Two known and two new species of Diplectanocotyla Yamaguti, 1953 (D. gracilis Yamaguti, 1953, D. megalopis Rakotofiringa & Oliver, 1987, D. langkawiensis n. sp. and D. parva n. sp.) were collected from Megalops cyprinoides (Megalopidae) off Langkawi, Kedah and Matang, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. All four species possess similar types of sclerotised male and female reproductive structures and similar soft anatomical features. The squamodisc sclerites of all four species have spine-like projections with varying degrees of visibility and shapes (sharp-pointed to triangular). In D. megalopis and D. langkawiensis n. sp. the spines are sharp-pointed and distinct on sclerites from rows 5-6 onwards. In D. gracilis and D. parva n. sp. the sclerite spines are triangular, lightly sclerotised and occur on almost all of the sclerites. D. parva n. sp. has comparatively the smallest set of anchors, bars, squamodiscs and squamodisc suckers. The anchors and bars of the other three species are almost similar in overall size, and the main distinguishing feature is the relative lengths of the inner and outer roots of the ventral anchors. In D. gracilis the outer root is very much smaller than the inner root and they are disposed almost at a right angle to each other. In D. megalopis the outer root is usually about half the length of the inner root and the roots are inclined at c.60 degrees to each other. In D. langkawiensis n. sp. the roots are inclined at c.40 degrees degrees and the outer root is of a similar length or only slightly shorter than the inner root. The openings of the two squamodisc suckers of all four Diplectanocotyla species are surrounded by tiny scale-like spines. Bifid tegumental spines are found in the posterior region of all four species, differing only in their extent: in D. parva n. sp. the tegumental spines are only distributed in the peduncular region and not beyond, whilst in the other three species the tegumental spines extend from the posterior level of the testis to the end of the peduncle. An amended diagnosis of Diplectanocotyla and a key to its species are appended.
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