Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 23 in total

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  1. Koh KH, Wong HS, Go KW, Morad Z
    Perit Dial Int, 2010 06 30;31(5):574-82.
    PMID: 20592100 DOI: 10.3747/pdi.2009.00140
    BACKGROUND: While phase angle of bioimpedance analysis (BIA) has great survival-predicting value in dialysis populations, it is known to be higher in male than in female subjects. In this study, we aimed to explore the factors influencing the predictive value of phase angle and to identify the appropriate physics terms for normalizing capacitance (C) and resistance (R).

    METHODS: We formulated body capacitive index (BCI), C(BMI) (capacitance × height(2)/weight), body resistive index (BRI), R(BMI) (resistance × weight/height(2)), and CH(2) (capacitance × height(2)). We also studied H(2)/R, R/H, and reactance of a capacitor/height (X(C) /H). There are 3 components in this study design: (1) establishment of normal values in a control Malaysian population, (2) comparison of these with a CAPD population, and (3) prediction of survival within a CAPD population. We initially performed a BIA study in 206 female and 116 male healthy volunteers, followed by a prospective study in a cohort of 128 CAPD patients [47 with diabetes mellitus (DM), 81 non-DM; 59 males, 69 females] for at least 2 years. All the parameters during enrolment, including BIA, serum albumin, peritoneal equilibrium test, age, and DM status, were analyzed. Outcome measurement was survival.

    RESULTS: In healthy volunteers, both genders had the same BCI (2.0 nF kg/m(2)). On the contrary, female normal subjects had higher BRI than male normal subjects (median 15 642 vs 13242 Ω kg/m(2), p < 0.001) due to higher fat percentage (35.4% ± 0.4% vs 28.0% ± 0.6%, p < 0.001), resulting in a lower phase angle (mean 5.82 ± 0.04 vs 6.86 ± 0.07 degrees, p < 0.001). Logistic regression showed that BCI was the best risk indicator in 128 CAPD patients versus 322 normal subjects. In age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched head-to-head comparison, BCI had the highest χ(2) value (χ(2) = 102.63), followed by CH(2) (or H(2)/X(C); χ(2) = 81.00), BRI (χ(2) = 20.54), and X(C)/H (χ(2) = 20.48), with p value < 0.001 for these parameters. In comparison, phase angle (χ(2) = 11.42), R/H (χ(2) = 7.19), and H(2)/R (χ(2) = 5.69) had lower χ(2) values. 35 (27.3%) patients died during the study period. Univariate analysis adjusted for DM status and serum albumin level demonstrated that non-surviving patients had significantly higher CH(2) (245 vs 169 nF m(2), p < 0.001) and BCI (4.0 vs 2.9 nF m(2)/kg, p = 0.005) than patients that survived. CH(2) was the best predictor for all-cause mortality in Cox regression analysis, followed by BCI, phase angle, and X(C)/H.

    CONCLUSION: Measures that normalize, such as BCI and CH(2), have higher risk discrimination and survival prediction ability than measures that do not normalize, such as phase angle. Unlike phase angle, measurement of BCI overcomes the gender effect. In this study, the best risk indicator for CAPD patients versus the general population is BCI, reflecting deficit in nutritional concentration, while CH(2) reflects total nutritional deficit and thus is the major risk indicator for survival of CAPD patients.

  2. Liu WJ, Hooi LS
    Perit Dial Int, 2010 03 12;30(5):509-12.
    PMID: 20228175 DOI: 10.3747/pdi.2009.00083
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the complications after Tenckhoff catheter insertion among patients with renal failure needing dialysis. ♢

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: The open, paramedian approach is the commonest technique to insert the 62-cm coiled double-cuffed Tenckhoff peritoneal catheter. All patients with catheters inserted between January 2004 and November 2007 were retrospectively analyzed for demographics and followed for up to 1 month for complications. We excluded patients whose catheters had been anchored to the bladder wall and who underwent concurrent omentectomy or readjustment without removal of a malfunctioning catheter (n = 7). Intravenous cloxacillin was the standard preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. ♢

    RESULTS: Over the 4-year study period, 384 catheters were inserted under local anesthetic into 319 patients [201 women (62.8%); mean age: 49.4 ± 16.7 years (range: 13 - 89 years); 167 (52.2%) with diabetes; 303 (95%) with end-stage renal disease] by 22 different operators. All Tenckhoff catheters were inserted by the general surgical (n = 223) or urology (n = 161) team. There were 29 cases (7.6%) of catheter migration, 22 (5.7%) of catheter obstruction without migration, 24 (6.3%) of exit-site infection, 12 (3.1%) of leak from the main incision, 14 (3.6%) of culture-proven wound infection, 11 (2.9%) post-insertion peritonitis, and 1 (0.3%) hemoperitoneum. No deaths were attributed to surgical mishap. ♢

    CONCLUSIONS: The most common complication was catheter migration. The paramedian insertion technique was safe, with low complication rates.

  3. Goh YH
    Perit Dial Int, 2008 11 5;28(6):626-31.
    PMID: 18981393
    BACKGROUND: Omental wrap is a common cause of catheter obstruction. Current laparoscopic techniques for correcting obstruction include omentopexy and omentectomy. This study evaluates the efficacy of a new laparoscopic technique for revision of obstructed peritoneal dialysis catheters.

    METHODS: Between November 2005 and November 2006, the technique was applied in 18 patients (6 female, 12 male; median age 50 years, range 16 - 73 years) on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis with catheter malfunction secondary to omental wrap. Pneumoperitoneum was induced under general anesthesia. Three ports were inserted. The catheter was released from the omentum and repositioned in the pelvis. The omentum was then folded onto itself in a cephalad direction using silk sutures. This shortened the omentum. The risk of catheter migration was minimized with a polypropylene sling passed through the abdominal wall and around the catheter, then knotted subcutaneously. The sling allowed catheter removal without a new laparoscopy. The outcomes were prospectively evaluated.

    RESULTS: Median operating time was 90 minutes (range 35 - 160 minutes). Adhesiolysis was performed in 4 patients: 1 patient had port-site leakage of dialysate, which settled with abdominal rest; 1 patient had bleeding during adhesiolysis and laparoscopic hemostasis was successful; 1 patient had recurrent catheter obstruction 2 weeks post-operatively and was converted to hemodialysis; and 1 patient had recurrent malfunction secondary to small bowel wrap after 5.5 months; re-salvage was successful. The success rate of the first salvage procedure was 89%(16/18). The catheters were still functioning after a mean follow-up of 16.5 +/- 6.3 months (range 0.5 - 24 months). The 1-year catheter survival rate was 83.3%.

    CONCLUSIONS: Omental folding is a safe and effective technique for salvaging peritoneal dialysis catheters.

  4. Tan SY
    Perit Dial Int, 2008 Jun;28 Suppl 3:S49-52.
    PMID: 18552263
    Although peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an effective alternative to hemodialysis (HD) and indeed, in terms of survival, superior to HD in first year of dialysis, the utilization rate for PD remains low. Although the utilization rate of PD varies considerably, the worldwide penetration rate appears to be falling. Still, in rapidly developing countries such as China, the PD penetration rate is rising-an encouraging sign. Clearly, considerable room for improvement remains, particularly with the take-on rate of PD, and one of the potentially influential factors is the role of research activities in improving both the quantity and quality of life of patients on PD.
  5. Li PK, Lui SL, Leung CB, Yu AW, Lee E, Just PM, et al.
    Perit Dial Int, 2007 Jun;27 Suppl 2:S59-61.
    PMID: 17556331
    With the number of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients growing, one of the crucial questions facing health care professionals and funding agencies in Asia is whether funding for dialysis will be sufficient to keep up with demand. During the ISPD's 2006 Congress, academic nephrologists and government officials from China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Macau, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam participated in a roundtable discussion on dialysis economics in Asia. The focus was policy and health care financing. The roundtable addressed ESRD growth in Asia and how to obtain enough funding to keep up with the growth in patient numbers. Various models were presented: the "peritoneal dialysis (PD) first" policy model, incentive programs, nongovernmental organizations providing PD, and PD reimbursement in a developing economy. This article summarizes the views of the participant nephrologists on how to increase the utilization of PD to improve on clinical and financial management of patients with ESRD.
  6. Shanmugavadivoo K, Shaariah W
    Perit Dial Int, 2003 Dec;23 Suppl 2:S192-5.
    PMID: 17986546
    BACKGROUND: Reproductive health issues in women with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are often neglected. Data on these issues are also limited.

    PURPOSE: We set out to describe the reproductive health issues in women being treated with either hemodialysis (HD) or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD).

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: All adult female patients on chronic dialysis in Hospital Seremban from January 1991 to December 2001 were included in our study. Patients (or their spouses or children) were interviewed regarding the menstrual status of the patient, gynecologic screening tests administered to the patient, and the patient's use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT).

    RESULTS: We recruited 137 women into the study. Of those women, 52.6% were on HD; the rest were on CAPD. Mean age at diagnosis of ESRD was 46.5 +/- 14.1 years (range: 14 - 82 years), and mean duration on dialysis was 33.3 months (range: 2 months - 18 years). Responses about menstrual status were obtained for 118 patients. Of those 118 patients, 55 (46.6%) were postmenopausal at dialysis initiation. Average age at menopause had been 48.5 +/- 4.9 years. Another 19 patients (16.1%) had still been menstruating at dialysis initiation, but subsequently entered menopause. Their average age at menopause had been 45.1 +/- 10.3 years. The remaining 44 patients (37.3%) were still menstruating at an average age of 35.7 years (range: 15 - 49 years). Only 3 of 73 responders were on HRT; 63% had undergone a Pap smear; and 54% had had a breast examination.

    CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ESRD tend to experience premature menopause. Not all dialysis patients are amenorrheic. Despite frequent contact between dialysis patients and hospital staff, gynecologic screening and use of HRT in those patients are still very low.

  7. Ong LM, Lim TO, Hooi LS, Morad Z, Tan PC, Wong HS, et al.
    Perit Dial Int, 2003 Dec;23 Suppl 2:S139-43.
    PMID: 17986534
    OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we undertook to establish therapeutic equivalence with respect to peritonitis and technique failure between the Carex disconnect system (B. Braun Carex, Mirandola, Italy) and the standard Ultra system (Baxter Healthcare, Tokyo, Japan) in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD).

    DESIGN: This multicenter, parallel group, randomized controlled trial involved 363 prevalent CAPD patients from 8 centers. The primary endpoint was peritonitis rate; secondary endpoints were technique failure and technical problems encountered. The duration of the evaluation was 1 year.

    RESULTS: The risk of peritonitis on Carex varied between the centers. We found a significant treatment-center interaction effect (likelihood ratio test: p = 0.03). The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of peritonitis on Carex as compared with Ultra ranged from 0.4 to 7.2. In two centers, Carex was inferior to Ultra with regard to peritonitis; but, in five centers, the results were inconclusive. Equivalence was not demonstrated in any center. The overall rate of peritonitis in the Carex group was twice that in the Ultra group [IRR: 2.18; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.51 to 3.14]. Technique failure and technical problems were more common with the Carex system. Technique failure rate at 1 year was 44% in the Carex group and 22% in the Ultra group.

    CONCLUSIONS: Equivalence between the Carex disconnect system and the Ultra disconnect system could not be demonstrated. The risk of peritonitis on Carex varied significantly between centers.

  8. Tan PC, Morad Z
    Perit Dial Int, 2003 Dec;23 Suppl 2:S206-9.
    PMID: 17986550
    Clinical disciplines in which the nurse plays as pre-eminent a role in total patient care as in peritoneal dialysis (PD) are few. The PD nurse is readily identified by the patient as the principal source of advice on day-to-day aspects of treatment, as a resource manager for supplies of PD disposables and fluids, and as a general counselor for all kinds of advice, including diet, rehabilitation, and medication, among others. The PD nurse is thus the key individual in the PD unit, and most activities involve and revolve around the nursing staff. It is therefore not surprising that most nephrologists pay considerable attention to the selection of PD nurses, particularly in long-term PD programs such as continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The appointment of a PD nurse depends on finding an individual with the right attributes, broad general experience, and appropriate training.
  9. Morad Z, Lee DG, Lim YN, Tan PC
    Perit Dial Int, 2005 9 24;25(5):426-31.
    PMID: 16178472
  10. Mushahar L, Mei LW, Yusuf WS, Sivathasan S, Kamaruddin N, Idzham NJ
    Perit Dial Int, 2015 09 15;36(2):135-9.
    PMID: 26374836 DOI: 10.3747/pdi.2014.00195

    OBJECTIVE: Peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related infection is a common cause of catheter loss and the main reason for PD drop-out. Exit-site infection (ESI) is a pathway to developing tunnel infection and peritonitis, hence rigorous exit-site care has always been emphasized in PD therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exit-site dressing vs non-dressing on the rate of PD-related infection. ♦

    METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled study was conducted in prevalent PD patients at the Hospital Tuanku Jaafar Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, from April 2011 until April 2013. All patients were required to perform daily washing of the exit site with antibacterial soap during a shower. In the dressing group (n = 54), patients were required to clean their exit site using povidone-iodine after drying, followed by topical mupirocin antibiotic application to the exit site. The exit site was then covered with a sterile gauze dressing and the catheter immobilized with tape. In the non-dressing group (n = 54), patients were not required to do any further dressing after drying. They were only required to apply mupirocin cream to the exit site and then left the exit site uncovered. The catheter was immobilized with tape. The primary outcome was ESI. The secondary outcomes were evidence of tunnel infection or peritonitis. ♦

    RESULTS: A total of 97 patients completed the study. There were a total of 12 ESI episodes: 4 episodes in 4 patients in the dressing group vs 8 episodes in 4 patients in the non-dressing group. This corresponds to 1 episode per 241.3 patient-months vs 1 episode per 111.1 patient-months in the dressing and non-dressing groups respectively. Median time to first ESI episode was shorter in the non-dressing than in the dressing group, but not significant (p = 0.25). The incidence of gram-positive ESI in both groups was similar. There were no gram-negative ESI in the non-dressing group compared with 2 in the dressing group. The peritonitis rate was 1 per 37.1 patient-month in the dressing group and 1 per 44.4 patient-months in the non-dressing group. Median time to first peritonitis episode was significantly shorter in the dressing group compared to non-dressing (p = 0.03). There was no impact of dressing disruptions in the occurrence of major PD catheter-related infection. ♦

    CONCLUSION: Use of a non-dressing technique with only prophylactic topical mupirocin cream application is effective in preventing PD-related infection. The non-dressing technique is more cost-effective and convenient for PD patients, with fewer disposables.

  11. Ong LM, Ch'ng CC, Wee HC, Supramaniam P, Zainal H, Goh BL, et al.
    Perit Dial Int, 2016 05 04;37(1):35-43.
    PMID: 27147287 DOI: 10.3747/pdi.2015.00141
    ♦ BACKGROUND: Peritonitis is one of the most common complications of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Understanding the risk factors of peritonitis in a multi-racial Asian population may help to improve outcomes on PD. ♦ METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study to identify risk factors for PD-related peritonitis over a 1-year period in 15 adult PD centers. All peritonitis episodes were independently adjudicated. ♦ RESULTS: A total of 1,603 participants with a mean age of 51.6 years comprising 52.7% females, 62.6% ethnic Malays, 27.0% Chinese, and 8.1% Indians were recruited. The overall peritonitis rate was 1 episode per 44.0 patient-months with 354 episodes recorded in 282 (17.6%) patients over 15,588 patient-months. Significant risk factors of peritonitis were severe obesity (incidence-rate ratio [IRR] 3.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30, 8.45), hypoalbuminemia (IRR 1.61, 95% CI: 1.06, 2.46), Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage (IRR 2.26, 95% CI: 1.46, 3.50), and use of Fresenius system (Fresenius Medical Care North America, Waltham, MA, USA) (IRR 2.49, 95% CI: 1.27, 4.89). The risk of peritonitis was lower in those on automated PD compared with standard PD (IRR 0.43, 95% CI: 0.25, 0.74), and in centers with a patient-staff ratio of 15 to 29.9 (IRR 0.67, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.90) and ≥ 30 (IRR 0.52, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.80). Prevalent patients and exit-site care with topical antibiotics were also protective against peritonitis. Peritonitis rates varied between racial groups. The IRRs of overall peritonitis and gram-positive peritonitis in Chinese versus other racial groups were 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.90) and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.24, 0.91), respectively. ♦ CONCLUSIONS: Multiple patient, center, and PD-system factors influence the risk of peritonitis. In the Asian population, there are racial differences in the risk of peritonitis.
  12. Cheng IK
    Perit Dial Int, 1996;16 Suppl 1:S381-5.
    PMID: 8728228
    The socioeconomic status of Asian countries is diverse, and government reimbursement policies for treatment of patients suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD) vary greatly from one country to another. Both of these factors have a major impact not only on the choice of treatment for ESRD but also on the utilization of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in this region. Based on the data collected from 11 representative Asian countries, several observations can be made. First, the treatment rates for ESRD in these countries correlated closely with their gross domestic product (GDP) per capita income. Second, the PD utilization rate appeared to have a biphasic relationship with the GDP per capita income and treatment rate, in that countries with the highest and the lowest treatment rates tended to have lower PD utilization rates, whereas countries with modest treatment rates tended to have higher PD utilization rates. The reason for low PD utilization in countries with the highest treatment rates differs from that in countries with low treatment rates. In the former, because of full government reimbursement, there is little physician incentive to introduce PD as an alternative form of ESRD treatment to in-center hemodialysis (HD), whereas in the latter, the complete lack of government reimbursement prevents the introduction of PD as a form of treatment. This pattern is likely to change in the future because, of the 11 countries surveyed, all except Thailand have recorded a growth rate which is higher for PD than HD over the last three years. The rate of utilization of different PD systems varies greatly among different Asian countries. Automated PD has yet to gain popularity in Asia. Conventional straight-line systems remain the dominant PD systems in use in Hong Kong, Korea, Thailand, and the Philippines, while in Malaysia and Singapore UV germicidal connection devices are most popular. However, in all these countries there has been a progressive shift over the last three years from the straight-line systems with or without germicidal connection devices to the disconnect systems. In China and India, where PD has been introduced only recently, the disconnect systems are used almost exclusively. The disconnect systems are also the most popular systems in use in Japan and Taiwan. As data concerning the cost-effectiveness of different PD systems becomes available, it is likely that trend towards a more liberal use of disconnect systems will continue in the future. The usage of low calcium peritoneal dialysate and the average number of daily CAPD exchanges also vary among the Asian countries. Low calcium peritoneal dialysate has been introduced only in Japan, Hong Kong, and Singapore, with the highest utilization rate (90%) recorded in Singapore. The Philippines had the lowest average number of daily peritoneal exchanges (6L) among the countries surveyed, followed by Hong Kong (6.4L), China and Indonesia (7L), and the rest (8L). The use of a lower number of exchanges was introduced in some countries, initially, mainly as a cost-saving measure based on the assumption that Asians are of small body build. The justification for the continued use of a lower number of exchanges among Asian patients is debatable, but is supported by the acceptable, long-term clinical outcome of patients given this form of dialysis prescription. It is suggested that long-term prospective studies on dialysis adequacy and clinical outcome should be done in different ethnic groups in Asia to see if the similar guidelines with regard to dialysis adequacy can be applied uniformly to Orientals and Caucasians.
  13. Shanmuganathan M, Goh BL, Lim C, NorFadhlina Z, Fairol I
    Perit Dial Int, 2016 9 24;36(5):574-5.
    PMID: 27659933 DOI: 10.3747/pdi.2015.00287
    Patients with peritonitis present with abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, and turbid peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluid. Shewanella algae peritonitis has not yet been reported in PD patients in the literature. We present the first 2 cases of Shewanella algae peritonitis in PD patients. Mupirocin cream is applied on the exit site as prophylactic antibiotic therapy.
  14. Mendes K, Harmanjeet H, Sedeeq M, Modi A, Wanandy T, Zaidi STR, et al.
    Perit Dial Int, 2018 07 10;38(6):430-440.
    PMID: 29991562 DOI: 10.3747/pdi.2017.00274
    BACKGROUND: Infections caused by ceftazidime-resistant Pseudomonas and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing gram-negative bacteria are increasing worldwide. Meropenem and piperacillin/tazobactam (PIP/TZB) are recommended for the treatment of peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis (PDAP) caused by ceftazidime-resistant Pseudomonas and other resistant gram-negative bacteria. Patients may also receive intraperitoneal heparin to prevent occlusion of their catheters. However, the stability of meropenem or PIP/TZB, in combination with heparin, in different types of peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions used in clinical practice is currently unknown. Therefore, we investigated the stability of meropenem and PIP/TZB, each in combination with heparin, in different PD solutions.

    METHODS: A total of 15 PD bags (3 bags for each type of PD solution) containing meropenem and heparin and 24 PD bags (3 bags for each type of PD solution) containing PIP/TZB and heparin were prepared and stored at 4°C for 168 hours. The same bags were stored at 25°C for 3 hours followed by 10 hours at 37°C. An aliquot withdrawn before storage and at defined time points was analyzed for the concentration of meropenem, PIP, TZB, and heparin using high-performance liquid chromatography. Samples were also analysed for particle content, pH and color change, and the anticoagulant activity of heparin.

    RESULTS: Meropenem and heparin retained more than 90% of their initial concentration in 4 out of 5 types of PD solutions when stored at 4°C for 168 hours, followed by storage at 25°C for 3 hours and then at 37°C for 10 hours. Piperacillin/tazobactam and heparin were found to be stable in all 8 types of PD solutions when stored under the same conditions. Heparin retained more than 98% of its initial anticoagulant activity throughout the study period. No evidence of particle formation, color change, or pH change was observed at any time under the storage conditions employed in the study.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides clinically important information on the stability of meropenem and PIP/TZB, each in combination with heparin, in different PD solutions. The use of meropenem-heparin admixed in pH-neutral PD solutions for the treatment of PDAP should be avoided, given the observed suboptimal stability of meropenem.

  15. Kandel S, Zaidi STR, Wanandy ST, Ming LC, Castelino RL, Sud K, et al.
    Perit Dial Int, 2017 11 21;38(1):49-56.
    PMID: 29162678 DOI: 10.3747/pdi.2017.00115
    BACKGROUND: Intraperitoneal (IP) administration of ceftazidime is recommended for the treatment of peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis (PDAP) from Pseudomonas. Patients with PDAP may also need IP heparin to overcome problems with drainage of turbid peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids and blockage of catheters with fibrin. Physico-chemical stability of ceftazidime and heparin, and biological stability of heparin in many types of PD solutions is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the stability of ceftazidime and heparin in 4 types of PD solutions.

    METHODS: A total of 12 PD bags (3 for each type of solution) containing ceftazidime and heparin were prepared and stored at 4°C for 120 hours, and then at 25°C for 6 hours, and finally at 37°C for 12 hours. An aliquot was withdrawn after predefined time points and analyzed for the concentration of ceftazidime and heparin using high-performance liquid-chromatography (HPLC). Samples were assessed for pH, color changes, particle content, and anticoagulant activity of heparin.

    RESULTS: Ceftazidime and heparin retained more than 91% of their initial concentration when stored at 4°C for 120 hours followed by storage at 25°C for 6 hours and then at 37°C for 12 hours. Heparin retained more than 95% of its initial activity throughout the study period. Particle formation was not detected at any time under the storage conditions. The pH and color remained essentially unchanged throughout the study.

    CONCLUSIONS: Ceftazidime-heparin admixture retains its stability over long periods of storage at different temperatures, allowing its potential use for PDAP treatment in outpatient and remote settings.

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