METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of childhood primary sclerosing cholangitis-inflammatory bowel disease from three tertiary centers in Singapore and Malaysia.
RESULTS: Of 24 patients (boys, 58%; median age at diagnosis: 6.3 years) with primary sclerosing cholangitis-inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis, n = 21; Crohn's disease, n = 1; undifferentiated, n = 2), 63% (n = 15) were diagnosed during follow-up for colitis, and 21% (n = 5) presented with acute or chronic hepatitis, 17% (n = 4) presented simultaneously. Disease phenotype of liver involvement showed 79% had sclerosing cholangitis-autoimmune hepatitis overlap, 54% large duct disease, and 46% small duct disease. All patients received immunosuppression therapy. At final review after a median [±S.D.] duration follow-up of 4.7 [±3.8] years, 12.5% patients had normal liver enzymes, 75% persistent disease, and 12.5% liver failure. The proportion of patients with liver cirrhosis increased from 13% at diagnosis to 29%; 21% had portal hypertension, and 17% had liver dysfunction. One patient required liver transplant. Transplant-free survival was 95%. For colitis, 95% had pancolitis, 27% rectal sparing, and 11% backwash ileitis at initial presentation. At final review, 67% patients had quiescent bowel disease with immunosuppression. One patient who had UC with pancolitis which was diagnosed at 3 years old developed colorectal cancer at 22 years of age. All patients survived.
CONCLUSIONS: Liver disease in primary sclerosing cholangitis-inflammatory bowel disease in Asian children has variable severity. With immunosuppression, two-thirds of patients have quiescent bowel disease but the majority have persistent cholangitis and progressive liver disease.
METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study among healthy children aged 12-36 months attending three well-baby clinics in three urban areas in Malaysia and Singapore between December 2016 and February 2017. Parents were interviewed for concerns about their child's feeding and presence of behavioral and organic red flags for feeding difficulties. We defined growth faltering as weight-for-age < 3rd centile and short stature as height-for-age < 3rd centile according to World Health Organization Growth Standards.
RESULTS: Of the 303 children studied (boys = 160, 52.8%; mean [± SD] chronological age at interview 21.3 [± 4.0] months), 13% (n = 38/292) had growth faltering and 19.5% (n = 50/256) had short stature. Overall, 36.3% (n = 110) of parents expressed concerns about their child's feeding behavior. Sixty-eight percent (n = 206) of parents reported presence of at least one behavioral and 18.5% (n = 56) had at least one organic red flag for feeding difficulties, respectively. 9.9% (n = 30) had both behavioral and organic red flags for feeding difficulties. Growth faltering was significantly associated with parental concern about feeding (odds ratio [OR] 3.049, p
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving healthy infants younger than 12 months of age who attended a well-baby clinic. A universal sampling method was adopted. Children with congenital disorders potentially affecting gastrointestinal functions, chronic debilitating diseases and hypothyroidism were excluded. Rome IV criteria were used to define FGIDs.
RESULTS: Of the total 534 infants recruited (54% males), 92% were born at term; 85% had normal birth weight [range 2.5-4.0 kg], and the mean (±S.D.) age at interview was 6.8 (±3.4) months. Thirty-six percent were breastfed, 29% were formula-fed, and 35% had mixed feeding. Prevalence of infant regurgitation and rumination syndrome was 10.5% and 1.7%, respectively. Prevalence of infant colic was 1.9% (3/160) (infant
METHODS: A prospective cohort study of preterm infants with gestational age
METHODS: In this cross-sectional, hospital-based study, anthropometric measurements [weight, length/height, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps skinfold thickness were performed in 285 children aged from 3 months to 15 years who were admitted to University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur in November 2013. Acute (wasting) and chronic (stunting) undernutrition were defined as weight-for-height (WFH) and height-for-age (HFA) < -2 standard deviation (S.D.), respectively. Underweight was defined as weight-for-age < -2 S.D. For children aged between 1 and 5 years of age, World Health Organization definition for acute undernutrition (HFA
METHODS: Cross-sectional study in Malaysian children with CLD. Factors affecting serum vitamin D level (definition: deficient
METHODS: The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2017 (n = 8230) was used for analyses. It was a nationwide survey conducted in Malaysia. The dependent variables were measured by three risk behaviors (cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and use of illicit drugs). Probit regressions were utilized to examine the effect of mental health on the probability of smoking, drinking and using illicit drugs. Demographic and lifestyle factors were used as the control variables. Truancy was identified as a mediating variable.
RESULTS: Anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation affected cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and use of illicit drugs through mediation of truancy. After controlling for demographic and lifestyle factors, students with anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation were more likely to smoke, drink and use illicit drugs compared with their peers without any mental health disorders. Furthermore, the likelihood of consuming cigarettes, alcohol and illicit drugs was found to be higher among students who played truant than those who did not.
CONCLUSION: Mental health plays an important role in determining participation in risk behaviors among ethnic minority students in Malaysia. Public health administrators and schools have to be aware that students who suffer from mental health disorders are likely to indulge in risk behaviors.
METHODS: We reviewed all children with gastroesophageal varices seen in our unit from 2000 to 2019. Primary prophylaxis was defined as endoscopic procedure without a preceding spontaneous bleeding and secondary prophylaxis as preceded by spontaneous bleeding. High-risk varices were defined as presence of grade III esophageal varices, cardia gastric varices or cherry red spots on the varices. Outcome measures (spontaneous rebleeding within 3 months after endoscopic procedure, number of additional procedures to eradicate varices, liver transplant [LT], death) were ascertained.
RESULTS: Sixteen of 62 (26%) patients (median [± S.D.] age at diagnosis = 5.0 ± 4.3 years) with varices had primary prophylaxis, 38 (61%) had secondary prophylaxis while 8 (13%) had no prophylaxis. No difference in the proportion of patients with high-risk varices was observed between primary (88%) and secondary (92%; P = 0.62) prophylaxis. As compared to secondary prophylaxis, children who had primary prophylaxis were significantly less likely to have spontaneous rebleeding (6% vs. 38%; P = 0.022) and needed significantly fewer repeated endoscopic procedures (0.9 ± 1.0 vs. 3.1 ± 2.5; P = 0.021). After 8.9 ± 5.5 years of follow-up, overall survival was 85%; survival with native liver was 73%. No statistical difference was observed in the eventual outcome (alive with native liver) between primary and secondary (71% vs. 78%, P = 0.78).
CONCLUSION: Children with PHT who had primary prophylaxis had less subsequent spontaneous rebleeding and needed fewer additional endoscopic procedures as compared to secondary prophylaxis but did not have an improved eventual outcome. Screening endoscopy in all children who have signs of PHT and primary prophylaxis in high-risk esophageal varices should be considered before eventual LT.
METHODS: All patients diagnosed with FBPase deficiency from 2010 to 2015 were included in this study. Their clinical and laboratory data were collected retrospectively.
RESULTS: All the patients presented with recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperlactacidemia and hepatomegaly. All of them had the first metabolic decompensation prior to 2 years old. The common triggering factors were vomiting and infection. Biallelic mutations in FBP1 gene (MIM*611570) were identified in all seven patients confirming the diagnosis of FBPase deficiency. In four patients, genetic study was prompted by detection of glycerol or glycerol-3-phosphate in urine organic acids analysis. One patient also had pseudo-hypertriglyceridemia. Seven different mutations were identified in FBP1, among them four mutations were new: three point deletions (c.392delT, c.603delG and c.704delC) and one splice site mutation (c.568-2A > C). All four new mutations were predicted to be damaging by in silico analysis. One patient presented in the neonatal period and succumbed due to sepsis and multi-organ failure. Among six survivors (current age ranged from 4 to 27 years), four have normal growth and cognitive development. One patient had short stature and another had neurological deficit following status epilepticus due to profound hypoglycemia.
CONCLUSION: FBPase deficiency needs to be considered in any children with recurrent hypoglycemia and metabolic acidosis. Our study expands the spectrum of FBP1 gene mutations.