Displaying all 15 publications

  1. Wang CC, Chen PY, Wang JD, Liu FC, Huang FL, Lee CY
    Pediatr Neonatol, 2009 Apr;50(2):54-8.
    PMID: 19453079 DOI: 10.1016/S1875-9572(09)60033-4
    An epidemic of influenza B/Malaysia/2506/2004 was reported in Taiwan during the 2006-2007 flu season. We investigated the flu vaccination history and clinical and Laboratory characteristics of children with influenza B infection.
  2. Lee WS, Karthik SV, Ng RT, Ong SY, Ong C, Chiou FK, et al.
    Pediatr Neonatol, 2019 08;60(4):396-404.
    PMID: 31409456 DOI: 10.1016/j.pedneo.2018.09.007
    BACKGROUND: Current knowledge on the clinical features and natural history of childhood primary sclerosing cholangitis - inflammatory bowel disease in Asia is limited. We described the presenting features and natural history of primary sclerosing cholangitis-inflammatory bowel disease seen in a cohort of Southeast Asian children.

    METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of childhood primary sclerosing cholangitis-inflammatory bowel disease from three tertiary centers in Singapore and Malaysia.

    RESULTS: Of 24 patients (boys, 58%; median age at diagnosis: 6.3 years) with primary sclerosing cholangitis-inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis, n = 21; Crohn's disease, n = 1; undifferentiated, n = 2), 63% (n = 15) were diagnosed during follow-up for colitis, and 21% (n = 5) presented with acute or chronic hepatitis, 17% (n = 4) presented simultaneously. Disease phenotype of liver involvement showed 79% had sclerosing cholangitis-autoimmune hepatitis overlap, 54% large duct disease, and 46% small duct disease. All patients received immunosuppression therapy. At final review after a median [±S.D.] duration follow-up of 4.7 [±3.8] years, 12.5% patients had normal liver enzymes, 75% persistent disease, and 12.5% liver failure. The proportion of patients with liver cirrhosis increased from 13% at diagnosis to 29%; 21% had portal hypertension, and 17% had liver dysfunction. One patient required liver transplant. Transplant-free survival was 95%. For colitis, 95% had pancolitis, 27% rectal sparing, and 11% backwash ileitis at initial presentation. At final review, 67% patients had quiescent bowel disease with immunosuppression. One patient who had UC with pancolitis which was diagnosed at 3 years old developed colorectal cancer at 22 years of age. All patients survived.

    CONCLUSIONS: Liver disease in primary sclerosing cholangitis-inflammatory bowel disease in Asian children has variable severity. With immunosuppression, two-thirds of patients have quiescent bowel disease but the majority have persistent cholangitis and progressive liver disease.

  3. Lee WS, Tee CW, Tan AG, Wong SY, Chew KS, Cheang HK, et al.
    Pediatr Neonatol, 2019 12;60(6):676-683.
    PMID: 31056340 DOI: 10.1016/j.pedneo.2019.04.004
    BACKGROUND: Parents often express concerns about feeding difficulties in their child. We hypothesized that these parental concerns were associated with adverse growth status in early childhood. We aimed to determine the prevalence of such concerns and whether these concerns were associated with adverse growth status in early childhood.

    METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study among healthy children aged 12-36 months attending three well-baby clinics in three urban areas in Malaysia and Singapore between December 2016 and February 2017. Parents were interviewed for concerns about their child's feeding and presence of behavioral and organic red flags for feeding difficulties. We defined growth faltering as weight-for-age < 3rd centile and short stature as height-for-age < 3rd centile according to World Health Organization Growth Standards.

    RESULTS: Of the 303 children studied (boys = 160, 52.8%; mean [± SD] chronological age at interview 21.3 [± 4.0] months), 13% (n = 38/292) had growth faltering and 19.5% (n = 50/256) had short stature. Overall, 36.3% (n = 110) of parents expressed concerns about their child's feeding behavior. Sixty-eight percent (n = 206) of parents reported presence of at least one behavioral and 18.5% (n = 56) had at least one organic red flag for feeding difficulties, respectively. 9.9% (n = 30) had both behavioral and organic red flags for feeding difficulties. Growth faltering was significantly associated with parental concern about feeding (odds ratio [OR] 3.049, p 

  4. Chew KS, Em JM, Koay ZL, Jalaludin MY, Ng RT, Lum LCS, et al.
    Pediatr Neonatol, 2021 01;62(1):49-54.
    PMID: 32891528 DOI: 10.1016/j.pedneo.2020.08.009
    BACKGROUND: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are common in children. The prevalence of FGIDs varies across the world but is unknown in Malaysia. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of FGIDs in healthy Malaysian infants.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving healthy infants younger than 12 months of age who attended a well-baby clinic. A universal sampling method was adopted. Children with congenital disorders potentially affecting gastrointestinal functions, chronic debilitating diseases and hypothyroidism were excluded. Rome IV criteria were used to define FGIDs.

    RESULTS: Of the total 534 infants recruited (54% males), 92% were born at term; 85% had normal birth weight [range 2.5-4.0 kg], and the mean (±S.D.) age at interview was 6.8 (±3.4) months. Thirty-six percent were breastfed, 29% were formula-fed, and 35% had mixed feeding. Prevalence of infant regurgitation and rumination syndrome was 10.5% and 1.7%, respectively. Prevalence of infant colic was 1.9% (3/160) (infant 

  5. Lee YQ, Ahmad Kamar A, Velayuthan RD, Chong CW, Teh CSJ
    Pediatr Neonatol, 2021 03;62(2):129-137.
    PMID: 33218933 DOI: 10.1016/j.pedneo.2020.10.002
    BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal carriage of multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacilli, especially Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, was highly associated with severe nosocomial infections. The main objectives of this study were to determine the clonal relatedness of intestinal carriage and transmission risk factors of MDR E. coli and K. pneumoniae amongst preterm infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

    METHODS: A prospective cohort study of preterm infants with gestational age 

  6. Lee WS, Ahmad Z
    Pediatr Neonatol, 2017 10;58(5):415-420.
    PMID: 28330630 DOI: 10.1016/j.pedneo.2016.08.010
    BACKGROUND: Undernourished children who require hospital care have a longer duration of hospitalization and respond poorly to modern medical therapy. The objective of the present study was to ascertain the nutritional status of children admitted to a pediatric tertiary center in Malaysia and the risk factors leading to undernutrition upon admission.

    METHODS: In this cross-sectional, hospital-based study, anthropometric measurements [weight, length/height, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps skinfold thickness were performed in 285 children aged from 3 months to 15 years who were admitted to University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur in November 2013. Acute (wasting) and chronic (stunting) undernutrition were defined as weight-for-height (WFH) and height-for-age (HFA) < -2 standard deviation (S.D.), respectively. Underweight was defined as weight-for-age < -2 S.D. For children aged between 1 and 5 years of age, World Health Organization definition for acute undernutrition (HFA 

  7. Lee WS, Jalaludin MY, Wong SY, Ong SY, Foo HW, Ng RT
    Pediatr Neonatol, 2019 02;60(1):12-18.
    PMID: 29680189 DOI: 10.1016/j.pedneo.2018.03.011
    BACKGROUND: To determine vitamin D status in children with chronic liver disease (CLD) in a tropical country.

    METHODS: Cross-sectional study in Malaysian children with CLD. Factors affecting serum vitamin D level (definition: deficient 

  8. Cheah YK, Kee CC, Lim KH, Omar MA
    Pediatr Neonatol, 2021 11;62(6):628-637.
    PMID: 34353744 DOI: 10.1016/j.pedneo.2021.05.025
    BACKGROUND: Mental health disorders are highly correlated with risk behaviors. The objective of the present study is to examine the relationship between risk behaviors and mental health among school-going students with a focus on ethnic minorities.

    METHODS: The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2017 (n = 8230) was used for analyses. It was a nationwide survey conducted in Malaysia. The dependent variables were measured by three risk behaviors (cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and use of illicit drugs). Probit regressions were utilized to examine the effect of mental health on the probability of smoking, drinking and using illicit drugs. Demographic and lifestyle factors were used as the control variables. Truancy was identified as a mediating variable.

    RESULTS: Anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation affected cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and use of illicit drugs through mediation of truancy. After controlling for demographic and lifestyle factors, students with anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation were more likely to smoke, drink and use illicit drugs compared with their peers without any mental health disorders. Furthermore, the likelihood of consuming cigarettes, alcohol and illicit drugs was found to be higher among students who played truant than those who did not.

    CONCLUSION: Mental health plays an important role in determining participation in risk behaviors among ethnic minority students in Malaysia. Public health administrators and schools have to be aware that students who suffer from mental health disorders are likely to indulge in risk behaviors.

  9. Lee WS, Song ZL, Em JM, Chew KS, Ng RT
    Pediatr Neonatol, 2021 05;62(3):249-257.
    PMID: 33546933 DOI: 10.1016/j.pedneo.2021.01.002
    BACKGROUND: Primary endoscopic prophylaxis in pediatric gastroesophageal varices is not universally practiced. We aimed to determine the role of primary endoscopic prophylaxis in preventing variceal bleeding in gastroesophageal varices in children.

    METHODS: We reviewed all children with gastroesophageal varices seen in our unit from 2000 to 2019. Primary prophylaxis was defined as endoscopic procedure without a preceding spontaneous bleeding and secondary prophylaxis as preceded by spontaneous bleeding. High-risk varices were defined as presence of grade III esophageal varices, cardia gastric varices or cherry red spots on the varices. Outcome measures (spontaneous rebleeding within 3 months after endoscopic procedure, number of additional procedures to eradicate varices, liver transplant [LT], death) were ascertained.

    RESULTS: Sixteen of 62 (26%) patients (median [± S.D.] age at diagnosis = 5.0 ± 4.3 years) with varices had primary prophylaxis, 38 (61%) had secondary prophylaxis while 8 (13%) had no prophylaxis. No difference in the proportion of patients with high-risk varices was observed between primary (88%) and secondary (92%; P = 0.62) prophylaxis. As compared to secondary prophylaxis, children who had primary prophylaxis were significantly less likely to have spontaneous rebleeding (6% vs. 38%; P = 0.022) and needed significantly fewer repeated endoscopic procedures (0.9 ± 1.0 vs. 3.1 ± 2.5; P = 0.021). After 8.9 ± 5.5 years of follow-up, overall survival was 85%; survival with native liver was 73%. No statistical difference was observed in the eventual outcome (alive with native liver) between primary and secondary (71% vs. 78%, P = 0.78).

    CONCLUSION: Children with PHT who had primary prophylaxis had less subsequent spontaneous rebleeding and needed fewer additional endoscopic procedures as compared to secondary prophylaxis but did not have an improved eventual outcome. Screening endoscopy in all children who have signs of PHT and primary prophylaxis in high-risk esophageal varices should be considered before eventual LT.

  10. Moey LH, Abdul Azize NA, Yakob Y, Leong HY, Keng WT, Chen BC, et al.
    Pediatr Neonatol, 2018 08;59(4):397-403.
    PMID: 29203193 DOI: 10.1016/j.pedneo.2017.11.006
    BACKGROUND: Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of gluconeogenesis. We reported the clinical findings and molecular genetic data in seven Malaysian patients with FBPase deficiency.

    METHODS: All patients diagnosed with FBPase deficiency from 2010 to 2015 were included in this study. Their clinical and laboratory data were collected retrospectively.

    RESULTS: All the patients presented with recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperlactacidemia and hepatomegaly. All of them had the first metabolic decompensation prior to 2 years old. The common triggering factors were vomiting and infection. Biallelic mutations in FBP1 gene (MIM*611570) were identified in all seven patients confirming the diagnosis of FBPase deficiency. In four patients, genetic study was prompted by detection of glycerol or glycerol-3-phosphate in urine organic acids analysis. One patient also had pseudo-hypertriglyceridemia. Seven different mutations were identified in FBP1, among them four mutations were new: three point deletions (c.392delT, c.603delG and c.704delC) and one splice site mutation (c.568-2A > C). All four new mutations were predicted to be damaging by in silico analysis. One patient presented in the neonatal period and succumbed due to sepsis and multi-organ failure. Among six survivors (current age ranged from 4 to 27 years), four have normal growth and cognitive development. One patient had short stature and another had neurological deficit following status epilepticus due to profound hypoglycemia.

    CONCLUSION: FBPase deficiency needs to be considered in any children with recurrent hypoglycemia and metabolic acidosis. Our study expands the spectrum of FBP1 gene mutations.

  11. Ong F, Seah Lee W, Lin C, Ng RT, Yee Wong S, Lim SL, et al.
    Pediatr Neonatol, 2018 10;59(5):494-500.
    PMID: 29352665 DOI: 10.1016/j.pedneo.2017.12.007
    BACKGROUND: The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been associated with adverse effects and self-imposed dietary restrictions. The prevalence of its use in Asian children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unknown. We aimed to determine the prevalence, types, and factors associated with the use of CAM among children with IBD from Singapore and Malaysia, and to ascertain if dietary restriction was prevalent in patients who used CAM.
    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which parents of children with IBD attending two tertiary pediatric IBD referral centres in Singapore and Malaysia were interviewed. Data about demographics, conventional treatment, complementary therapies and dietary patterns were collected in a questionnaire.
    RESULTS: Of 64 children with IBD interviewed, 83% (n = 53) reported the use of CAM (Singapore [90%] vs. Malaysia [76%]; p = 0.152). The median number of CAM agents used was two (range 1-10). The three most common types of CAM used were probiotics (64%), vitamin and mineral supplements (55%), and food-based therapies (36%). Among individual CAM categories, the use of food-based therapies was correlated significantly with nationality (r = 0.497, p 
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