Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 112 in total

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  1. Ya'cob Z, Takaoka H, Pramual P, Low VL, Sofian-Azirun M
    Parasit Vectors, 2016 Apr 19;9:219.
    PMID: 27094088 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-016-1492-7
    BACKGROUND: Preimaginal black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are important components of the stream ecosystem. However, there has been limited research undertaken on the vertical distribution of preimaginal black flies and their associated ecological factors. Stream conditions are generally variable along the altitudinal gradient. Therefore, we conducted an in-depth entomological survey to investigate the simuliid distribution pattern along an altitudinal gradient in Peninsular Malaysia.

    METHODS: A total of 432 collections were performed in this study (24 samplings at each of 18 fixed-streams at monthly intervals) from February 2012 to January 2014. Larvae and pupae attached on aquatic substrates such as grasses, leaves and stems, twigs, plant roots and rocks were collected by hand using fine forceps. Stream depth (m), width (m), velocity (m/s), water temperature (°C), acidity (pH), conductivity (mS/cm) and dissolved oxygen (mg/L) were measured at the time of each collection.

    RESULTS: A total of 35 black fly species were recorded in the present study. The most frequently collected species were Simulium tani (31.7%) and S. whartoni (21.5%), while the relatively common species were Simulium sp. (nr. feuerborni) (16.2%), S. decuplum (15.5%), S. angulistylum (14.8%), S. bishopi (13.2%) and S. izuae (11.8%). Total estimated species richness ranged between 39.8 and 41.3, which yielded more than 80% of sampling efficiency. Six simuliid species were distributed below 500 m, whereas eight species were distributed above 1400 m. Simulium sp. (nr. feuerborni) and S. asakoae were found from middle to high altitudes (711-1813 m). Simulium whartoni, S. brevipar and S. bishopi were distributed widely from low to high altitudes (159-1813 m). Regression analysis between species richness and PCs revealed that the species richness was significantly associated with wider, deeper and faster streams at low altitude, normal water temperature (23-25 °C), low conductivity, higher discharge, more canopy cover and riparian vegetation and with larger streambed particles (F = 20.8, df = 1, 422, P 

  2. Moyes CL, Shearer FM, Huang Z, Wiebe A, Gibson HS, Nijman V, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2016 Apr 28;9:242.
    PMID: 27125995 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-016-1527-0
    BACKGROUND: Plasmodium knowlesi is a zoonotic pathogen, transmitted among macaques and to humans by anopheline mosquitoes. Information on P. knowlesi malaria is lacking in most regions so the first step to understand the geographical distribution of disease risk is to define the distributions of the reservoir and vector species.

    METHODS: We used macaque and mosquito species presence data, background data that captured sampling bias in the presence data, a boosted regression tree model and environmental datasets, including annual data for land classes, to predict the distributions of each vector and host species. We then compared the predicted distribution of each species with cover of each land class.

    RESULTS: Fine-scale distribution maps were generated for three macaque host species (Macaca fascicularis, M. nemestrina and M. leonina) and two mosquito vector complexes (the Dirus Complex and the Leucosphyrus Complex). The Leucosphyrus Complex was predicted to occur in areas with disturbed, but not intact, forest cover (> 60% tree cover) whereas the Dirus Complex was predicted to occur in areas with 10-100% tree cover as well as vegetation mosaics and cropland. Of the macaque species, M. nemestrina was mainly predicted to occur in forested areas whereas M. fascicularis was predicted to occur in vegetation mosaics, cropland, wetland and urban areas in addition to forested areas.

    CONCLUSIONS: The predicted M. fascicularis distribution encompassed a wide range of habitats where humans are found. This is of most significance in the northern part of its range where members of the Dirus Complex are the main P. knowlesi vectors because these mosquitoes were also predicted to occur in a wider range of habitats. Our results support the hypothesis that conversion of intact forest into disturbed forest (for example plantations or timber concessions), or the creation of vegetation mosaics, will increase the probability that members of the Leucosphyrus Complex occur at these locations, as well as bringing humans into these areas. An explicit analysis of disease risk itself using infection data is required to explore this further. The species distributions generated here can now be included in future analyses of P. knowlesi infection risk.

  3. Dunn JC, Turner HC, Tun A, Anderson RM
    Parasit Vectors, 2016 Jan 27;9:31.
    PMID: 26813007 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-016-1310-2
    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections of humans fall within the World Health Organization's (WHO) grouping termed the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). It is estimated that they affect approximately 1.4 billion people worldwide. A significant proportion of these infections are in the population of Southeast Asia. This review analyses published data on STH prevalence and intensity in Southeast Asia over the time period of 1900 to the present to describe age related patterns in these epidemiological measures. This is with a focus on the four major parasite species affecting humans; namely Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms; Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Data were also collected on the diagnostic methods used in the published surveys and how the studies were designed to facilitate comparative analyses of recorded patterns and changes therein over time. PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Global Atlas of Helminth Infections search engines were used to identify studies on STH in Southeast Asia with the search based on the major key words, and variants on, "soil-transmitted helminth" "Ascaris" "Trichuris" "hookworm" and the country name. A total of 280 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria from 11 Southeast Asian countries; Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste and Vietnam. It was concluded that the epidemiological patterns of STH infection by age and species mix in Southeast Asia are similar to those reported in other parts of the world. In the published studies there were a large number of different diagnostic methods used with differing sensitivities and specificities, which makes comparison of the results both within and between countries difficult. There is a clear requirement to standardise the methods of both STH diagnosis in faecal material and how the intensity of infection is recorded and reported in future STH research and in monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of the impact of continuing and expanding mass drug administration (MDA) programmes.
  4. Kumarasingha R, Preston S, Yeo TC, Lim DS, Tu CL, Palombo EA, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2016;9(1):187.
    PMID: 27036205 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-016-1458-9
    Parasitic roundworms (nematodes) cause substantial morbidity and mortality in livestock animals globally, and considerable productivity losses to farmers. The control of these nematodes has relied largely on the use of a limited number of anthelmintics. However, resistance to many of these these anthelmintics is now widespread, and, therefore, there is a need to find new drugs to ensure sustained and effective treatment and control into the future.
  5. Benacer D, Mohd Zain SN, Sim SZ, Mohd Khalid MK, Galloway RL, Souris M, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2016;9:117.
    PMID: 26927873 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-016-1400-1
    Leptospirosis is an emerging infectious disease of global significance, and is endemic in tropical countries, including Malaysia. Over the last decade, a dramatic increase of human cases was reported; however, information on the primary vector, the rat, and the Leptospira serovars circulating among the rat population is limited. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to isolate Leptospira and characterise the serovars circulating in the urban rat populations from selected main cities in Peninsular Malaysia.
  6. Aziz NA, Daly E, Allen S, Rowson B, Greig C, Forman D, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2016;9:56.
    PMID: 26830203 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-016-1338-3
    Angiostrongylus vasorum is a highly pathogenic metastrongylid nematode affecting dogs, which uses gastropod molluscs as intermediate hosts. The geographical distribution of the parasite appears to be heterogeneous or patchy and understanding of the factors underlying this heterogeneity is limited. In this study, we compared the species of gastropod present and the prevalence of A. vasorum along a rural-urban gradient in two cities in the south-west United Kingdom.
  7. Hoang KP, Teo TM, Ho TX, Le VS
    Parasit Vectors, 2016 Jan 28;9:49.
    PMID: 26818000 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-016-1331-x
    BACKGROUND: More effective mosquito control strategies are urgently required due to the increasing prevalence of insecticide resistance. The sterile insect technique (SIT) and the release of insects carrying a dominant lethal allele (RIDL) are two proposed methods for environmentally-friendly, species-targeted population control. These methods may be more suitable for developing countries if producers reduce the cost of rearing insects. The cost of control programs could be reduced by producing all-male mosquito populations to circumvent the isolation of females before release without reducing male mating competitiveness caused by transgenes.

    RESULTS: An RNAi construct targeting the RNA recognition motif of the Aedes aegypti transformer-2 (tra-2) gene does not trigger female-to-male sex conversion as commonly observed among dipterous insects. Instead, homozygous insects show greater mortality among m-chromosome-bearing sperm and mm zygotes, yielding up to 100% males in the subsequent generations. The performance of transgenic males was not significantly different to wild-type males in narrow-cage competitive mating experiments.

    CONCLUSION: Our data provide preliminary evidence that the knockdown of Ae. aegypti tra-2 gene expression causes segregation distortion acting at the level of gametic function, which is reinforced by sex-specific zygotic lethality. This finding could promote the development of new synthetic sex distorter systems for the production of genetic sexing mosquito strains.

  8. Takaoka H, Low VL, Sofian-Azirun M, Otsuka Y, Ya'cob Z, Chen CD, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2016;9:136.
    PMID: 26961508 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-016-1393-9
    A species of Simulium in the Simulium melanopus species-group of the subgenus Simulium (formerly misidentified as S. laterale Edwards from Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia) is suspected to have dimorphic male scutal color patterns linked with different numbers of upper-eye facets. This study aimed to confirm whether or not these two forms of adult males represent a single species.
  9. Marlina S, Shu MH, AbuBakar S, Zandi K
    Parasit Vectors, 2015;8:579.
    PMID: 26553263 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-015-1104-y
    The xCELLigence real-time cell analysis (RTCA) system is an established electronic cell sensor array. This system uses microelectronic biosensor technology that is verified for real-time, label-free, dynamic and non-offensive monitoring of cellular features, including detection of viral cytopathic effect (CPE). Screening viral replication inhibitors based on presence of CPE has been applied for different viruses, including chikungunya virus (CHIKV). However, most CPE-based methods, including MTT and MTS assays, do not provide information on the initiation of CPE nor the changes in reaction rate of the virus propagation over time. Therefore, in this study we developed an RTCA method as an accurate and time-based screen for antiviral compounds against CHIKV.
  10. Freeman MA, Kristmundsson Á
    Parasit Vectors, 2015;8:517.
    PMID: 26453151 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-015-1140-7
    Traditional studies on myxosporeans have used myxospore morphology as the main criterion for identification and taxonomic classification, and it remains important as the fundamental diagnostic feature used to confirm myxosporean infections in fish and other vertebrate taxa. However, its use as the primary feature in systematics has led to numerous genera becoming polyphyletic in subsequent molecular phylogenetic analyses. It is now known that other features, such as the site and type of infection, can offer a higher degree of congruence with molecular data, albeit with its own inconsistencies, than basic myxospore morphology can reliably provide.
  11. Sady H, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Webster BL, Ngui R, Atroosh WM, Al-Delaimy AK, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2015;8:544.
    PMID: 26482435 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-015-1168-8
    Human schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease of great importance that remains highly prevalent in Yemen, especially amongst rural communities. In order to investigate the genetic diversity of human Schistosoma species, a DNA barcoding study was conducted on S. mansoni and S. haematobium in Yemen.
  12. Lau YL, Lee WC, Xia J, Zhang G, Razali R, Anwar A, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2015;8:451.
    PMID: 26350613 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-015-1064-2
    Efforts to completely eradicate lymphatic filariasis from human population may be challenged by the emergence of Brugia pahangi as another zoonotic lymphatic filarial nematode. In this report, a genomic study was conducted to understand this species at molecular level.
  13. Sady H, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Atroosh WM, Al-Delaimy AK, Nasr NA, Dawaki S, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2015 Aug 25;8:436.
    PMID: 26302747 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-015-1050-8
    BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is highly prevalent in Yemen, with an estimated 3 million cases, particularly among rural communities. This community-based study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) on schistosomiasis among rural communities in Yemen.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 250 households from ten rural districts in Yemen. Overall, 400 children were screened for urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis. Moreover, parents were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire to collect information about the demographic and socioeconomic information and their KAP concerning schistosomiasis.

    RESULTS: A total of 127 (31.8%) children were found to be excreting schistosome eggs in either their urine or faeces (22.5% S. haematobium and 8.0% S. mansoni). Although 92.4% of the respondents had heard about schistosomiasis, 49.8%, 68.0% and 47.2% had knowledge concerning the transmission, signs and symptoms, and prevention, respectively. In addition, 77.1% considered schistosomiasis as harmful while 48.5% believed that schistosomiasis could be prevented, albeit their practices to prevent infections were still inadequate. Significant associations between the KAP and age, education, employment status and household monthly income were reported (P 

  14. Choy SH, Mahdy MA, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Low VL, Surin J
    Parasit Vectors, 2015;8:454.
    PMID: 26373536 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-015-1084-y
    Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan parasite that can cause significant diarrhoeal diseases. Knowledge of population genetics is a prerequisite for ascertaining the invasion patterns of this parasite. In order to infer evolutionary patterns that could not be uncovered based on the morphological features, a population genetic study with the incorporation of molecular marker was carried out to access the genetic structure of G. duodenalis isolated from the Malaysian population and the global populations.
  15. Atroosh WM, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Al-Jasari A, Sady H, Al-Delaimy AK, Nasr NA, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2015;8:388.
    PMID: 26198252 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-015-1008-x
    The genetic variation in the Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (pfhrp2) gene that may compromise the use of pfhrp2-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for the diagnosis of malaria was assessed in P. falciparum isolates from Yemen.
  16. Ong SQ, Jaal Z
    Parasit Vectors, 2015;8:28.
    PMID: 25588346 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-015-0639-2
    The trend in chemical insecticide development has focused on improving the efficacy against mosquitoes while reducing the environmental impact. Lethal lures apply an "attract-and-kill" strategy that draws the insect to the killing agent rather than bringing the killing agent to the insect.
  17. Andiappan H, Nissapatorn V, Sawangjaroen N, Nyunt MH, Lau YL, Khaing SL, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2014;7:564.
    PMID: 25498432 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-014-0564-9
    Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, causes a disease called toxoplasmosis which can sometimes be acquired congenitally by a newborn from an infected mother. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection and its associated risks among 219 and 215 pregnant women from Malaysia and Myanmar, respectively.
  18. Khan MB, Sonaimuthu P, Lau YL, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Mahmud R, Kavana N, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2014;7:505.
    PMID: 25388913 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-014-0505-7
    The neglected tropical diseases, echinococcosis, schistosomiasis and toxoplasmosis are all globally widespread zoonotic diseases with potentially harmful consequences. There is very limited data available on the prevalence of these infections, except for schistosmiasis, in underdeveloped countries. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis, Schistosoma mansoni, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in populations from the Monduli and Babati districts in Tanzania.
  19. Chandrasekaran H, Govind SK, Panchadcharam C, Bathmanaban P, Raman K, Thergarajan G
    Parasit Vectors, 2014;7:469.
    PMID: 25358755 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-014-0469-7
    Blastocystis sp., a widely prevalent intestinal protozoan parasite is found in a wide range of animals, including humans. The possibility of zoonotic transmission to human from birds especially ostriches led us to investigate on the cross infectivity of Blastocystis sp. isolated from the ostrich feces as well as the phenotypic and subtype characteristics. There is a need to investigate this especially with the rising number of ostrich farms due to the growing global ostrich industry.
  20. Waugh S
    Parasit Vectors, 2015;8:79.
    PMID: 25651916 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-015-0694-8
    The use of detailed methodologies and legitimate settings justifications in spatial analysis is imperative to locating areas of significance. Studies missing this action may enact interventions in improper areas.
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