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  1. Rahman M, Islam MJ, Haque SE, Saw YM, Haque MN, Duc NH, et al.
    Public Health Nutr, 2017 02;20(2):305-314.
    PMID: 27608854 DOI: 10.1017/S136898001600224X
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between high-risk fertility behaviours and the likelihood of chronic undernutrition, anaemia and the coexistence of anaemia and undernutrition among women of reproductive age.

    DESIGN: The 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, conducted from 8 July to 27 December 2011.

    SETTING: Selected urban and rural areas of Bangladesh.

    SUBJECTS: A total of 2197 ever-married women living with at least one child younger than 5 years. Exposure was determined from maternal reports of high-risk fertility behaviours. We considered three parameters, maternal age at the time of delivery, birth order and birth interval, to define the high-risk fertility behaviours. Chronic undernutrition, anaemia and the coexistence of anaemia and undernutrition among women were the outcome variables.

    RESULTS: A substantial percentage of women were exposed to have a high-risk fertility pattern (41·8 %); 33·0 % were at single high-risk and 8·8 % were at multiple high-risk. After adjusting for relevant covariates, high-risk fertility behaviours were associated with increased likelihood of chronic undernutrition (adjusted relative risk; 95 % CI: 1·22; 1·03, 1·44), anaemia (1·12; 1·00, 1·25) and the coexistence of anaemia and undernutrition (1·52; 1·17, 1·98). Furthermore, multiple high-risk fertility behaviours appeared to have more profound consequences on the outcome measured.

    CONCLUSIONS: Maternal high-risk fertility behaviours are shockingly frequent practices among women in Bangladesh. High-risk fertility behaviours are important predictors of the increased likelihood of women's chronic undernutrition, anaemia and the coexistence of anaemia and undernutrition.

  2. Chen LW, Low YL, Fok D, Han WM, Chong YS, Gluckman P, et al.
    Public Health Nutr, 2014 Sep;17(9):1930-8.
    PMID: 23806144 DOI: 10.1017/S1368980013001730
    OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in food consumption during pregnancy and the postpartum period in women of major Asian ethnic groups.

    DESIGN: Using interviewer-administered questionnaires, we assessed changes in food consumption during pregnancy (26-28 weeks' gestation) and the postpartum period (3 weeks after delivery) as compared with the usual pre-pregnancy diet.

    SETTING: Singapore.

    SUBJECTS: Pregnant women (n 1027) of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity (mean age 30·4 (SD 5·2) years) who participated in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study.

    RESULTS: During pregnancy, participants tended to increase their consumption of milk, fruit and vegetables and decrease their consumption of tea, coffee, soft drinks and seafood (all P < 0·001). Most participants reported adherence to traditional restrictions ('confinement') during the early postpartum period (Chinese: 94·8 %, Malay: 91·6 %, Indian: 79·6 %). During the postpartum period, participants tended to increase their consumption of fish and milk-based drinks and decrease their consumption of noodles, seafood, and chocolates and sweets (all P < 0·001). Ethnic differences in food consumption were pronounced during the postpartum period. For example, most Chinese participants (87·2 %) increased their ginger consumption during the postpartum period as compared with smaller percentages of Malays (31·8 %) and Indians (40·8 %; P for ethnic difference <0·001). Similar ethnic differences were observed for cooking wine/alcohol, herbs and spices, and herbal tea consumption.

    CONCLUSIONS: Marked changes in food consumption that reflect both modern dietary recommendations and the persistence of traditional beliefs were observed in Singaporean women during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Traditional beliefs should be considered in interventions to improve dietary intakes during these periods.

  3. Moy FM, Hoe VC, Hairi NN, Vethakkan SR, Bulgiba A
    Public Health Nutr, 2017 Jul;20(10):1844-1850.
    PMID: 27086558 DOI: 10.1017/S1368980016000811
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of vitamin D status with depression and health-related quality of life among women.

    DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among women in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Sociodemographic characteristics, physical activity status, perceived depression and health-related quality of life were assessed via a self-administered questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were taken for the analysis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, fasting blood glucose and full lipid profile. Complex samples multiple logistic regression analysis was performed.

    SETTING: Public secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    SUBJECTS: Seven hundred and seventy female teachers were included.

    RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 41·15 (95 % CI 40·51, 41·78) years and the majority were ethnic Malays. Over 70 % of them had vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml or <50 nmol/l) and two-thirds were at risk for depression. In the multivariate analysis, ethnic Malays (adjusted OR (aOR)=14·72; 95 % CI 2·12, 102·21) and Indians (aOR=14·02; 95 % CI 2·27, 86·59), those at risk for depression (aOR=1·88, 95 % CI 1·27, 2·79) and those with higher parathyroid hormone level (aOR=1·13; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·26) were associated with vitamin D deficiency, while vitamin D deficiency was negatively associated with mental health-related quality of life (Mental Component Summary) scores (aOR=0·98; 95 % CI 0·97, 0·99).

    CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is significantly associated with depression and mental health-related quality of life among women in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

  4. Rojroongwasinkul N, Bao Kle N, Sandjaja S, Poh BK, Boonpraderm A, Huu CN, et al.
    Public Health Nutr, 2016 07;19(10):1741-50.
    PMID: 26592313 DOI: 10.1017/S1368980015003316
    OBJECTIVE: Health and nutritional information for many countries in the South-East Asian region is either lacking or no longer up to date. The present study aimed to calculate length/height percentile values for the South-East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS) populations aged 0·5-12 years, examine the appropriateness of pooling SEANUTS data for calculating common length/height percentile values for all SEANUTS countries and whether these values differ from the WHO growth references.

    DESIGN: Data on length/height-for-age percentile values were collected. The LMS method was used for calculating smoothened percentile values. Standardized site effects (SSE) were used for identifying large or unacceptable differences (i.e. $\mid\! \rm SSE \!\mid$ >0·5) between the pooled SEANUTS sample (including all countries) and the remaining pooled SEANUTS samples (including three countries) after weighting sample sizes and excluding one single country each time, as well as with WHO growth references.

    SETTING: Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam and Indonesia.

    SUBJECTS: Data from 14202 eligible children were used.

    RESULTS: From pair-wise comparisons of percentile values between the pooled SEANUTS sample and the remaining pooled SEANUTS samples, the vast majority of differences were acceptable (i.e. $\mid\! \rm SSE \!\mid$ ≤0·5). In contrast, pair-wise comparisons of percentile values between the pooled SEANUTS sample and WHO revealed large differences.

    CONCLUSIONS: The current study calculated length/height percentile values for South East Asian children aged 0·5-12 years and supported the appropriateness of using pooled SEANUTS length/height percentile values for assessing children's growth instead of country-specific ones. Pooled SEANUTS percentile values were found to differ from the WHO growth references and therefore this should be kept in mind when using WHO growth curves to assess length/height in these populations.

  5. Ng S, Swinburn B, Kelly B, Vandevijvere S, Yeatman H, Ismail MN, et al.
    Public Health Nutr, 2018 12;21(18):3395-3406.
    PMID: 30277185 DOI: 10.1017/S1368980018002379
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the degree of food environment policies that have been implemented and supported by the Malaysian Government, in comparison to international best practice, and to establish prioritised recommendations for the government based on the identified implementation gaps.

    DESIGN: The Healthy Food-Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI) comprises forty-seven indicators of government policy practice. Local evidence of each indicator was compiled from government institutions and verified by related government stakeholders. The extent of implementation of the policies was rated by experts against international best practices. Rating results were used to identify and propose policy actions which were subsequently prioritised by the experts based on 'importance' and 'achievability' criteria. The policy actions with relatively higher 'achievability' and 'importance' were set as priority recommendations for government action.

    SETTING: Malaysia.

    SUBJECTS: Twenty-six local experts.

    RESULTS: Majority (62 %) of indicators was rated 'low' implementation with no indicator rated as either 'high' or 'very little, if any' in terms of implementation. The top five recommendations were (i) restrict unhealthy food marketing in children's settings and (ii) on broadcast media; (iii) mandatory nutrition labelling for added sugars; (iv) designation of priority research areas related to obesity prevention and diet-related non-communicable diseases; and (v) introduce energy labelling on menu boards for fast-food outlets.

    CONCLUSIONS: This first policy study conducted in Malaysia identified a number of gaps in implementation of key policies to promote healthy food environments, compared with international best practices. Study findings could strengthen civil society advocacies for government accountability to create a healthier food environment.

  6. Nurliyana AR, Mohd Nasir MT, Zalilah MS, Rohani A
    Public Health Nutr, 2015 Feb;18(2):303-12.
    PMID: 24507623 DOI: 10.1017/S1368980014000068
    OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns and determine the relationship between dietary patterns and cognitive ability among 12- to 13 year-old Malay adolescents in the urban areas of Gombak district in Selangor, Malaysia.

    DESIGN: Data on sociodemographic background were obtained from parents. Height and weight were measured and BMI-for-age was determined. Adolescents were interviewed on their habitual dietary intakes using a semi-quantitative FFQ. Cognitive ability was assessed using the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability in a one-to-one manner. Dietary patterns were constructed using principal component analysis based on thirty-eight food groups of the semi-quantitative FFQ.

    SETTING: Urban secondary public schools in the district of Gombak in Selangor, Malaysia.

    SUBJECTS: Malay adolescents aged 12 to 13 years (n 416).

    RESULTS: The mean general cognitive ability score was 101·8 (sd 12·4). Four major dietary patterns were identified and labelled as 'refined-grain pattern', 'snack-food pattern', 'plant-based food pattern' and 'high-energy food pattern'. These dietary patterns explained 39·1 % of the variance in the habitual dietary intakes of the adolescents. The refined-grain pattern was negatively associated with processing speed, which is a construct of general cognitive ability. The high-energy food pattern was negatively associated with general cognitive ability, perceptual reasoning and processing speed. Monthly household income and parents' educational attainment were positively associated with all of the cognitive measures. In multivariate analysis, only the high-energy food pattern was found to contribute significantly towards general cognitive ability after controlling for socio-economic status.

    CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of foods in the high-energy food pattern contributed towards general cognitive ability after controlling for socio-economic status. However, the contribution was small.

  7. Cheong KC, Yusoff AF, Ghazali SM, Lim KH, Selvarajah S, Haniff J, et al.
    Public Health Nutr, 2013 Mar;16(3):453-9.
    PMID: 22647482 DOI: 10.1017/S1368980012002911
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal cut-offs of BMI for Malaysian adults.

    DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine the cut-off values of BMI with optimum sensitivity and specificity for the detection of three cardiovascular risk factors: diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia. Gender-specific logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between BMI and these cardiovascular risk factors.

    SETTING: All fourteen states in Malaysia.

    SUBJECTS: Malaysian adults aged ≥18 years (n 32 703) who participated in the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey in 2006.

    RESULTS: The optimal BMI cut-off value for predicting the presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia or at least one of these cardiovascular risk factors varied from 23.3 to 24.1 kg/m2 for men and from 24.0 to 25.4 kg/m2 for women. In men and women, the odds ratio for having diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia or at least one cardiovascular risk factor increased significantly as BMI cut-off point increased.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that BMI cut-offs of 23.0 kg/m2 in men and 24.0 kg/m2 in women are appropriate for classification of overweight. We suggest that these cut-offs can be used by health professionals to identify individuals for cardiovascular risk screening and weight management programmes.

  8. Lipoeto NI, Geok Lin K, Angeles-Agdeppa I
    Public Health Nutr, 2013 Sep;16(9):1637-43.
    PMID: 23157893 DOI: 10.1017/S1368980012004569
    OBJECTIVE: The present study was done to confirm the relationship between changes in food patterns and nutrition transition in three South-East Asian countries, namely the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia.

    DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study conducted between August 2008 and August 2009 using three methods: interviews, focus group discussions and analyses of government reports.

    SETTING: The study was conducted in rural and urban areas in Manila and Calabanga (Philippines), Selangor and Kuala Selangor (Malaysia), and Padang, Pariaman Tanah Datar and Limapuluh Kota (West Sumatra, Indonesia).

    SUBJECTS: Adults aged 18 to 77 years.

    RESULTS: The results showed that Filipinos, Malaysians and Indonesians have retained many aspects of their traditional diets. In fact, most participants in the study considered Western-style and franchise fast foods as snack or recreational foods to be consumed once in a while only. However, a significant difference was noted between urban and rural areas in food varieties consumed. Participants in urban areas consumed more varieties of traditional foods owing to their availability and the participants’ food purchasing power. Although traditional food patterns were maintained by most of the participants, more sugar and vegetable oils were consumed and added to the traditional recipes.

    CONCLUSIONS: The rapid nutrition transition in this region may be due, instead, to increasing food availability and food purchasing power, rather than to a shift in food preferences towards modern Western foods.

  9. Kawarazuka N, Béné C
    Public Health Nutr, 2011 Nov;14(11):1927-38.
    PMID: 21729489 DOI: 10.1017/S1368980011000814
    OBJECTIVE: To build a comprehensive overview of the potential role of fish in improving nutrition with respect to certain micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries.

    DESIGN: A comprehensive literature review was completed. For this the electronic library databases ASFA, CABD and Scopus were systematically searched and relevant references cited in these sources were carefully analysed. The search terms used were 'fish', 'small fish species', 'micronutrients', 'food-based strategies', 'fish consumption' and 'developing countries'. The quality of data on nutritional analyses was carefully reviewed and data that lacked proper information on methods, units and samples were excluded.

    RESULTS: The evidence collected confirmed the high levels of vitamin A, Fe and Zn in some of the small fish species in developing countries. These small fish are reported to be more affordable and accessible than the larger fish and other usual animal-source foods and vegetables. Evidence suggests that these locally available small fish have considerable potential as cost-effective food-based strategies to enhance micronutrient intakes or as a complementary food for undernourished children. However, the present review shows that only a few studies have been able to rigorously assess the impact of fish consumption on improved nutritional status in developing countries.

    CONCLUSIONS: Further research is required in areas such as determination of fish consumption patterns of poor households, the nutritional value of local fish and other aquatic animals and the impact of fish intake on improved nutritional status in developing countries where undernutrition is a major public health problem.

  10. Noor MI
    Public Health Nutr, 2002 Feb;5(1A):191-5.
    PMID: 12027284
    The accelerated phase of industrialisation and urbanisation in recent decades has inevitably brought about changes in the lifestyle of Malaysians. Changes in dietary habits and sedentary lifestyles are known to be associated with changes in health and increased prevalence of chronic diseases in the population. The objective of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the link between demographic variables and food consumption patterns related to the nutrition transition in Malaysia. This review uses various reports and publications from several ministries and selected local studies. The statistics compiled over the last two decades have shown that as the population achieves affluence, intakes of calories, fats and sugars increase, which may account for the substantial increase in food importation bills over the same period. Similarly, the rapid growth of the fast food industry during the last decade has added another dimension to the change in food consumption patterns of Malaysians. With the exception of a study on adolescents, the prevalences of overweight and obesity in children and adults are not strictly comparable due to the difference in body mass index (BMI) cut-off points in children and the study protocol in adults, and hence should not be misinterpreted as trends. The recent recommendation to lower the BMI cut-off points for Asians would only increase the magnitude of the existing prevalence among adults. The need to promote healthy nutrition for the population must be pursued vigorously, as the escalation of nutrition-related chronic degenerative diseases - once an urban phenomenon--has now spread to the rural population at an alarming rate. This paper indicates that the problem is real and needs urgent attention because it may be just the tip of the iceberg.
  11. Jalambo MO, Karim NA, Naser IA, Sharif R
    Public Health Nutr, 2018 10;21(15):2793-2802.
    PMID: 29911513 DOI: 10.1017/S1368980018001568
    OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia, iron deficiency (ID) and iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) among female adolescents in the Gaza Strip, Palestine, as well as the risk factors involved in these conditions.

    DESIGN: The study was conducted using the quantitative descriptive method with a cross-sectional design. Data were collected using an FFQ and sociodemographic, sedentary behaviour and physical activity questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements and blood analyses were also conducted.

    SETTING: The study population included all Palestinian female adolescents enrolled in secondary schools in the academic years 2015-2016. Five female secondary schools were selected randomly from five governorates of the Gaza Strip.

    SUBJECTS: Female adolescents (n 330) aged 15-19 years in the selected secondary schools were enrolled randomly.

    RESULTS: Prevalence of anaemia, ID and IDA among female adolescents in the Gaza Strip, Palestine, was 35·8, 40·3 and 26·0 %, respectively. A significant association (P<0·05) existed between ID, anaemia and IDA and dietary habits, including skipping breakfast and amount of junk food intake. Also, low consumption of fruits and vegetables was associated with IDA in the female adolescents. A statistically significant association was found between mother's education and ID but not with the other sociodemographic factors.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study shows that there is an alarming problem of anaemia and IDA in the Gaza Strip, Palestine. This may indicate that there are insufficient nutrition education programmes, particularly inside schools or by the mass media.

  12. Sandjaja S, Poh BK, Rojroongwasinkul N, Le Nguyen Bao K, Soekatri M, Wong JE, et al.
    Public Health Nutr, 2018 11;21(16):2972-2981.
    PMID: 29852879 DOI: 10.1017/S1368980018001349
    OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to (i) calculate body-weight- and BMI-for-age percentile values for children aged 0·5-12 years participating in the South-East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS); (ii) investigate whether the pooled (i.e. including all countries) SEANUTS weight- and BMI-for-age percentile values can be used for all SEANUTS countries instead of country-specific ones; and (iii) examine whether the pooled SEANUTS percentile values differ from the WHO growth references.

    DESIGN: Body weight and length/height were measured. The LMS method was used for calculating smoothened body-weight- and BMI-for-age percentile values. The standardized site effect (SSE) values were used for identifying large differences (i.e. $\left| {{\rm SSE}} \right|$ >0·5) between the pooled SEANUTS sample and the remaining pooled SEANUTS samples after excluding one single country each time, as well as with WHO growth references.

    SETTING: Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam and Indonesia.

    SUBJECTS: Data from 14 202 eligible children.

    RESULTS: The SSE derived from the comparisons of the percentile values between the pooled and the remaining pooled SEANUTS samples were indicative of small/acceptable (i.e. $\left| {{\rm SSE}} \right|$ ≤0·5) differences. In contrast, the comparisons of the pooled SEANUTS sample with WHO revealed large differences in certain percentiles.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study support the use of percentile values derived from the pooled SEANUTS sample for evaluating the weight status of children in each SEANUTS country. Nevertheless, large differences were observed in certain percentiles values when SEANUTS and WHO reference values were compared.

  13. Jamil NA, Yew MH, Noor Hafizah Y, Gray SR, Poh BK, Macdonald HM
    Public Health Nutr, 2018 12;21(17):3118-3124.
    PMID: 30176950 DOI: 10.1017/S1368980018002057
    OBJECTIVE: To compare the contributions of UVB exposure and diet to total vitamin D among Asians living in Kuala Lumpur (KL) and Aberdeen (AB).

    DESIGN: Longitudinal study.

    SETTING: UVB exposure (using polysulfone film badges) and skin colour and dietary vitamin D intake (by web-based questionnaire) were measured at each season in AB and during south-west (SWM) and north-east monsoons (NEM) in KL.

    SUBJECTS: One hundred and fifteen Asians in KL and eighty-five Asians in AB aged 20-50 years.

    RESULTS: Median summer UVB exposure of Asians in AB (0·25 SED/d) was higher than UVB exposure for the KL participants (SWM=0·20 SED/d, P=0·02; NEM= 0·14 SED/d, P<0·01). UVB exposure was the major source of vitamin D in KL year-round (60%) but only during summer in AB (59%). Median dietary vitamin D intake was higher in AB (3·50 µg/d (140 IU/d)), year-round, than in KL (SWM=2·05 µg/d (82 IU/d); NEM=1·83 µg/d (73 IU/d), P<0·01). Median total vitamin D (UVB plus diet) was higher in AB only during summer (8·45 µg/d (338 IU/d)) compared with KL (SWM=6·03 µg/d (241 IU/d), P=0·04; NEM=5·35 µg/d (214 IU/d), P<0·01), with a comparable intake across the full year (AB=5·75 µg/d (230 IU/d); KL=6·15 µg/d (246 IU/d), P=0·78).

    CONCLUSIONS: UVB exposure among Asians in their home country is low. For Asians residing at the northerly latitude of Scotland, acquiring vitamin D needs from UVB exposure alone (except in summer) may be challenging due to low ambient UVB in AB (available only from April to October).

  14. Law LS, Norhasmah S, Gan WY, Mohd Nasir MT
    Public Health Nutr, 2018 10;21(15):2819-2830.
    PMID: 29976262 DOI: 10.1017/S136898001800160X
    OBJECTIVE: To examine the types of coping strategies practised by Indigenous women or Orang Asli (OA) in Peninsular Malaysia during times of food shortage and to determine the level of severity for food insecurity that will trigger each specific coping strategy.

    DESIGN: A qualitative case study was conducted. Pertinent information about each type of coping strategy was gathered by in-depth interviews. To gauge the level of severity for each of the coping strategies, focus group discussions (FGD) were held. Thematic analysis was used for data analysis.

    SETTING: OA villages in the states of Kelantan, Pahang, Perak and Selangor, Malaysia.

    SUBJECTS: Sixty-one OA women from three ethnic groups (Senoi, Proto-Malay and Negrito) for in-depth interviews and nineteen OA women from the Proto-Malay ethnic group for three FGD.

    RESULTS: The findings identified twenty-nine different coping strategies and these were divided into two main themes: food consumption (sub-themes of food consumption included dietary changes, diversification of food sources, decreasing the number of people and rationing) and financial management (sub-themes of financial management included increasing household income, reducing expenses for schooling children and reducing expenses on daily necessities). Three levels of severity were derived: less severe, severe and very severe.

    CONCLUSIONS: This information would enable local authorities or non-governmental organisations to more precisely target and plan interventions to better aid the OA communities needing assistance in the areas of food sources and financial management.

  15. Shyam S, Khor GL, Ambak R, Mahadir B, Hasnan M, Ambu S, et al.
    Public Health Nutr, 2019 Aug 09.
    PMID: 31397262 DOI: 10.1017/S1368980019001861
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between dietary patterns (DP) and overweight risk in the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Surveys (MANS) of 2003 and 2014.

    DESIGN: DP were derived from the MANS FFQ using principal component analysis. The cross-sectional association of the derived DP with prevalence of overweight was analysed.

    SETTING: Malaysia.

    PARTICIPANTS: Nationally representative sample of Malaysian adults from MANS (2003, n 6928; 2014, n 3000).

    RESULTS: Three major DP were identified for both years. These were 'Traditional' (fish, eggs, local cakes), 'Western' (fast foods, meat, carbonated beverages) and 'Mixed' (ready-to-eat cereals, bread, vegetables). A fourth DP was generated in 2003, 'Flatbread & Beverages' (flatbread, creamer, malted beverages), and 2014, 'Noodles & Meat' (noodles, meat, eggs). These DP accounted for 25·6 and 26·6 % of DP variations in 2003 and 2014, respectively. For both years, Traditional DP was significantly associated with rural households, lower income, men and Malay ethnicity, while Western DP was associated with younger age and higher income. Mixed DP was positively associated with women and higher income. None of the DP showed positive association with overweight risk, except for reduced adjusted odds of overweight with adherence to Traditional DP in 2003.

    CONCLUSIONS: Overweight could not be attributed to adherence to a single dietary pattern among Malaysian adults. This may be due to the constantly morphing dietary landscape in Malaysia, especially in urban areas, given the ease of availability and relative affordability of multi-ethnic and international foods. Timely surveys are recommended to monitor implications of these changes.

  16. Sreeramareddy CT, Ramakrishnareddy N, Subramaniam M
    Public Health Nutr, 2015 Nov;18(16):2906-14.
    PMID: 25435296 DOI: 10.1017/S1368980014002729
    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between household food insecurity score and Z-scores of childhood nutritional status indicators.

    DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional survey, Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011.

    SETTING: A nationally representative sample of 11 085 households selected by a two-stage, stratified cluster sampling design to interview eligible men and women.

    SUBJECTS: Children (n 2591) aged 0-60 months in a sub-sample of households selected for men's interview.

    RESULTS: Prevalence of moderate and severe household food insecurity was 23·2% and 19·0%, respectively, for children aged 0-60 months. Weighted prevalence rates for stunting (height-for-age Z-score (HAZ)

  17. Howe AS, Skidmore PM, Parnell WR, Wong JE, Lubransky AC, Black KE
    Public Health Nutr, 2016 May;19(7):1279-87.
    PMID: 26347042 DOI: 10.1017/S1368980015002566
    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and dietary patterns in adolescents.

    DESIGN: Food choice was assessed using the validated New Zealand Adolescent FFQ. Principal components analysis was used to determine dietary patterns. Trained research assistants measured participants' height and body mass. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed in a subset of participants using the multistage 20 m shuttle run. The level and stage were recorded, and the corresponding VO2max was calculated. Differences in mean VO2max according to sex and BMI were assessed using t tests, while associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and dietary patterns were examined using linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, school attended, socio-economic deprivation and BMI.

    SETTING: Secondary schools in Otago, New Zealand.

    SUBJECTS: Students (n 279) aged 14-18 years who completed an online lifestyle survey during a class period.

    RESULTS: Principal components analysis produced three dietary patterns: 'Treat Foods', 'Fruits and Vegetables' and 'Basic Foods'. The 279 participants who provided questionnaire data and completed cardiorespiratory fitness testing had a mean age of 15·7 (sd 0·9) years. Mean VO2max was 45·8 (sd 6·9) ml/kg per min. The 'Fruits and Vegetables' pattern was positively associated with VO2max in the total sample (β=0·04; 95%CI 0·02, 0·07), girls (β=0·06; 95% CI 0·03, 0·10) and boys (β=0·03; 95% CI 0·01, 0·05).

    CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that increase in cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with a healthier dietary pattern, suggesting both should be targeted as part of a global lifestyle approach. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this association in relation to health outcomes in New Zealand adolescents.

  18. Bogard JR, Marks GC, Mamun A, Thilsted SH
    Public Health Nutr, 2017 03;20(4):702-711.
    PMID: 27702421 DOI: 10.1017/S1368980016002615
    OBJECTIVE: Fish is the most important animal-source food (ASF) in Bangladesh, produced from capture fisheries (non-farmed) and aquaculture (farmed) sub-sectors. Large differences in micronutrient content of fish species from these sub-sectors exist. The importance of fish in diets of vulnerable groups compared with other ASF; contribution from non-farmed and farmed species to nutrient intakes; and differences in fish consumption among age, gender, wealth groups and geographic regions were analysed, using quantitative intra-household fish consumption data, focusing on the first 1000 d of life.

    DESIGN: Two-stage stratified sample.

    SETTING: Nationally representative of rural Bangladesh.

    SUBJECTS: Households (n 5503) and individuals (n 24 198).

    RESULTS: Fish consumption in poor households was almost half that in wealthiest households; and lower in females than males in all groups, except the wealthiest, and for those aged ≥15 years (P<0·01). In infants of complementary feeding age, 56 % did not consume ASF on the survey day, despite 78 % of mothers knowing this was recommended. Non-farmed fish made a larger contribution to Fe, Zn, Ca, vitamin A and vitamin B12 intakes than farmed fish (P<0·0001).

    CONCLUSIONS: Policies and programmes aimed to increase fish consumption as a means to improve nutrition in rural Bangladesh should focus on women and young children, and on the poorest households. Aquaculture plays an important role in increasing availability and affordability of fish; however, non-farmed fish species are better placed to contribute to greater micronutrient intakes. This presents an opportunity for aquaculture to contribute to improved nutrition, utilising diverse production technologies and fish species, including small fish.

  19. Kee CC, Sumarni MG, Lim KH, Selvarajah S, Haniff J, Tee GHH, et al.
    Public Health Nutr, 2017 May;20(7):1226-1234.
    PMID: 28077198 DOI: 10.1017/S136898001600344X
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between BMI and risk of CVD mortality and all-cause mortality among Malaysian adults.

    DESIGN: Population-based, retrospective cohort study. Participants were followed up for 5 years from 2006 to 2010. Mortality data were obtained via record linkages with the Malaysian National Registration Department. Multiple Cox regression was applied to compare risk of CVD and all-cause mortality between BMI categories adjusting for age, gender and ethnicity. Models were generated for all participants, all participants the first 2 years of follow-up, healthy participants, healthy never smokers, never smokers, current smokers and former smokers.

    SETTING: All fourteen states in Malaysia.

    SUBJECTS: Malaysian adults (n 32 839) aged 18 years or above from the third National Health and Morbidity Survey.

    RESULTS: Total follow-up time was 153 814 person-years with 1035 deaths from all causes and 225 deaths from CVD. Underweight (BMI<18·5 kg/m2) was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality, while obesity (BMI ≥30·0 kg/m2) was associated with a heightened risk of CVD mortality. Overweight (BMI=25·0-29·9 kg/m2) was inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality. Underweight was significantly associated with all-cause mortality in all models except for current smokers. Overweight was inversely associated with all-cause mortality in all participants. Although a positive trend was observed between BMI and CVD mortality in all participants, a significant association was observed only for severe obesity (BMI≥35·0 kg/m2).

    CONCLUSIONS: Underweight was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and obesity with increased risk of CVD mortality. Therefore, maintaining a normal BMI through leading an active lifestyle and healthy dietary habits should continue to be promoted.

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