Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 109 in total

  1. Lim PC, Lim K, Embee ZC, Hassali MA, Thiagarajan A, Khan TM
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2016 Mar;29(2):595-601.
    PMID: 27087103
    Involvement of pharmacists in improving medication adherence among diabetic patients is recognized globally. In Malaysian healthcare system, pharmacists are also operating health services i.e. Diabetes Medication Therapy Adherence Clinic (DMTAC). This study aimed to assess the clinical outcomes of patients managed by pharmacists (DMTAC), in a Malaysian hospital setting. This was an open labelled randomised study. Type 2 diabetes patients with HbA1c ≥8% were recruited and arbitrarily divided into the intervention group (usual care plus DMTAC) and the non-intervention group (usual care only). Those enrolled in the intervention group were scheduled for follow-up for eight consecutive visits. Improvements in lab results were compared longitudinally (pre and post analysis) between the groups. Data analysis was done using PASW 18® version. A total of 76 patients were enrolled, with 39 patients in the intervention group and 37 patients in the non-intervention group. Mean HbA1c (-0.90% vs. -0.08%, p=0.011) and fasting blood glucose levels (-3.45 mmol.l vs. +0.79 mmol/l, p=0.002) reduced significantly between the intervention group vs. non-intervention group. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were also significantly reduced in the intervention group (TC -0.34 mmol/l, p=0.018) (LDL -0.45 mmol/l, p=0.001). In conclusion, pharmacists managed DMTAC significantly improved glycaemic control and lipid profile of diabetic patients.
    Study site: Outpatient Clinic, Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
  2. Adekoya AA, Ahmad S, Maziah M
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2016 May;29(3):979-84.
    PMID: 27166542
    The use of herbal medicine and traditional healing practices for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of illness and ailment continue to have more awareness among the scientific community due to their safety and also as a source of alternatives to synthetic products. This research assessed the total phenolic compounds and in vitro total antioxidant potentials of water extracts in selected species of Zingiberaceae rhizomes use as spice, drinks and medicine. DPPH and FRAP were used to determine the antioxidant capacity, total flavonoid, phenolic acids and polyphenol contents assays to evaluate the quality of the antioxidant activity and the control was ascorbic acid. The results showed that all extracts contain significant antioxidant activity with Zingiber officinale having the highest activity in all assays. DPPH (222.30mg/TE/g DW), FRAP (98.04mg/TE/g DW), Flavonoid (38.58mg/NGN/g DW) phenolic acid (10.78mg/GAE/g DW) and polyphenols (22.84mg/GAE/g DW). Significant and positive linear correlation were found in DPPH, FRAP and total flavonoid, phenolic acids and polyphenol contents. This study reveals some phytochemicals present in Zingiberaceae species, which might be responsible for their biological activities and reason for it use in folkloric medicine in Southeast Asia.
  3. Emeka LB, Emeka PM, Khan TM
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2015 Nov;28(6):1985-90.
    PMID: 26639493
    Microbial resistance to existing antibiotics has led to an increase in the use of medicinal plants that show beneficial effects for various infectious diseases. The study evaluates the susceptibility of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus to Nigella sativa oil. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 34 diabetic patient's wounds attending the Renaissance hospital, Nsukka, Southeast Nigeria. The isolates were characterized and identified using standard microbiological techniques. Isolates were cultured and a comparative In vitro antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out using the disk diffusion method. Of the 34 samples collected, 19(56%) showed multidrug resistance to the commonly used antibiotics. Nigella sativa oil was then studied for antibacterial activity against these multidrug resistant isolates of Staphylococcus aureus in varying concentration by well diffusion method. The oil showed pronounced dose dependent antibacterial activity against the isolates. Out of 19 isolates, 8(42%) were sensitive to undiluted oil sample; 4(21%) of these showed sensitivity at 200 mg/ml, 400 mg/ml and 800 mg/ml respectively. Eleven (58%) of the isolates were completely resistant to all the oil concentrations. The present study, reports the isolation of multi-drug resistant S. aureus from diabetic wounds and that more than half of isolates were susceptible to different concentrations N. sativa oil.
  4. Teow SY, Ali SA
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2015 Nov;28(6):2109-14.
    PMID: 26639480
    This study evaluated the synergistic antibacterial activity of Curcumin with 8 different antibiotic groups. Two reference, one clinical and ten environmental strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were tested. Disc diffusion assay with 25 μg/mL Curcumin demonstrated synergism in combination with a majority of tested antibiotics against S. aureus. However, checkerboard micro dilution assay only showed synergism, fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) <0.5 in three antibiotics i.e. Gentamicin, Amikacin, and Ciprofloxacin. Other antibiotics showed indifferent interactions but no antagonism was observed. In time-kill curve, appreciable reduction of bacterial cells was also observed in combination therapy (Curcumin + antibiotics) compared to monotherapy (Curcumin or antibiotic(s) alone). The antibiotics with higher synergistic interaction with Curcumin are arranged in a decreasing order: Amikacin > Gentamicin > Ciprofloxacin.
  5. Abdullah GZ, Abdulkarim MF, Mallikarjun C, Mahdi ES, Basri M, Sattar MA, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2013 Jan;26(1):75-83.
    PMID: 23261730
    Micro-emulsions and sometimes nano-emulsions are well known candidates to deliver drugs locally. However, the poor rheological properties are marginally affecting their acceptance pharmaceutically. This work aimed to modify the poor flow properties of a nano-scaled emulsion comprising palm olein esters as the oil phase and ibuprofen as the active ingredient for topical delivery. Three Carbopol ® resins: 934, 940 and Ultrez 10, were utilized in various concentrations to achieve these goals. Moreover, phosphate buffer and triethanolamine solutions pH 7.4 were used as neutralizing agents to assess their effects on the gel-forming and swelling properties of Carbopol ® 940. The addition of these polymers caused the produced nano-scaled emulsion to show a dramatic droplets enlargement of the dispersed globules, increased intrinsic viscosity, consistent zeta potential and transparent-to-opaque change in appearance. These changes were relatively influenced by the type and the concentration of the resin used. Carbopol ® 940 and triethanolamine appeared to be superior in achieving the proposed tasks compared to other materials. The higher the pH of triethanolamine solution, the stronger the flow-modifying properties of Carbopol ® 940. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the formation of a well-arranged gel network of Carbopol ® 940, which was the major cause for all realized changes. Later in vitro permeation studies showed a significant decrease in the drug penetration, thus further modification using 10% w/w menthol or limonene as permeation promoters was performed. This resulted in in vitro and in vivo pharmacodynamics properties that are comparably higher than the reference chosen for this study.
  6. Akram S, Najam R, Rizwani GH, Abbas SA
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2015 Sep;28(5):1781-7.
    PMID: 26408897
    This study depicts a profile of existence of heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Hg, Mn, Fe, Na, Ca, and Mg) in some important herbal plants like (H. Integrifolia, D. regia, R. communis, C. equisetifolia, N. oleander, T. populnea, M. elengi, H. schizopetalus, P. pterocarpum) from Pakistan and an antidiabetic Malaysian herbal drug product containing (Punica granatum L. (Mast) Hook, Momordica charantia L., Tamarindus indica L., Lawsonia inermis L.) using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Heavy metals in these herbal plants and Malaysian product were in the range of 0.02-0.10 ppm of Cu, 0.00-0.02 ppm of Ni, 0.02-0.29 ppm of Zn, 0.00-0.04 ppm of Cd, 0.00-1.33 ppm of Hg, 0.00-0.54 ppm of Mn, 0.22-3.16 ppm of Fe, 0.00-9.17 ppm of Na, 3.27-15.63 ppm of Ca and 1.85-2.03 ppm of Mg. All the metals under study were within the prescribed limits except mercury. Out of 10 medicinal plants/product under study 07 were beyond the limit of mercury permissible limits. Purpose of this study is to determine heavy metals contents in selected herbal plants and Malaysian product, also to highlight the health concerns related to the presence of toxic levels of heavy metals.
  7. Abdulkarim MF, Abdullah GZ, Chitneni M, Yam MF, Mahdi ES, Salman IM, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2012 Apr;25(2):429-33.
    PMID: 22459473
    The surface activity of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents like ibuprofen was investigated extensively. This fact has attracted the researchers to extend this behavior to other agents like piroxicam. Piroxicam molecules are expected to orient at the interface of oil and aqueous phase. The aim of this study was, firstly, to assess the surface and interfacial tension behaviour of newly synthesised palm oil esters and various pH phosphate buffers. Furthermore, the surface and interfacial tension activity of piroxicam was studied. All the measurements of surface and interfacial tension were made using the tensiometer. The study revealed that piroxicam has no effect on surface tension values of all pH phosphate buffers and palm oil esters. Similarly, various concentrations of piroxicam did not affect the interfacial tensions between the oil phase and the buffer phases. Accordingly, the interfacial tension values of all mixtures of oil and phosphate buffers were considerably high which indicates the immiscibility. It could be concluded that piroxicam has no surface activity. Additionally, there is no surface pressure activity of piroxicam at the interface of plam oil esters and phosphate buffers in the presence of Tweens and Spans.
  8. Aisha AF, Abu-Salah KM, Alrokayan SA, Ismail Z, Abdulmajid AM
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2012 Jan;25(1):7-14.
    PMID: 22186303
    Parkia speciosa Hassk is a traditional medicinal plant with strong antioxidant and hypoglycemic properties. This study aims to investigate the total phenolic content, antioxidant, cytotoxic and antiangiogenic effect of eight extracts from P. speciosa empty pods. The extracts were found to contain high levels of total phenols and demonstrated strong antioxidant effect in DPPH scavenging test. In rat aortic rings, P. speciosa extracts significantly inhibited the microvessel outgrowth from aortic tissue explants by more than 50%. The antiangiogenic activity was further confirmed by tube formation on matrigel matrix involving human endothelial cells. Cytotoxic effect was evaluated by XTT test on endothelial cells as a model of angiogenesis versus a panel of human cancer and normal cell lines. Basically the extracts did not show acute cytotoxicity. Morphology examination of endothelial cells indicated induction of autophagy characterized by formation of plenty of cytoplasmic vacuoles. The extracts were found to work by decreasing expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in endothelial cells.
  9. Alkhamaiseh SI, Taher M, Ahmad F, Qaralleh H, Althunibat OY, Susanti D, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2012 Jul;25(3):555-63.
    PMID: 22713941
    Recently there was huge increase in using of 'herbal products'. These can be defined as plants, parts of plants or extracts from plants that are used for curing disease. However, Calophyllum species is a tropical plant and it has been used in traditional medicine, the limitation in safety and effectiveness information could lead to serious health problems. Providing information for communities by evaluating the phytochemical contents, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities will improve the therapeutic values. Three main Calophyllum canum fractions (none - high polar) were tested to find out the phenolic, flavonoid, flavonol content, DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power and chelating iron ions. Also were tested against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Psedomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans. In addition, cytotoxic activity was assayed against lung cancer A549 cell line. The methanol fraction showed no bioactivity but achieved the highest amount of phenolic, flavonol and flavonoid contents, also it showed a significant result as antioxidant, reducing power and chelating agent. The n-hexane fraction achieved the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value 12.5 μg. mL(-1) against B. cereus while the MIC value for DCM fraction was 25 μg. mL(-1). The DCM fraction was more active against S. aureus where the result was 50 μg. mL(-1) while the n-hexane fraction was 100 μg. mL(-1). The three main fractions have shown no activity against gram negative bacterial and fungal. The n-hexane and DCM fractions have shown cytotoxicity against lung cancer cell line; the 50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)) was 22 ± 2.64 and 32 ± 3.78 μg. mL(-1) respectively. The results were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Among the results, C. canum fractions proved to be effective against gram positive bacterial and anti-proliferation activity. Also it showed antioxidant activity as well. The results provided beneficial information for communities as well as can help to search for alternative drugs, and will contribute to establish safe and effective use of phytomedicines in the treatment of diseases.
  10. Bakar NS, Zin NM, Basri DF
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2012 Jul;25(3):633-8.
    PMID: 22713953
    This study evaluated in vitro activity of 9 flavonoids in combination with vancomycin or oxacillin against vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) ATCC 700699 by employing the checkerboard method to obtain Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index. Six flavonoids namely hesperitin, rutin, naringenin, flavones, naringin and 3, 7-dihyroxyflavone which exhibited notable inhibitory activity (MIC values < 3200 μg/ml) were further evaluated for combination assay with antibiotics. The combinations of vancomycin+flavone and oxacillin+flavone were found synergistic with the FIC index value 0.094 and 0.126, respectively. Other combinations showed an additive interaction (FIC index = 1.063) but no antagonistic reaction (FIC index > 4) were observed. In time kill studies, oxacillin-flavone combination at synergistic concentration demonstrated bactericidal effect at 24 h period with concentration-dependent manner on the VISA strain. Following 1 h exposure, the combination also produced persistent effect on the bacteria growth for 2.9 hrs at 1x sub-MIC and more than 24 h at 5x of sub-MIC and there was a significant difference between both concentrations (p<0.05). Vancomycin-flavone combination, however, showed no concentration-dependent effect and lower PAE values (1.159 h and 2.322 h at 1x and 5x sub-MIC, respectively) on the VISA strain. In conclusion, flavone markedly intensifies the susceptibility of oxacillin against VISA and the combination can be implicated for further interaction studies at molecular level.
  11. Lee YK, Lay LK, Mahsufi MS, Guan TS, Elumalai S, Thong OM
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2012 Jul;25(3):645-50.
    PMID: 22713955
    The rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) extracts are becoming increasingly visible in pharmaceutical and therapeutical research. The present study is aimed at examining the specific anti-proliferation property of H. brasiliensis latex B-serum sub-fractions against human breast cancer epithelial cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB231. The results showed that the latex whole B-serum and DBP sub-fraction exerted a specific anti-proliferation activity against cancer-origin cells MDA-MB231 but had little effect on non-cancer-origin cells. On the other hand, the anti-proliferative activity was diminished in the pre-heated B-serum fractions. With the low toxicity that the B-serum demonstrated previously in Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT), the present results suggest the potential use of the B-serum sub-fractions in cancer treatment.
  12. Abdsamah O, Zaidi NT, Sule AB
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2012 Jul;25(3):675-8.
    PMID: 22713960
    Present study aimed to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of Ficus deltoidea at 10mg/ml, 20mg/ml and 50 mg/ml, respectively using the disc diffusion method against 2 Gram positive {Staphylococcus aureus (IMR S-277), Bacillus subtilis (IMR K-1)}, 2 Gram negative {Escherichia coli (IMR E-940), Pseudomonas aeroginosa (IMR P-84)} and 1 fungal strain, Candida albicans (IMR C-44). All the extracts showed inhibitory activity on the fungus, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains tested except for the chloroform and aqueous extracts on B. subtilis, E. coli, and P. aeroginosa. The methanol extract exhibited good antibacterial and antifungal activities against the test organisms. The methanol extract significantly inhibited the growth of S. aureus forming a wide inhibition zone (15.67 ± 0.58 mm) and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value (3.125 mg/ml). B. subtilis was the least sensitive to the chloroform extract (6.33 ± 0.58 mm) and highest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value (25 mg/ml). Antimicrobial activity of F. deltoidea in vitro further justifies its utility in folkleric medicines for the treatment of infections of microbial origin.
  13. Alitheen NB, Oon CL, Keong YS, Chuan TK, Li HK, Yong HW
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2011 Jul;24(3):243-50.
    PMID: 21715255
    Cytotoxicity, the possible selective activity upon HL60 as well as the anti-proliferation effect of local health supplement wheatgrass and mixture of fibers were investigated in vitro using various cancerous cell line and normal blood cell culture. The IC(50) of wheatgrass-treated HL60 (17.5 ± 1.1, 12.5 ± 0.3, and 16 ± 0.5 microgram/ml for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively) and fibers-treated HL60 (86.0 ± 5.5, 35.0 ± 2.5, and 52.5 ± 4.5 microgram/ml for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively) showed that both extracts possessed optimum effect after 48 hours of treatment. No significant cytotoxic effect was observed on other type of cells. For trypan blue dye exclusion method, wheatgrass reduced the number of viable cells by 13.5% (±1.5), 47.1% (±3.6), and 64.9% (±2.7) after 24, 48 and 72 h exposure, respectively. Mixture of fibers reduced the number of viable cells by 36.4% (±2.3), 57.1% (±3.1), and 89.0% (±3.4) after 24, 48 and 72 h exposure, respectively, indicated that necrosis is also an alternative to the apoptotic mechanism of cell death. Annexin-V/propidium iodide staining revealed that both extracts induced apoptosis where early apoptosis had been detected concurrently with the reduction of percentage of cell viability. Cell cycle analysis revealed that in HL60, the percentage of apoptosis increased with time (wheatgrass: 16.0% ± 2.4, 45.3% ± 3.4 and 39.6% ± 4.1; mixture of fibers: 14.6% ± 1.8, 45.4% ± 2.3 and 45.9% ± 1.2) after exposure for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively at the concentration of 100 microgram/ml and showed optimum effect at 48 hours. Thus, these health products can be a potential alternative supplement for leukaemia patients.
  14. Chitneni M, Peh KK, Darwis D, Abdulkarim M, Abdullah GZ, Qureshi MJ
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2011 Apr;24(2):113-21.
    PMID: 21454158
    The objective of the present study was to determine the intestinal absorption of sulpiride incorporated into SMEDDS by means of single-pass intestinal perfusion method (SPIP) in rat and to compare the effective permeability coefficient obtained with that of drug solution and micellar solution. The prepared SMEDDS and micelles formulations were investigated for droplets size. SPIP experiment was performed using the three formulations in three of the secluded regions of the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum). The amount of the drug in the samples was estimated by HPLC and the effective permeability coefficients in rats were calculated. The human intestinal permeability was predicted based on rat effective permeability coefficient value. The dilution stability of the formulations was also determined. The average droplet size of SMEDDS and micelles was 9.27 nm and 7.20 nm respectively. The effective permeability coefficient of sulpiride was appreciably lower in the ileum weighed against jejunum and duodenum when administered as a solution (P<0.05). The estimated human absorption of sulpiride for the SMEDDS dilutions was superior to that from solution (P<0.05) and similar to micellar solution. The micellar dilutions were unstable whereas the SMEDDS dilutions were stable. Based on the above results, SMEDDS can be a potential candidate for improving the peroral absorption of the sulpiride.
  15. Teoh M, Narayanan P, Moo KS, Radhakrisman S, Pillappan R, Bukhari NI, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2010 Jan;23(1):35-41.
    PMID: 20067864
    Imatinib inhibits Bcr-Abl, c-KIT and PDGFR kinases. It is approved for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and has further therapeutic potential. Male ICR mice were given imatinib PO (50 or 25 mg/kg, 5 doses every 2 h); euthanized 2 h after the last dose administration; plasma, liver, brain, spleen and kidney were collected and imatinib concentration measured by an optimized HPLC method for quantification in tissues. Methanol (1:1 v/v plasma) and pH 4, 40:30:30 (v/v/v) water-methanol-acetonitrile at 5 ml/g (brain) and 10 ml/g (spleen, kidney, liver) ratio was added to the samples, homogenized, sonicated, centrifuged (15,000 rpm, 5 min, 2 degrees C) and the supernatant injected into an Inertsil CN-3 column (4.6 mm x 150 mm, 5 microm) using 64:35:1 (v/v/v) water-methanol-triethylamine (pH 4.8), flow rate 1 ml/min, 25 degrees C. Imatinib eluted at 7.5 min (268 nm). Linearity: 0.1-50 microg/ml; precision, accuracy, inter- and intra-day variability was within 15%. Recovery was above 95% (plasma), 80% (brain) and 90% (kidney, liver, spleen). Imatinib tissue concentrations were 6-8 folds higher than plasma except brain, where the ratio decreased from 0.24 to 0.08 suggesting limited brain penetration, likely due to blood brain barrier efflux transporters. The extensive distribution supports the expansion of therapeutic applications.
  16. Keong YS, Alitheen NB, Mustafa S, Abdul Aziz S, Abdul Rahman M, Ali AM
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2010 Jan;23(1):75-82.
    PMID: 20067871
    In this study, the immunomodulatory effects of zerumbone isolated from Zingiber zerumbet were investigated by evaluating the effects of this compound towards the lymphocytes proliferation (mice thymocytes, mice splenocytes and human human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBMC), cell cycle progression and cytokine (interleukin 2 and 12) induction. Lymphocyte proliferation assay showed that zerumbone was able to activate mice thymocytes, splenocytes and PBMC at dosage dependent pattern where the best concentration was 7.5 microg/ml. Flow cytometry analysis showed the highest population of PBMC entered into G2/M phase after treatment for 72 h with 7.5 microg/ml zerumbone. The production of human interleukin-2 and human interleukin-12 cytokines in culture supernatant from zerumbone activated lymphocytes was prominently upregulated at 24 hour and decreased from 48 h to 72 h. The above results indicate that zerumbone can be used as immunomodulatory agent which can react toward the immune cell cytokine production in dosage dependent pattern.
  17. Haque QM, Mohamad NF, Helaluddin AB, Saeed M
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2010 Oct;23(4):393-7.
    PMID: 20884452
    The cytotoxicity of cell-free culture filtrates of 31 isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139, 5 reference strains and 26 clinical isolates, was tested on Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells and Vero cells. The 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-y]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test was used to detect the effect of the filtrates on the proliferation and viability of cultured cell populations. The filtrates were prepared from serial ten-fold dilutions of inoculated AKI and APW broth media with and without the addition of polymyxin B. The APW culture filtrates of both V. cholerae O1 and O139 with and without added polymyxin B showed greater toxicity to MDBK cells as compared to AKI filtrates. The cytotoxicity of AKI-grown V. cholerae O139 to MDBK cells was greater than that of V. cholerae O1 grown in the same medium. The cytotoxicity of APW filtrates on Vero cells was low and only noted when polymyxin was added to the medium.
  18. Rohman A, Man YC, Sismindari
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2009 Oct;22(4):415-20.
    PMID: 19783522
    Today, virgin coconut oil (VCO) is becoming valuable oil and is receiving an attractive topic for researchers because of its several biological activities. In cosmetics industry, VCO is excellent material which functions as a skin moisturizer and softener. Therefore, it is important to develop a quantitative analytical method offering a fast and reliable technique. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with sample handling technique of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) can be successfully used to analyze VCO quantitatively in cream cosmetic preparations. A multivariate analysis using calibration of partial least square (PLS) model revealed the good relationship between actual value and FTIR-predicted value of VCO with coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.998.
  19. Qaralleh HN, Abboud MM, Khleifat KM, Tarawneh KA, Althunibat OY
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2009 Jul;22(3):247-51.
    PMID: 19553168
    This study was carried out to evaluate the antibacterial activity of aqueous and organic extracts of Thymus capitatus L. (Lamiaceae) leaves and stems. Dried ground powder leaves and stems were extracted with water (aqueous extracts), ethanol, dichloromethane and hexane (Soxhlet extracts). The antibacterial activity of these extracts was evaluated against bacteria using disc diffusion method. The result obtained showed that the leaves had stronger antibacterial activity than the stems extracts. The ethanolic extract had the highest yield products and the high antibacterial activity than all other solvents. The results suggest that essential oil as non-polar organic compounds could be the main active compounds in this plant. Therefore the antibacterial activity of leaves ethanol extracts (LEE) was compared with essential oils leaves extracts (LEO) of T. capitatus. The LEO showed greater antibacterial activity than LEE. The LEO showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity and the Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most sensitive bacteria.
  20. Das B, Sarkar C, Biswas R, Pandey S
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2008 Jan;21(1):78-87.
    PMID: 18166524
    Glycopeptide antibiotics represent an important class of microbial compounds produced by several genera of actinomycetes. The emergence of resistance to glycopeptides among enterococci and staphylococci has prompted the search for second-generation drugs of this class and semi-synthetic derivatives are currently under clinical trials. Antimicrobial resistance among gram-positive organisms has been increasing steadily during the past several decades. Dalbavancin, a novel lipoglycopeptide, has a mechanism of action similar to that of other glycopeptides. It has in vitro activity against a variety of Gram-positive organisms specially multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus, but no activity against Gram-negative or vancomycin-resistant enterococci that possess vanA gene. Due to its prolonged half-life (6-10 days), dalbavancin can be administered intravenously once weekly. In Phase II and III clinical trials, dalbavancin was effective and well-tolerated for the treatment of skin and soft-tissue infections, catheter-related bloodstream infections, and skin and skin-structure infections. To date, adverse events have been mild and limited; the most common being pyrexia, headache, diarrhea. Dalbavancin appears to be a promising antimicrobial agent for the treatment of Gram-positive infections. Additional clinical data are required to fully assess its use. Despite the remarkable and favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, the use of this potent agent should be restricted to severe infections due to multidrug resistant organisms to limit the risk of selection of resistance. It is active against Gram-positive aerobes and anerobes, including resistant pathogens, with the exception of strains producing vanA-mediated resistance. Its approval by the FDA is expected soon. The extent to which dalbavancin will supplant vancomycin and whether it will be preferred over other newer agents such as linezolid in the next decade remains to be seen.
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