Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 115 in total

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  1. Sady H, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Atroosh WM, Al-Delaimy AK, Nasr NA, Dawaki S, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2015 Aug 25;8:436.
    PMID: 26302747 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-015-1050-8
    BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is highly prevalent in Yemen, with an estimated 3 million cases, particularly among rural communities. This community-based study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) on schistosomiasis among rural communities in Yemen.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 250 households from ten rural districts in Yemen. Overall, 400 children were screened for urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis. Moreover, parents were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire to collect information about the demographic and socioeconomic information and their KAP concerning schistosomiasis.

    RESULTS: A total of 127 (31.8%) children were found to be excreting schistosome eggs in either their urine or faeces (22.5% S. haematobium and 8.0% S. mansoni). Although 92.4% of the respondents had heard about schistosomiasis, 49.8%, 68.0% and 47.2% had knowledge concerning the transmission, signs and symptoms, and prevention, respectively. In addition, 77.1% considered schistosomiasis as harmful while 48.5% believed that schistosomiasis could be prevented, albeit their practices to prevent infections were still inadequate. Significant associations between the KAP and age, education, employment status and household monthly income were reported (P 

  2. Atroosh WM, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Al-Jasari A, Sady H, Al-Delaimy AK, Nasr NA, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2015;8:388.
    PMID: 26198252 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-015-1008-x
    The genetic variation in the Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (pfhrp2) gene that may compromise the use of pfhrp2-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for the diagnosis of malaria was assessed in P. falciparum isolates from Yemen.
  3. Girish S, Kumar S, Aminudin N
    Parasit Vectors, 2015;8:332.
    PMID: 26082155 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-015-0942-y
    In the local Malaysian context, herbal plants such as Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Orthosiphon stamineus (MisaiKucing), Ficus deltoidea (Mas Cotek), Zingiber officinale (Halia Bara) and Barringtonia racemosa (Putat) are known and widely used for its therapeutic properties. The first part of this study aims to screen for the anti-protozoal activity of these herbal plant extracts against Blastocystis sp. isolate subtype (ST) 3. Herbal extract with the highest efficacy was further fractionized into water and ethyl acetate fractions and tested against ST1, ST3 and ST5 Blastocystis sp. isolates. These isolates were also exposed to allopathic drugs, Metronidazole (MTZ), Tinidazole, Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole(TMP-SMX), Ketoconazole and Nitazoxanide for comparison purpose.
  4. Low VL, Tay ST, Kho KL, Koh FX, Tan TK, Lim YA, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2015;8:341.
    PMID: 26104478 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-015-0956-5
    The morphotaxonomy of Rhipicephalus microplus complex has been challenged in the last few years and prompted many biologists to adopt a DNA-based method for distinguishing the members of this group. In the present study, we used a mitochondrial DNA analysis to characterise the genetic assemblages, population structure and dispersal pattern of R. microplus from Southeast Asia, the region where the species originated.
  5. Moyes CL, Shearer FM, Huang Z, Wiebe A, Gibson HS, Nijman V, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2016 Apr 28;9:242.
    PMID: 27125995 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-016-1527-0
    BACKGROUND: Plasmodium knowlesi is a zoonotic pathogen, transmitted among macaques and to humans by anopheline mosquitoes. Information on P. knowlesi malaria is lacking in most regions so the first step to understand the geographical distribution of disease risk is to define the distributions of the reservoir and vector species.

    METHODS: We used macaque and mosquito species presence data, background data that captured sampling bias in the presence data, a boosted regression tree model and environmental datasets, including annual data for land classes, to predict the distributions of each vector and host species. We then compared the predicted distribution of each species with cover of each land class.

    RESULTS: Fine-scale distribution maps were generated for three macaque host species (Macaca fascicularis, M. nemestrina and M. leonina) and two mosquito vector complexes (the Dirus Complex and the Leucosphyrus Complex). The Leucosphyrus Complex was predicted to occur in areas with disturbed, but not intact, forest cover (> 60% tree cover) whereas the Dirus Complex was predicted to occur in areas with 10-100% tree cover as well as vegetation mosaics and cropland. Of the macaque species, M. nemestrina was mainly predicted to occur in forested areas whereas M. fascicularis was predicted to occur in vegetation mosaics, cropland, wetland and urban areas in addition to forested areas.

    CONCLUSIONS: The predicted M. fascicularis distribution encompassed a wide range of habitats where humans are found. This is of most significance in the northern part of its range where members of the Dirus Complex are the main P. knowlesi vectors because these mosquitoes were also predicted to occur in a wider range of habitats. Our results support the hypothesis that conversion of intact forest into disturbed forest (for example plantations or timber concessions), or the creation of vegetation mosaics, will increase the probability that members of the Leucosphyrus Complex occur at these locations, as well as bringing humans into these areas. An explicit analysis of disease risk itself using infection data is required to explore this further. The species distributions generated here can now be included in future analyses of P. knowlesi infection risk.

  6. Ya'cob Z, Takaoka H, Pramual P, Low VL, Sofian-Azirun M
    Parasit Vectors, 2016 Apr 19;9:219.
    PMID: 27094088 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-016-1492-7
    BACKGROUND: Preimaginal black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are important components of the stream ecosystem. However, there has been limited research undertaken on the vertical distribution of preimaginal black flies and their associated ecological factors. Stream conditions are generally variable along the altitudinal gradient. Therefore, we conducted an in-depth entomological survey to investigate the simuliid distribution pattern along an altitudinal gradient in Peninsular Malaysia.

    METHODS: A total of 432 collections were performed in this study (24 samplings at each of 18 fixed-streams at monthly intervals) from February 2012 to January 2014. Larvae and pupae attached on aquatic substrates such as grasses, leaves and stems, twigs, plant roots and rocks were collected by hand using fine forceps. Stream depth (m), width (m), velocity (m/s), water temperature (°C), acidity (pH), conductivity (mS/cm) and dissolved oxygen (mg/L) were measured at the time of each collection.

    RESULTS: A total of 35 black fly species were recorded in the present study. The most frequently collected species were Simulium tani (31.7%) and S. whartoni (21.5%), while the relatively common species were Simulium sp. (nr. feuerborni) (16.2%), S. decuplum (15.5%), S. angulistylum (14.8%), S. bishopi (13.2%) and S. izuae (11.8%). Total estimated species richness ranged between 39.8 and 41.3, which yielded more than 80% of sampling efficiency. Six simuliid species were distributed below 500 m, whereas eight species were distributed above 1400 m. Simulium sp. (nr. feuerborni) and S. asakoae were found from middle to high altitudes (711-1813 m). Simulium whartoni, S. brevipar and S. bishopi were distributed widely from low to high altitudes (159-1813 m). Regression analysis between species richness and PCs revealed that the species richness was significantly associated with wider, deeper and faster streams at low altitude, normal water temperature (23-25 °C), low conductivity, higher discharge, more canopy cover and riparian vegetation and with larger streambed particles (F = 20.8, df = 1, 422, P 

  7. Kumarasingha R, Preston S, Yeo TC, Lim DS, Tu CL, Palombo EA, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2016;9(1):187.
    PMID: 27036205 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-016-1458-9
    Parasitic roundworms (nematodes) cause substantial morbidity and mortality in livestock animals globally, and considerable productivity losses to farmers. The control of these nematodes has relied largely on the use of a limited number of anthelmintics. However, resistance to many of these these anthelmintics is now widespread, and, therefore, there is a need to find new drugs to ensure sustained and effective treatment and control into the future.
  8. Hoang KP, Teo TM, Ho TX, Le VS
    Parasit Vectors, 2016 Jan 28;9:49.
    PMID: 26818000 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-016-1331-x
    BACKGROUND: More effective mosquito control strategies are urgently required due to the increasing prevalence of insecticide resistance. The sterile insect technique (SIT) and the release of insects carrying a dominant lethal allele (RIDL) are two proposed methods for environmentally-friendly, species-targeted population control. These methods may be more suitable for developing countries if producers reduce the cost of rearing insects. The cost of control programs could be reduced by producing all-male mosquito populations to circumvent the isolation of females before release without reducing male mating competitiveness caused by transgenes.

    RESULTS: An RNAi construct targeting the RNA recognition motif of the Aedes aegypti transformer-2 (tra-2) gene does not trigger female-to-male sex conversion as commonly observed among dipterous insects. Instead, homozygous insects show greater mortality among m-chromosome-bearing sperm and mm zygotes, yielding up to 100% males in the subsequent generations. The performance of transgenic males was not significantly different to wild-type males in narrow-cage competitive mating experiments.

    CONCLUSION: Our data provide preliminary evidence that the knockdown of Ae. aegypti tra-2 gene expression causes segregation distortion acting at the level of gametic function, which is reinforced by sex-specific zygotic lethality. This finding could promote the development of new synthetic sex distorter systems for the production of genetic sexing mosquito strains.

  9. Takaoka H, Low VL, Sofian-Azirun M, Otsuka Y, Ya'cob Z, Chen CD, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2016;9:136.
    PMID: 26961508 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-016-1393-9
    A species of Simulium in the Simulium melanopus species-group of the subgenus Simulium (formerly misidentified as S. laterale Edwards from Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia) is suspected to have dimorphic male scutal color patterns linked with different numbers of upper-eye facets. This study aimed to confirm whether or not these two forms of adult males represent a single species.
  10. Benacer D, Mohd Zain SN, Sim SZ, Mohd Khalid MK, Galloway RL, Souris M, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2016;9:117.
    PMID: 26927873 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-016-1400-1
    Leptospirosis is an emerging infectious disease of global significance, and is endemic in tropical countries, including Malaysia. Over the last decade, a dramatic increase of human cases was reported; however, information on the primary vector, the rat, and the Leptospira serovars circulating among the rat population is limited. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to isolate Leptospira and characterise the serovars circulating in the urban rat populations from selected main cities in Peninsular Malaysia.
  11. Dunn JC, Turner HC, Tun A, Anderson RM
    Parasit Vectors, 2016 Jan 27;9:31.
    PMID: 26813007 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-016-1310-2
    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections of humans fall within the World Health Organization's (WHO) grouping termed the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). It is estimated that they affect approximately 1.4 billion people worldwide. A significant proportion of these infections are in the population of Southeast Asia. This review analyses published data on STH prevalence and intensity in Southeast Asia over the time period of 1900 to the present to describe age related patterns in these epidemiological measures. This is with a focus on the four major parasite species affecting humans; namely Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms; Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Data were also collected on the diagnostic methods used in the published surveys and how the studies were designed to facilitate comparative analyses of recorded patterns and changes therein over time. PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Global Atlas of Helminth Infections search engines were used to identify studies on STH in Southeast Asia with the search based on the major key words, and variants on, "soil-transmitted helminth" "Ascaris" "Trichuris" "hookworm" and the country name. A total of 280 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria from 11 Southeast Asian countries; Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste and Vietnam. It was concluded that the epidemiological patterns of STH infection by age and species mix in Southeast Asia are similar to those reported in other parts of the world. In the published studies there were a large number of different diagnostic methods used with differing sensitivities and specificities, which makes comparison of the results both within and between countries difficult. There is a clear requirement to standardise the methods of both STH diagnosis in faecal material and how the intensity of infection is recorded and reported in future STH research and in monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of the impact of continuing and expanding mass drug administration (MDA) programmes.
  12. Aziz NA, Daly E, Allen S, Rowson B, Greig C, Forman D, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2016;9:56.
    PMID: 26830203 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-016-1338-3
    Angiostrongylus vasorum is a highly pathogenic metastrongylid nematode affecting dogs, which uses gastropod molluscs as intermediate hosts. The geographical distribution of the parasite appears to be heterogeneous or patchy and understanding of the factors underlying this heterogeneity is limited. In this study, we compared the species of gastropod present and the prevalence of A. vasorum along a rural-urban gradient in two cities in the south-west United Kingdom.
  13. Low VL, Adler PH, Sofian-Azirun M, Srisuka W, Saeung A, Huang YT, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2015 May 29;8:297.
    PMID: 26022092 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-015-0911-5
    BACKGROUND: Allopatric populations present challenges for biologists working with vectors. We suggest that conspecificity can be concluded in these cases when data from four character sets-chromosomal, ecological, molecular, and morphological-express variation no greater between the allopatric populations than between corresponding sympatric populations. We use this approach to test the conspecificity of Simulium nodosum Puri on the mainland of Southeast Asia and Simulium shirakii Kono & Takahasi in Taiwan. The validity of these two putative species has long been disputed given that they are morphologically indistinguishable.

    FINDINGS: The mitochondria-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), 12S rRNA, and 16S rRNA genes and the nuclear-encoded 28S rRNA gene support the conspecific status of S. nodosum from Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam and S. shirakii from Taiwan; 0 to 0.19 % genetic differences between the two taxa suggest intraspecific polymorphism. The banding patterns of the polytene chromosomes of the insular Taiwanese population of S. shirakii and mainland populations of S. nodosum are congruent. The overlapping ranges of habitat characteristics and hosts of S. nodosum and S. shirakii corroborate the chromosomal, molecular, and morphological data.

    CONCLUSIONS: Four independent sources of evidence (chromosomes, DNA, ecology, and morphology) support the conspecificity of S. nodosum and S. shirakii. We, therefore, synonymize S. shirakii with S. nodosum. This study provides a guide for applying the procedure of testing conspecificity to other sets of allopatric vectors.

  14. Waugh S
    Parasit Vectors, 2015;8:79.
    PMID: 25651916 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-015-0694-8
    The use of detailed methodologies and legitimate settings justifications in spatial analysis is imperative to locating areas of significance. Studies missing this action may enact interventions in improper areas.
  15. Uni S, Fukuda M, Otsuka Y, Hiramatsu N, Yokobayashi K, Takahashi H, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2015;8:59.
    PMID: 25623081 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-015-0655-2
    Zoonotic infections with Onchocerca species are uncommon, and to date only 25 clinical cases have been reported worldwide. In Japan, five previous zoonotic infections were concentrated in Oita, Kyushu (the southern island), with one previous case in Hiroshima in the western part of Honshu (the main island). The causative agent in Japan was identified as Onchocerca dewittei japonica Uni, Bain & Takaoka, 2001 from Japanese wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax Temminck, 1842). Here we report two infections caused by a female and male O. dewittei japonica, respectively, among residents of Hiroshima and Shimane Prefectures in the western part of Honshu.
  16. Ong SQ, Jaal Z
    Parasit Vectors, 2015;8:28.
    PMID: 25588346 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-015-0639-2
    The trend in chemical insecticide development has focused on improving the efficacy against mosquitoes while reducing the environmental impact. Lethal lures apply an "attract-and-kill" strategy that draws the insect to the killing agent rather than bringing the killing agent to the insect.
  17. Marlina S, Shu MH, AbuBakar S, Zandi K
    Parasit Vectors, 2015;8:579.
    PMID: 26553263 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-015-1104-y
    The xCELLigence real-time cell analysis (RTCA) system is an established electronic cell sensor array. This system uses microelectronic biosensor technology that is verified for real-time, label-free, dynamic and non-offensive monitoring of cellular features, including detection of viral cytopathic effect (CPE). Screening viral replication inhibitors based on presence of CPE has been applied for different viruses, including chikungunya virus (CHIKV). However, most CPE-based methods, including MTT and MTS assays, do not provide information on the initiation of CPE nor the changes in reaction rate of the virus propagation over time. Therefore, in this study we developed an RTCA method as an accurate and time-based screen for antiviral compounds against CHIKV.
  18. Freeman MA, Kristmundsson Á
    Parasit Vectors, 2015;8:517.
    PMID: 26453151 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-015-1140-7
    Traditional studies on myxosporeans have used myxospore morphology as the main criterion for identification and taxonomic classification, and it remains important as the fundamental diagnostic feature used to confirm myxosporean infections in fish and other vertebrate taxa. However, its use as the primary feature in systematics has led to numerous genera becoming polyphyletic in subsequent molecular phylogenetic analyses. It is now known that other features, such as the site and type of infection, can offer a higher degree of congruence with molecular data, albeit with its own inconsistencies, than basic myxospore morphology can reliably provide.
  19. Sady H, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Webster BL, Ngui R, Atroosh WM, Al-Delaimy AK, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2015;8:544.
    PMID: 26482435 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-015-1168-8
    Human schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease of great importance that remains highly prevalent in Yemen, especially amongst rural communities. In order to investigate the genetic diversity of human Schistosoma species, a DNA barcoding study was conducted on S. mansoni and S. haematobium in Yemen.
  20. Choy SH, Mahdy MA, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Low VL, Surin J
    Parasit Vectors, 2015;8:454.
    PMID: 26373536 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-015-1084-y
    Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan parasite that can cause significant diarrhoeal diseases. Knowledge of population genetics is a prerequisite for ascertaining the invasion patterns of this parasite. In order to infer evolutionary patterns that could not be uncovered based on the morphological features, a population genetic study with the incorporation of molecular marker was carried out to access the genetic structure of G. duodenalis isolated from the Malaysian population and the global populations.
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