METHODS: The discovery stage of our genome-wide association studies included 4505 cases and 21 968 controls of European, South-Asian, and African ancestry, drawn from 6 studies. In Stage 2, we selected the lead genetic variants at loci with association P<5×10(-6) and performed in silico association analyses in an independent sample of ≤1003 cases and 7745 controls.
RESULTS: One stroke susceptibility locus at 10q25 reached genome-wide significance in the combined analysis of all samples from the discovery and follow-up stages (rs11196288; odds ratio =1.41; P=9.5×10(-9)). The associated locus is in an intergenic region between TCF7L2 and HABP2. In a further analysis in an independent sample, we found that 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms in high linkage disequilibrium with rs11196288 were significantly associated with total plasma factor VII-activating protease levels, a product of HABP2.
CONCLUSIONS: HABP2, which encodes an extracellular serine protease involved in coagulation, fibrinolysis, and inflammatory pathways, may be a genetic susceptibility locus for early-onset stroke.
METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of consecutive patients with acute stroke who were admitted to 36 participating hospitals in China, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. With the use of a simple identical data sheet, we recorded the demographics and cardiovascular risk factors of each patient. Early death was defined as death on discharge from the acute hospital.
RESULTS: We enrolled 2403 patients with ischemic stroke and 783 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Among patients with ischemic stroke, previous use of antiplatelet drugs (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0. 30 to 0.95) and relatively young age group 56 to 75 years (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.42 to 1.00) were protective factors; atrial fibrillation (OR 2.23; 95% CI 1.40 to 3.57), ischemic heart disease (OR 2.03; 95% CI 1.37 to 3.05), diabetes (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.22), and ex-smoker status (OR 2.18; 95% CI 1.18 to 4.05) were risk factors for early death. Among patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, hypertension (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.38 to 0.82) and young age group 56 to 75 years old (OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.34 to 0.87) were associated with lower death rate, whereas diabetes (OR 1.74; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.98) was a risk factor for early death.
CONCLUSIONS: In Asian patients with stroke, previous use of antiplatelet drugs nearly halved the risk of early death in patients with ischemic stroke, whereas atrial fibrillation, ischemic heart disease, diabetes, and ex-smoker status were risk factors for early death. Among patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, diabetes was associated with early death, whereas young age group and hypertension were associated with lower death rates, though no clear explanation for the hypertension association could be discerned from the data available.
METHODS: Using a 2-by-2 factorial design, 12 705 participants from 21 countries with vascular risk factors but without overt cardiovascular disease were randomized to candesartan 16 mg plus hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg daily or placebo and to rosuvastatin 10 mg daily or placebo. The effect of the interventions on stroke subtypes was assessed.
RESULTS: Participants were 66 years old and 46% were women. Baseline blood pressure (138/82 mm Hg) was reduced by 6.0/3.0 mm Hg and LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; 3.3 mmol/L) was reduced by 0.90 mmol/L on active treatment. During 5.6 years of follow-up, 169 strokes occurred (117 ischemic, 29 hemorrhagic, 23 undetermined). Blood pressure lowering did not significantly reduce stroke (hazard ratio [HR], 0.80 [95% CI, 0.59-1.08]), ischemic stroke (HR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.55-1.15]), hemorrhagic stroke (HR, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.34-1.48]), or strokes of undetermined origin (HR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.41-2.08]). Rosuvastatin significantly reduced strokes (HR, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.52-0.95]), with reductions mainly in ischemic stroke (HR, 0.53 [95% CI, 0.37-0.78]) but did not significantly affect hemorrhagic (HR, 1.22 [95% CI, 0.59-2.54]) or strokes of undetermined origin (HR, 1.29 [95% CI, 0.57-2.95]). The combination of both interventions compared with double placebo substantially and significantly reduced strokes (HR, 0.56 [95% CI, 0.36-0.87]) and ischemic strokes (HR, 0.41 [95% CI, 0.23-0.72]).
CONCLUSIONS: Among people at intermediate cardiovascular risk but without overt cardiovascular disease, rosuvastatin 10 mg daily significantly reduced first stroke. Blood pressure lowering combined with rosuvastatin reduced ischemic stroke by 59%. Both therapies are safe and generally well tolerated.
REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00468923.
METHODS: TICH-2 trial (Tranexamic Acid for Hyperacute Primary Intracerebral Haemorrhage) was a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial recruiting acutely hospitalized participants with intracerebral hemorrhage within 8 hours after symptom onset. Local investigators randomized participants to 2 grams of intravenous tranexamic acid or matching placebo (1:1). All participants underwent computed tomography scan on admission and on day 2 (24±12 hours) after randomization. In this sub group analysis, we included all participants from the main trial population with imaging allowing adjudication of spot sign status.
RESULTS: Of the 2325 TICH-2 participants, 254 (10.9%) had imaging allowing for spot-sign adjudication. Of these participants, 64 (25.2%) were spot-sign positive. Median (interquartile range) time from symptom onset to administration of the intervention was 225.0 (169.0 to 310.0) minutes. The adjusted percent difference in absolute day-2 hematoma volume between participants allocated to tranexamic versus placebo was 3.7% (95% CI, -12.8% to 23.4%) for spot-sign positive and 1.7% (95% CI, -8.4% to 12.8%) for spot-sign negative participants (Pheterogenity=0.85). No difference was observed in significant hematoma progression (dichotomous composite outcome) between participants allocated to tranexamic versus placebo among spot-sign positive (odds ratio, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.29 to 2.46]) and negative (odds ratio, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.41 to 1.45]) participants (Pheterogenity=0.88).
CONCLUSIONS: Data from the TICH-2 trial do not support that admission spot sign status modifies the treatment effect of tranexamic acid versus placebo in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. The results might have been affected by low statistical power as well as treatment delay. Registration: URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com; Unique identifier: ISRCTN93732214.