally once daily for 7 consecutive days and on the 8th day subjected to the hepatotoxic induction either using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or paracetamol (PCM). The bloods and livers were collected and subjected to biochemical and microscopical analysis. From the data obtained, only the highest dose of DLAE significantly (P<0.05) reduced the ALP, ALT and AST levels in CCl4-and PCM-induced hepatotoxic rats while the other doses caused significant (P<0.05) reduction only in the levels of ALT and AST. The histological results obtained were in line with the biochemical analysis wherein reduction in the CCl4- and PCM-induced tissue formation of necrosis, steatosis and inflammation occurred in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, the DLAE possesses hepatoprotective activity, which could be attributed to its free radicals scavenging and antioxidant activities, and high flavonoids content. Thus, in-depth studies regarding the hepatoprotective activity of DLAE are warranted.
  14. Somchit MN, Mohamed NA, Ahmad Z, Zakaria ZA, Shamsuddin L, Omar-Fauzee MS, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2014 Sep;27(5):1277-80.
    PMID: 25176383
    Spirulina spp. is a blue-green algae belongs to the family of Oscillatoriaceae, which having diverse biological activity. The aim of this current study was to evaluate and compare the anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory activity of Spirulina platensis/SP and Spirulina lonar/SL extracts. In the anti-pyretic study, the ability to reduce the rectal temperature of rats induced pyrexia with 2g/kg Brewer's Yeast (BY) was performed. Rats were dosed either 2 or 4 mg/kg SP or SL. Rectal temperature was taken every hour for 8 hours. Results shown that there were significant dose-dependent (p<0.05) reduction of both treatments. However, SP treatment revealed faster reduction in rectal temperature. For anti-inflammatory activity, the reduction in the volume of paw edema induced by Prostaglandin E2 (100 IU/rat intraplantar) was measured. Rats were dosed orally with 2 or 4 mg/kg SP or SL. The paw edema was measured every 30 minutes for 4 hours using plethysmometer. Results had shown a significant dose dependent reduction in diameter of paw edema (p<0.05). The finding suggests that SP and SL extracts have anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, SP was found to be more effective than SL as anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory agent.
  15. Liew KB, Peh KK, Fung Tan YT
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2014 Sep;27(5):1303-7.
    PMID: 25176366
    The effect of deprotenizing agents on recovery of donepezil hydrochloride in the development of a simple, rapid, selective and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography method for quantification of donepezil hydrochloride in human plasma was described. The deprotenizing agents were comprised of, perchloric acid, methanol, acetonitrile, chloroform and their mixtures. The chromatographic separation was carried out using reversed phase C18 column (Agilent Eclipse Plus C18) with UV detection at 268 nm. The mobile phase was comprised of 0.01 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer, methanol and acetronitrile (50:30:20, v/v) adjusted to pH 2.7 with phosphoric acid (80%). A combination of perchloric acid and methanol gave a cleaner sample with a good recovery of donepezil hydrochloride of above 96%. The method showed intraday precision and accuracy in the range of 6.82% to 1.5% and 3.13% to 1.12% respectively, while interday precision and accuracy ranged between 1.06% to 4.71% and 13.01% to 6.43% respectively. The standard calibration curve was linear from 30ng/mL to 4000ng/mL, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9965±0.0034. The retention time of donepezil was 5.9 min with a run time of 7.0 min. The method can be applied to analyze large batch plasma samples in pharmacokinetic studies.
  16. Iqbal MZ, Qadir MI, Hussain T, Janbaz KH, Khan YH, Ahmad B
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2014 Mar;27(2):405-15.
    PMID: 24577933
    Joint FAO/WHO expert's consultation report defines probiotics as: Live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Most commonly used probiotics are Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria. There are other examples of species used as probiotics (certain yeasts and bacilli). Probiotic supplements are popular now a days. From the beginning of 2000, research on probiotics has increased remarkably. Probiotics are now day's widely studied for their beneficial effects in treatment of many prevailing diseases. Here we reviewed the beneficiary effects of probiotics in some diseases.
  17. Hashim P
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2014 Mar;27(2):233-7.
    PMID: 24577907
    Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban is well known in promoting wound healing and provides significant benefits in skin care and therapeutic products formulation. Glycolic acid and vitamins also play a role in the enhancement of collagen and fibronectin synthesis. Here, we evaluate the specific effect of Centella asiatica (CA), vitamins, glycolic acid and their mixture preparations to stimulate collagen and fibronectin synthesis in cultured human fibroblast cells. The fibroblast cells are incubated with CA, glycolic acid, vitamins and their mixture preparations for 48 h. The cell lysates were analyzed for protein content and collagen synthesis by direct binding enzyme immunoassay. The fibronectin of the cultured supernatant was measured by sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The results showed that CA, glycolic acid, vitamins A, E and C significantly stimulate collagen and fibronectin synthesis in the fibroblast. Addition of glycolic acid and vitamins to CA further increased the levels of collagen and fibronectin synthesis to 8.55 and 23.75 μg/100 μg, respectively. CA, glycolic acid, vitamins A, E, and C, and their mixtures demonstrated stimulatory effect on both extra-cellular matrix synthesis of collagen and fibronectin in in vitro studies on human foreskin fibroblasts, which is beneficial to skin care and therapeutic products formulation.
  18. Karim S, Baie SH, Hay YK, Bukhari NI
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2014 May;27(3):425-38.
    PMID: 24811797
    Pelletized dosage forms can be prepared by different methods which, in general, are time consuming and labor intensive. The current study was carried out to investigate the feasibility of preparing the spherical pellets of omeprazole by sieving-spheronization. An optimized formulation was also prepared by extrusion-spheronization process to compare the physical parameters between these two methods. The omeprazole pellets were consisted of microcrystalline cellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone K 30, sodium lauryl sulphate and polyethylene glycol 6000. The omeprazole delay release system was developed by coating the prepared pellets with aqueous dispersion of Kollicoat 30 DP. The moisture content, spheronization speed and residence time found to influence the final properties of omeprazole pellets prepared by extrusion-spheronization and sieving-spheronization. The Mann-Whitney test revealed that both methods produced closely similar characteristics of the pellets in terms of, friability (p=0.553), flowability (p=0.677), hardness (p=0.103) and density (bulk, p=0.514, tapped, p=0.149) except particle size distribution (p=0.004). The percent drug release from the coated formulation prepared by sieving-spheronization and extrusion spheronization was observed to be 84.12 ± 1.10% and 82.67 ± 0.96%, respectively. Dissolution profiles of both formulations were similar as indicated by values of f1 and f2, 1.52 and 89.38, respectively. The coated formulation prepared by sieving-spheronization and commercial reference product, Zimore ® also showed similar dissolution profiles (f1=1.22, f2=91.52). The pellets could be prepared using sieving-spheronization. The process is simple, easy, less time- and labor-consuming and economical as compared to extrusion-spheronization process.
  19. Mallhi TH, Qadir MI, Ali M, Ahmad B, Khan YH, Rehman A
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2014 May;27(3):607-16.
    PMID: 24811825
    Date Fruits are consumed in Arab areas for a long time as a part of essential diet. Phoenix dactylifera belongs to family Arecaceae and its leaves, barks, pits, fruits and pollens have anticancer, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antiulcertavie, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, antimutagenic, antidiarheal, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral potential. Besides these, Dates also increase level of estrogen, testosterone, RBCs, Hb, PCV, reticulocytes and platelet counts. It can also cure lead induced heamotoxicity, side effects of methylprednisolon, male and female infertility. It has also cerebroprotective, neuroprotective and haemopoietic activity. Phoenix dactylifera can be used for number of complications if further evaluated and isolated. The present paper is an overview of pharmacological properties of Phoenix dactylifera reported in literature.
  20. Davoudi ET, bin-Noordin MI, Javar HA, Kadivar A, Sabeti B
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2014 Jan;27(1):203-8.
    PMID: 24374450
    Cancer is among most important causes of death in recent decades. Whoever the renal cell carcinoma incidence is low but it seems it is more complicated than the other cancers in terms of pathophysiology and treatments. The purpose of this work is to provide an overview and also deeper insight to renal cell carcinoma and the steps which have been taken to reach more specific treatment and target therapy, in this type of cancer by developing most effective agents such as Sorafenib. To achieve this goal hundreds of research paper and published work has been overviewed and due to limitation of space in a paper just focus in most important points on renal cell carcinoma, treatment of RCC and clinical development of Sorafenib. The information presented this paper shows the advanced of human knowledge to provide more efficient drug in treatment of some complicated cancer such as RCC in promising much better future to fight killing disease.
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