Molecular and morphometric investigations were conducted on the actinosporean morphotypes of myxosporeans surveyed in oligochaetes of Lake Balaton and Kis-Balaton Water reservoir. Oligochaetes belonging to the species Isochaetides michaelseni Lastočkin and Branchiura sowerbyi Beddard as well as to the genera Nais Dujardin, Dero Müller and Aeolosoma Ehrenberg were studied during an 18-month period. Actinosporeans were obtained exclusively from I. michaelseni (7,818 specimens) with very low prevalence (0.01-0.06%). Four new actinosporean morphotypes of the collective groups raabeia (2 types), synactinomyxon (1 type) and neoactinomyxum (1 type) were found and described, including the first synactinomyxon collective group from Hungarian biotopes and a new raabeia morphotype. Except for Synactinomyxon type 1, the 18S rDNA analysis revealed that the spores did not match any myxospore entity found in the GenBank.
Proyseria decora (Dujardin, 1845) (the type-species of the genus Proyseria Petter, 1959) is redescribed on the basis of specimens from Alcedo atthis (L.) (Coraciiformes: Alcedinidae) from Iran. P. petterae n. sp. is described from Corythornis vintsioides (Eydoux & Gervais) (Alcedinidae) from Madagascar by light and scanning electron microscopy. Proyseria sp. from Alcedo euryzona Temminck from continental Malaysia is described on the basis of a single male specimen. Stegophorus alcedonis Puqin, Yanyin & Guocal, 1991 from A. atthis in China is transferred to the genus Proyseria as P. alcedonis n. comb. The generic diagnosis of Proyseria is amended. Review of the species of the genera Proyseria and Stegophorus Wehr, 1934 is presented.
Quazithelazia rostrata n. sp. from Ceyx erithaca (L.) (type-host) and Alcedo euryzona Temminck (Coraciiformes, Alcedinidae) and Q. alata n. sp. from Enicurus ruficapillus Temminck (Passeriformes, Muscicapidae) are described from vicinities of Gombak Biological Station, Selangor, Malaysia; both species are parasitic under the koilin lining of the gizzard. Paratypes of Schistogendra pelargopsis Nandi, De & Majumdar, 1985, a parasite of Pelargopsis capensis (L.) (Alcedinidae) from India, are redescribed and the species is recognised as a junior synonym of the type-species of Quasithelazia, Q. tenuis Maplestone, 1932 (new synonymy), a species originally described from Halcyon smyrnensis (L.) (Alcedinidae) in India. An amended diagnosis of the genus Quasithelazia Maplestone, 1932 is proposed. Currently, this genus includes eight species occurring in the Old World, six of them parasitic in kingfishers (Alcedinidae) and two species parasitic in flycatchers (Muscicapidae). These include, inter alia, Q. halcyoni n. comb. for Viktorocara halcyoni Ryzhikov & Khokhlova, 1964 from Halcyon smyrnensis and H. pileata (Boddaert) in Vietnam and the Russian Far East, Q. microcordonis n. comb. for Rusguniella microcordonis Schmidt & Kuntz, 1971 from Halcyon coromanda major (Temminck & Schlegel) in Taiwan and Q. multipapillata n. comb. for Schistogendra multipapillata Zhang, 1993 from Tarsiger cyanurus (Pallas) (Muscicapidae) in China. Comparative morphological data for Quasithelazia spp. are presented. Schistogendra oligopapillata Zhang & An, 2002 from domestic ducks in China is considered a species incertae sedis.
Culturing fishes in marine cages is a rapidly developing area of marine aquaculture. The Asian seabass Lates calcarifer (Bloch) is a fast growing good quality fish that is readily cultured in intensive systems in the South Asian region and in Malaysia in particular. Although several papers have been published to date on viral, bacterial, parasitic and fungal organisms causing diseases in the Asian seabass, the occurrence of a coccidian infection in this species has only recently been recorded. We collected sporulated and unsporulated oöcysts of a new species of Goussia Labbé, 1986, from the mucus covering the epithelium of the intestine of L. calcarifer. This paper provides a description of Goussia kuehae n. sp. Sporulated oöcysts of this species are ellipsoidal, 37-40 μm in length and 28-30 μm in width. The ellipsoidal sporocysts are relatively small, 15.2-17 × 5.7-8 μm, and located loosely in the oöcyst. There are residual bodies both in the oöcysts and the sporocysts. Goussia kuehae n. sp. differs from all known species of Goussia in the large size of the oöcysts and in having two types of oöcyst residuum.
Sampling of a large number of elasmobranchs from coastal waters off Borneo revealed the presence of five new species of Dollfusiella Campbell & Beveridge, 1994 (Trypanorhyncha: Eutetrarhynchidae), namely D. angustiformis n. sp., D. hemispinosa n. sp., D. spinosa n. sp., D. imparispinis n. sp. and D. parva n. sp. Dollfusiella angustiformis n. sp. is described from the spiral intestines of four species of the dasyatid stingray genus Himantura Müller & Henle from both the Indonesian and Malaysian parts of Borneo. All the other species were obtained from Malaysian Borneo. Dollfusiella hemispinosa n. sp. is described from the spiral intestines of three species of Himantura, whereas D. spinosa n. sp. was obtained from several specimens of Pastinachus solocirostris Last, Manjaji & Yearsley (Dasyatidae) as well as from Taeniura lymma 1 (sensu Naylor et al., 2012) (Dasyatidae), Neotrygon kuhlii 2 (sensu Naylor et al., 2012) (Dasyatidae), and Glaucostegus cf. typus (sensu Naylor et al., 2012) (Rhinobatidae). Dollfusiella imparispinis n. sp. is described from the spiral intestine of a single specimen of Chiloscyllium punctatum Müller & Henle (Hemiscyllidae) from the South China Sea off Sarawak, whereas D. parva n. sp. was obtained from several species of Himantura. Specimens of the five novel taxa possess scoleces covered with enlarged microtriches, a morphological characteristic exhibited by several other congeners. However, the new species differ from all congeners by possessing unique patterns of oncotaxy as well as combinations of additional morphological features. The number of valid species within Dollfusiella is increased to 26. For this reason, a key for the species of Dollfusiella is provided. Furthermore, novel information on hosts and geographic distribution is provided for two previously described species of Dollfusiella, D. michiae (Southwell, 1929) and D. spinulifera (Beveridge & Jones, 2000). The latter species differs slightly from the original description and shows a much higher variability with regard to the lengths of the scolex and muscular bulbs and the number of testes. These variable characters subdivided specimens of D. spinulifera into relatively distinct groups. However, the specimens did not differ in their oncotaxy and are considered to represent a single variable species.
Three new species of Merizocotyle Cerfontaine, 1894 (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) are described from the nasal tissues of stingrays collected off Borneo. Merizocotyle macrostrobus n. sp. is described from the dwarf whipray Himantura walga (Müller & Henle) collected in shallow waters off Sematan, Sarawak, Malaysia. This species can be distinguished from the other members of the genus by the morphology of the sclerotised male copulatory organ, which is long with many twists and loops. The vaginae of this species are also long and looped. Merizocotyle papillae n. sp. is described from the roughnose stingray Pastinachus solocirostris Last, Manjaji & Yearsley collected off Sematan and Mukah, Sarawak, Malaysia. It is distinguished from the other species of Merizocotyle by the morphology of the male copulatory organ, which is a sclerotised tube that expands slightly and then tapers at the distal end, and by the presence of papillae on the dorsal edge of the haptor. Merizocotyle rhadinopeos n. sp. is described from the whitenose whip ray Himantura uarnacoides (Bleeker) collected off Manggar, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. It can be differentiated by the male copulatory organ, which is a short, narrow, curved, sclerotised tube tapering distally, and the path of the ovary, which runs anteriorly to the base of the oötype. We also provide details of new host and/or locality records for M. australensis (Beverley-Burton & Williams, 1989) Chisholm, Wheeler & Beverley-Burton, 1995, M. icopae Beverley-Burton & Williams, 1989 and M. pseudodasybatis (Hargis, 1955) Chisholm, Wheeler & Beverley-Burton, 1995.
A new genus of trypanorhynch cestode is described from two species of sharks, the sliteye shark Loxodon macrorhinus Müller & Henle and the straight-tooth weasel shark Paragaleus tengi (Chen) collected in the Makassar Strait (off Indonesian Borneo) and Sulu Sea (off Malaysian Borneo). Ancipirhynchus afossalis n. g., n. sp. possesses two bothria and a heteroacanthous, heteromorphous tentacular armature with three distinctive files of hooks on the external tentacle surface but lacks prebulbar organs and gland cells within the tentacular bulbs. The hook arrangement of alternating files on the external surface of the tentacle resembles that seen in the superfamily Otobothrioidea Dollfus, 1942 in the genus Fossobothrium Beveridge & Campbell, 2005. However, the new species lacks the defining characteristic of this group, i.e. the paired bothrial pits. A Bayesian inference (BI) analysis of 37 LSU sequences of trypanorhynchs from three superfamilies provided evidence supporting the taxonomic placement of Ancipirhynchus afossalis n. g., n. sp. within the Otobothrioidea.
Monogeneans identified as Sinodiplectanotrema malayanum n. sp. were collected from the fish Pennahia anea (Sciaenidae) off the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The new species is recognised on the basis of morphometrical differences in the anchors, marginal hooks and eggs and apparent differences in the 28S rDNA sequence data. The new species possesses features (ovary looping the intestinal caecum, body spines, a vagina and haptoral reservoirs) not noted in the original description of the type and only other species of the genus, S. argyrosomus Zhang, 2001, necessitating the re-assignment of the genus to the Diplectanidae Monticelli, 1903, a move which is supported by 28S rDNA evidence. Sinodiplectanotrema is redefined on the basis of the observation of several features not included in the original diagnosis.
Lethrinitrema gibbus n. g., n. sp. and L. dossenus n. sp. are described from the fish Lethrinus rubrioperculatus Sato collected off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Members of Lethrinitrema n. g. (Ancyrocephalidae) are characterised by having two pyriform haptoral reservoirs and ventral anchors with lateral grooves. The elongate tubular distal end of each reservoir bifurcates, draining into a superficial lateral groove on each side of the ventral anchors. The haptoral reservoirs are postulated to store secretory products which assist in attachment to the host. Lethrinitrema spp. also possess tandem gonads, a male copulatory organ without an accessory piece or with thinly sclerotised accessory piece, and a dextrolateral, non-sclerotised vaginal bulb. The two new species have small, poorly demarcated haptors with small haptoral armament and a crown-like piece on the tip of the inner root of the ventral anchors. They differ from each other in the shape and size of the ventral bar and male copulatory organ (40-45 μm in length in L. gibbus vs 24-30 μm in L. dossenus). Three other species, previously included in Haliotrema Johnston & Tiegs, 1922, are transferred to Lethrinitrema, i.e. L. chrysostomi (Young, 1968) n. comb., L. fleti (Young, 1968) n. comb. (both briefly redescribed from paratypes) and L. lethrini (Yamaguti, 1937) n. comb. All species of Lethrinitrema parasitise Lethrinus spp. (Lethrinidae), and there is evidence for the existence of further Lethrinitrema spp. on Lethrinus spp. in the Indo-Pacific region.
Four new and one unidentified species of Neohaliotrema Yamaguti, 1965 were obtained from the gills of the Indo-Pacific sergeant Abudefduf vaigensis (Quoy & Gaimard) off Pulau Langkawi, Malaysia. The five species, N. malayense n. sp., N. bombini n. sp., N. andamanense n. sp., N. parvum n. sp. and an unidentified Neohaliotrema sp. (similar to N. macracanthum Zhukov, 1976), are described and distinguished based mainly on features of the haptor. Species of this genus are divisible into two groups, the 'maomao group', with two pairs of morphometrically modified 'marginal' hooks and a fenestrated haptor, and the 'gracile group', with morphologically similar marginal hooks and an entire haptor. With the exception of N. bombini n. sp., the species described fit within the 'maomao group'. It is suggested that the more complex Neohaliotrema species of the 'maomao group' have modified hooks 1 and 2 on a haptoral 'isthmus' between two large apertures, i.e. 'windows', whereas the less complex species lacking these features are those of the 'gracile group'. Neohaliotrema spp. have only a single pair of pigmented eye-spots. A fenestrated haptor is unique to the Neohaliotrema spp. of the 'maomao group'. The generic diagnosis of Neohaliotrema is amended to include new data and a key to its known species is presented.
Sundatrema langkawiense n. g., n. sp. (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) is described from the gills of the orbfish Ephippus orbis (Bloch) (Ephippidae) off the Island of Langkawi, Malaysia, in the Andaman Sea. This new genus has the ancyrocephalid characteristics of four anchors, 14 marginal hooks and two bars, but differs from other four-anchored monogenean genera, and notably from Parancylodiscoides Caballero & Bravo Hollis, 1961 (found on the ephippids Chaetodipterus spp. off Central and South America), by having a unique combination of features. These include a muscular genital sucker and a vas deferens and vagina on the same (sinistral) side of the body. It is similar to Parancylodiscoides in having four haptoral reservoirs opening at the anchoral apertures, four anchors, similar connecting bars and small marginal hooks. The new species is characterised by the above generic features and by possessing a small, short copulatory organ lacking an accessory piece. Diplectanum longiphallus MacCallum, 1915 (previously attributed to Ancyrocephalus Creplin, 1839, Tetrancistrum Goto & Kikuchi, 1917 and Pseudohaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953) is transferred to Parancylodiscoides as P. longiphallus (MacCallum, 1915) n. comb.
One new and four previously described species of Triacanthinella Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1968 (Monogenea) were collected from the tripodfishes Triacanthus biaculeatus and Tripodichthys blochii off Peninsular Malaysia. Triacanthinella lumutensis n. sp. from Tripodichthys blochii off Lumut, Selangor is similar to Triacanthinella principalis Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1968 in having morphologically similar types of haptoral sclerites and copulatory organ, but differs in possessing a longer copulatory tube. Also re-described are T. principalis Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1968, T. gracilis Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1968 and T. aspera Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1968 from both Triacanthus biaculeatus and Tripodichthys blochii, plus Triacanthinella longipenis Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1968 from Tripodichthys blochii and Triacanthinella tripathii Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1968 based on its type-material. In the new species, the filament loop of the anchors is associated with a sheath-like sclerite which envelops the anchor point. Such sclerites were also observed in the present specimens of Triacanthinella principalis, T. aspera, T. longipenis and T. gracilis but were not mentioned in the original descriptions. The generic diagnosis of Triacanthinella is amended and a key to the recognised species is presented. The specific names of two of the previously described species are emended from the neuter form to T. principalis and T. gracilis.
Two new species of the parasitic copepod genus Dissonus Wilson, 1906 are described: D. excavatus n. sp. from the gills of a labrid, Bodianus perditio, and a lutjanid, Macolor niger, collected off New Caledonia and Taiwan, and D. inaequalis n. sp. from a hemiscylliid elasmobranch, Chiloscyllium punctatum, collected off Sarawak (Malaysia) and the Philippines. Material of D. heronensis Kabata, 1966 is described from a balistid host, Pseudobalistes fuscus, off New Caledonia, and this constitutes a new host record for this parasite. D. manteri Kabata, 1966 was collected from four serranid host species off New Caledonia and from one of the same hosts off Taiwan. Two of the hosts from New Caledonia, Plectropomus laevis and Epinephelus cyanopodus, represent new host records. D. pastinum Deets & Dojiri, 1990 was recognised as a new synonym of D. nudiventris Kabata, 1966, so the total number of valid species is now twelve. Material from museum collections of D. nudiventris, D. similis Kabata, 1966 and D. spinifer Wilson, 1906 was re-examined and provided new information which is utilised in a key to all valid species of Dissonus.
Tetrarhynchobothrium tenuicolle Diesing, 1850 is redescribed from the type-specimens collected from Raja clavata Linnaeus in the Adriatic Sea. T. striatum (Wagener, 1854) is redescribed from voucher specimens from the type host, Myliobatis aquila Linnaeus, from the type-locality, off Naples, Italy. The two species are very similar in tentacular armature, but are provisionally maintained as independent species, since the armature of T. tenuicolle cannot be fully described and because all available specimens of T. striatum are immature, limiting comparisons of potential differences in segment anatomy. T. setiense Dollfus, 1969 is treated as a synonym of T. striatum. Zygorhynchus borneensis n. sp. is described from Himantura uarnacoides (Bleeker) and H. pastinacoides (Bleeker) off Sabah, Malaysia. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by the very small hooks present in the basal region and by the presence of a uterine pore. The metabasal tentacular armature of Didymorhynchus southwelli Beveridge & Campbell, 1988, described for the first time, is homeoacanthous and homeomorphous in form. However, it has a basal swelling with hook rows originating on the bothrial surface and terminating on the antibothrial surface of the tentacle.
Numerous specimens of Ancyrocephaloides triacanthi Yamaguti, 1938 and A. chauhani Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1975 were collected from two triacanthid fishes, Triacanthus biaculeatus and Tripodichthys blochii, off Peninsular Malaysia. The two monogenean species are redescribed and considered to be the only valid species of Ancyrocephaloides Yamaguti, 1938. Examinations of these worms revealed new features, e.g. the presence of exudates (both net-like and bundle-like) and superficial grooves in the anchors in both species, which necessitated re-descriptions of the two species and amendments to the generic diagnosis. Both species have relatively small anchors with two lateral superficial grooves along the shaft and point, peduncular glands and four large, pyriform secretory reservoirs in the peduncular-haptoral region, each with a single tubular extension to an associated anchor, and net-like structures (exudate) attached to the anchors. The net-like structures are one of the external manifestations of the secretion produced in the peduncular glands and stored in the pyriform secretory reservoirs. When released within the gill-tissue of the host, the exudate is in the form of bundles which extend within the gill-filament. The small anchors convey secretions from the secretory reservoirs via lateral superficial grooves into the gills as the anchors pierce the host tissue for attachment. The secretion coagulates as left and right thread-like bundles of exudate within the gill tissues and is only apparent as nets when it is released into the surrounding water. The recurved point of the anchor and position of the point of exudation allow the nets to remain attached to the anchor point, even after the detachment of the anchors from the gill tissue. This exudate possibly acts somewhat like a 'belay device' or 'safety belt', preventing the parasite from being washed away by the respiratory current during the onset of its leech-like locomotion, as well as assist the relatively small anchors in attachment.
Two known and two new species of Diplectanocotyla Yamaguti, 1953 (D. gracilis Yamaguti, 1953, D. megalopis Rakotofiringa & Oliver, 1987, D. langkawiensis n. sp. and D. parva n. sp.) were collected from Megalops cyprinoides (Megalopidae) off Langkawi, Kedah and Matang, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. All four species possess similar types of sclerotised male and female reproductive structures and similar soft anatomical features. The squamodisc sclerites of all four species have spine-like projections with varying degrees of visibility and shapes (sharp-pointed to triangular). In D. megalopis and D. langkawiensis n. sp. the spines are sharp-pointed and distinct on sclerites from rows 5-6 onwards. In D. gracilis and D. parva n. sp. the sclerite spines are triangular, lightly sclerotised and occur on almost all of the sclerites. D. parva n. sp. has comparatively the smallest set of anchors, bars, squamodiscs and squamodisc suckers. The anchors and bars of the other three species are almost similar in overall size, and the main distinguishing feature is the relative lengths of the inner and outer roots of the ventral anchors. In D. gracilis the outer root is very much smaller than the inner root and they are disposed almost at a right angle to each other. In D. megalopis the outer root is usually about half the length of the inner root and the roots are inclined at c.60 degrees to each other. In D. langkawiensis n. sp. the roots are inclined at c.40 degrees degrees and the outer root is of a similar length or only slightly shorter than the inner root. The openings of the two squamodisc suckers of all four Diplectanocotyla species are surrounded by tiny scale-like spines. Bifid tegumental spines are found in the posterior region of all four species, differing only in their extent: in D. parva n. sp. the tegumental spines are only distributed in the peduncular region and not beyond, whilst in the other three species the tegumental spines extend from the posterior level of the testis to the end of the peduncle. An amended diagnosis of Diplectanocotyla and a key to its species are appended.
Two new and two previously described species of diplectanid monogeneans (Heteroplectanum flabelliforme n. sp., Diplectanum sumpit n. sp., D. jaculator Mizelle & Kritsky, 1969 and D. toxotes Mizelle & Kritsky, 1969) were collected from archerfish Toxotes jaculatrix off the Island of Langkawi, Kedah and off Perak, Malaysia. The reproductive systems and squamodiscs of D. jaculator and D. toxotes are described for the first time. D. sumpit n. sp. differs from D. toxotes and D. jaculator in a having a small curved copulatory tube with a distinct accessory piece, compared to the long, tubular copulatory tube of D. jaculator and the slender tube of D. toxotes. D. sumpit n. sp. also differs from D. toxotes in having a larger ventral bar and larger squamodiscs. H. flabelliforme n. sp. differs from all known Heteroplectanum species in the shape and size of the squamodiscs, the arrangement of the sclerites in the squamodiscs, the extremely large ventral bar and the short, curved, non-spinous copulatory tube.
A new lecanicephalidean species of Aberrapex Jensen, 2001 is described from the blue-spotted fantail ray Taeniura lymma (Forsskål) collected off the eastern coast of Sabah in Malaysian Borneo. This is the first record of a lecanicephalidean tapeworm from the island of Borneo and the first record of Aberrapex from this host species. A. manjajiae n. sp. is easily distinguished from its two congeners, A. senticosus Jensen, 2001 and A. arrhynchum (Brooks, Mayes & Thorson, 1981) Jensen, 2001, based on its overall smaller size (928-1,971 vs 1,485-6,333 and up to 3,350 microm long, respectively) and fewer testes (10-19 vs 20-40 and 18-25, respectively). In addition, A. manjajiae n. sp. is readily distinguished from A. senticosus based on a more anteriorly positioned genital pore (76-85 vs 52-72% of proglottid length from posterior end) and its distal bothridial microthrix pattern. A. manjajiae n. sp. can be further distinguished from A. arrhynchum based on its smaller scolex (82-101 x 119-164 vs 177-186 x 233-326 microm). The host distribution of Aberrapex is expanded from the Myliobatidae to include the Dasyatidae.
Septesinus gibsoni n. g., n. sp. (Monocotylidae: Heterocotylinae) is described from the gills of the dwarf whipray Himantura walga (Müller & Henle) collected in marine waters off Sarawak (Borneo), Malaysia. Septesinus n. g. is distinguished from other genera in the Monocotylidae by a combination of characters, including a haptor with one central and seven peripheral loculi, the presence of a highly sinuous ridge surmounting all haptoral septa, four rounded accessory structures on the dorsal surface of the haptor, and the anterior region with two pairs of anteromedian and three pairs of anterolateral gland-duct openings. Septesinus n. g. is accommodated in the Heterocotylinae. Septesinus gibsoni n. sp. is described and fully illustrated, and a key to the genera of Heterocotylinae is provided. The composition of the ridges surrounding the mouth of a number of heterocotyline species and their usefulness as a taxonomic character are examined. The identity of four specimens of Monocotyle Taschenberg, 1878, also recovered from the gills of this host species, is discussed.
Decacotyle cairae n. sp. (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) is described from the gills of an unidentified species of Pastinachus collected in the South China Sea off Sematan and Mukah, Sarawak, Borneo, Malaysia. D. cairae can be distinguished from the other six members of the genus by the presence of two simple unsclerotised accessory structures on the dorsal surface of the haptor in combination with a long, narrow, looping male copulatory organ. The host specimens of Pastinachus collected in Borneo also appear to be a new species and the monogenean data support this conclusion. A key to species of Decacotyle is given and their host-specificity is discussed.